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Spinal cord

The spinal cord is about 18 inches long and is the thickness of your thumb. It runs within the protective spinal canal from the brainstem to the 1st lumbar vertebra. At the end of the spinal cord, the cord fibers separate into the cauda equina and continue down through the spinal canal to your tailbone before branching off to your legs and feet. The spinal cord serves as an information super-highway, relaying messages between the brain and the body. The brain sends motor messages to the limbs and body through the spinal cord allowing for movement. The limbs and body send sensory messages to the brain through the spinal cord about what we feel and touch. Sometimes the spinal cord can react without sending information to the brain. These special pathways, called spinal reflexes, are designed to immediately protect our body from harm. The nerve cells that make up your spinal cord itself are called upper motor neurons. The nerves that branch off your spinal cord down your back and neck are called lower motor neurons. These nerves exit between each of your vertebrae and go to all parts of your body.

The anatomy of the spine is consist of the following

 The Cervical bone from C1 atlas to C7 that is the vital among the others have small bodies, except for atlas, which has no body. Each of the transverse process has a transverse foramen through which the vertebral arteries pass towards the brain.  The Thoracic bone from T1 to T12 and it is posterior to the thoracic cage where in it is connected.And on this part where the M. Tuberculosis progress and on the T4 to T7 or T7 to T9 the gibuss formation starts.  The Lumbar bone is located inferiorly to the thoracic bone from L1 to L5. The lumbar bone is for weight bearing. And in some case it is also affected by M. Tuberculosis. And have a large thick bodies and heavy, rectangular transverse and spinous process.  The Sacrum bone it is 5 fuse into 1 when child turns adult the sacrum fuse into 1. And a landmark than can be felt during a vaginal examination.  The Coccxy bone or also known as the human tail bone. It is 4 fuse into 1 like the sacrum bone when child turns adult the sacrum fuse into 1. And the vertebrae of the coccyx do not have typically structure of most other vertebrae.

 The Vertebrae is serves a number of important functions. The individual vertebrae protect and support the Spinal cord, which connects the Brain and the rest of the nervous system. The bones also create attachment points for muscles and other bones, allowing for flexible `movement in a range of directions. Finally, the spinal column provides critical support to the animal, and in the case of humans and apes, the vertebrae allow the body to walk upright.  The Spinous Process of a vertebra is directed backward and downward from the junction of the laminae (in humans), and serves for the attachment ofmuscles and ligaments.  The Spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the brain (the medulla oblongata specifically). The brain and spinal cord together make up the central nervous system (CNS).  The Intra-Vertibral disk or IVD is in between the two vertebrae and the main function of the IVD is shock absorber for the vertebral column.  The Nucleus pulposus is the thick fluid found within disks in the Spine. It acts as a lubricant and a cushion for Vertebrae, helping to maintain flexibility in the back and mitigate pressure from walking, jumping, and twisting. The substance tends to gradually degenerate with age, often leading to chronic back pain in older individuals. Back injuries that damage disks and rupture nucleus pulposus can cause the substance to herniate, potentially resulting in severe pain or paralysis.

 The Annulus fibrosis is the outer protective covering of the soft nucleus pulposus at the center of the spinal disc. This covering is composed of mainly ligament fiber rings that are tough. It connects the spinal Vertebrae above and below each disc and prevents the nucleus pulposus from leaking out over the disc. This leakage is often called disc herniation, an injury which can often cause chronic pain.  The Spinal nerves are the vessels that carry information from the Brain out to the body and vice verse. As part of the peripheral nervous system, they are found not in the Spinal cord, which like the brain is a part of the central nervous system, but exiting the spinal cord and traveling to the various parts of the body that they innervate. Spinal nerves are paired, meaning that for any given nerve there is one supplying the right side of the body and one supplying the left side. Thirty-one pairs in total exit the Spine, with approximately one pair leaving each vertebra: eight pairs come from the Cervical region, 12 pairs exit the thoracic region, five pairs leave the lumbar region, five pairs come from the Sacral region, and one pair exits the coccyx, or tailbone.

The Vertebral arch & spinal canal On the back of each vertebra body are bony projections that form the vertebral arch. The arch is made of two supporting pedicles and two arched laminae The hollow spinal canal contains the spinal cord, fat, connective tissue, and blood supply of the cord. Under each pedicle, a pair of spinal nerves exits the spinal cord and passes through the intervertebral foramen to branch out to your body.