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Bones Bones

Bones are characterized anatomically as:


long bones (e.g. humerus, femur) g ( g , ) flat bones (e.g. sternum and ribs ) irregular bones (e g vertebrae) (e.g.

Dr Masharawi youssef

Dr Masharawi youssef

Bone in human and other mammal bodies is generally classified into two types: C ti l ( Cortical (compact) t) trabecular (cancellous, spongy) These two types are classified as on the basis of porosity and the unit microstructure. Trabecular bone contributes about 20% of the total k l t l t t l skeletal mass within th b d while ithi the body hil cortical bone contributes the remaining 80%.
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COMPACT, CORTICAL, :LAMELLAR BONE


Bone arranged in concentric layers called lamellae , with Haversian Canals containing blood vessels in the center. Often found around the outside of large bones .
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Cortical (compact) bone


Appears as a mass of bony tissue pp y lacking spaces visible to the unaided eye Much denser with a porosity ranging between 5% and 10%. Found primary in the shaft of long bones and forms the outer shell around cancellous b ll bone at the end of j i h d f joints and d the vertebrae. The basic first level structure of cortical bone are osteons
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Often found on inside, composed of trabeculae ,unorganized extensions unorganized of bone, around the bone-marrow spaces .

TRABECULAR, CANCELLOUS, CANCELLOUS SPONGY BONE

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Trabecular (cancellous, spongy) bone ( , p gy)


The second type of bone tissue in the body body.

Its basic first level structure is the t t i th trabeculae = Consisting of an


irregular threedimensional array of y boney rods and plates Bone marrow fills the spaces of theDrpores youssef Masharawi

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Trabecular bone (cont ) (cont.)

It fills the end of long bones and also makes up the majority of vertebral bodies Trabecular bo e is more co p a t t a abecu a bone s o e compliant than cortical bone and it is believed to distribute and dissolve the energy from articular contact loads.
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Trabecular (cancellous) bone (cont.) T b Trabecular bone has a much greater l b h h t surface area than cortical bone Trabecular bone is much more porous with porosity ranging ith it i anywhere from 50% to 90%. It is found in the end of long bones in g vertebrae and in flat bones like the pelvis.
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The substantial modulus reduction upon reloading after loading to 4% strain indicates that trabecular bone is a damaging material.

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A trabecular bone from a human vertebral body Note that the volume fraction (ratio of bone to total volume) is very low. Typical volume fractions for vertebral bodies are between 10% 18 and 20%.

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From fetal to 9 years old Trabecular structure T b l t t

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Stress on cortical bone

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