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Chapter 8 (cont.

): Gauge and Measurement System Capability Analysis

Gauge Capability Studies


In any problem involving measurement the observed variability in measurements are due to:
Variability in what is being measured
Different types of items Different samples of the same item type Measurement system variability
Measuring instrument Differences in units of the same type of measuring instrument Operator variability
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Gauge Capability Studies


Gauge capability study quantify variability introduced by the measuring system. Compare this to total measurement variability or total variability due to differences in what is being measured.

Gauge Capability Studies


What is meant by variability?

Gauge variability is unpredictability in the outcome of measurements of the same item using the same measurement system

Gauge Capability Studies


Different versions or types of gauge capability studies are conducted depending on what variance components are part of the measurement situation
Different types of items Different samples of the same item type Measurement system variability
Measuring instrument Differences in multiple units of the same type of measuring instrument Operator variability

Examples Variance Components


A single operator measures the diameter of parts of different types produced from the same machine using a ruler. Multiple operators use the same micrometer to measure the diameter of different parts of the same type.
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Examples Variance Components


Multiple operators use a CMM machine to measure a particular product dimension on multiple samples of the same product type.

Gauge Capability Studies


Well consider two cases
Case 1
Different samples of the same item type Measurement system variability A single measuring instrument

Case 2
Different samples of the same item type Measurement system variability A single measuring instrument Different operators utilizing the measuring instrument

Gauge Capability Studies


In all cases we will assume standard procedures for taking measurements are in use
Avoid variability introduced from differences in how the measuring instrument is used

Basic Data Collection Principles for Gauge Capability Studies


Completeness Replication
More data is better

Balance Randomization

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Basic Data Collection Principles for Gauge Capability Studies


Complete
All combinations of part samples, operators, etc. are examined combinations of the variance components

Replication
Needed to estimate measuring instrument variability

Balance
The same number of measurements are conducted for each combination of part samples, operators, etc.

Randomization
The order of taking measurements is random uncontrollable influences are spread out
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Example - Case 1
20 samples of the same item type, One operator utilizing a single measuring instrument.
Measurement
Part #

1 2 3 4 5 6 17 18 19 20

1 21 24 20 27 19 23 20 19 25 19

2 20 23 21 27 18 21 20 21 26 19

x-bar R 20.5 1 23.5 1 20.5 1 27 0 18.5 1 22 2 20 20 25.5 19 0 2 1 0

x = 2 2 .3
R = 1 .0

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Example Case 1
There are two variance components:
Product sample variability Gauge variability

How can we quantify the variance components? What 2 2 total = 2 part of are we able to directly product + gauge estimate from the data collected?

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Example
Estimate the variance of measurement error reflected by differences in measurements of the same part:
2 gauge = = (1.0 / 1.128) 2 = 0.786 d
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Estimate total variance:


2 total = 40 ( xi x ) 2 i =1 = 10.05 39

2 2 2 2 2 2 Assume: total = product + gauge total = product + gauge

product = 10.05 0.786 = 9.26 2


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Example
Can construct an R-Chart to evaluate if the measurement instrument is in control. Is the operator able to make consistent measurements?
Complete randomization is implemented. X-bar charts should show out-of-control points if the part measurements differ.

Can also use Analysis of Variance to conduct this analysis.


Variance component estimates will be different.

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Example
The distribution of measurement error is usually well approximated by a normal distribution. Estimate gauge capability:

6 gauge = 6 * 0.786 = 6 * 0.887 = 5.32


Individual measurements may be expected to vary as much as

3 gauge = 3 * (0.887) = 2.66

due to gauge error.

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Measures of Gauge Capability


Measures have been developed that compare gauge capability to specifications. These measures must be understood and the applicability/usefulness of different measures should be assessed for specific situations.

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Precision-to-Tolerance (P/T) Ratio


In gauge capability, the (USL-LSL) width is called the tolerance band .

P / T Ratio =

6 * gauge USL LSL

If specifications for the above example are: 32.5 27.5


P / T Ratio = 6 * gauge USL LSL = 6 * (0.887) = 0.0967 55

Rule of Thumb: P/T Ratio 0.1 Adequate gauge capability.

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Ratio of Gauge Variability to Total Variability


2 product 2 total 2 gauge 2 total

P =

M = 1 P =

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Signal to Noise Ratio, Discrimination Ratio

2 P SNR = = 1 P

2*

2 product 2 2 product 2 * product total = = 2* 2 2 gauge gauge gauge 2 total

DR =

2 2 2 2 product 1 + P total + product = = 1+ = 1 + SNR 2 2 2 1 P gauge gauge

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In Class Exercise Problem 8-25


Ten parts are measured three times using the same instrument by the same operator in a gauge capability study.
Part # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 100 95 101 96 98 99 95 100 100 100 Measurment 2 101 93 103 95 98 98 97 99 100 98 3 100 97 100 97 96 98 98 98 97 99 Part Avg. 100.3 95.0 101.3 96.0 97.3 98.3 96.7 99.0 99.0 99.0 Range 1 4 3 2 2 1 3 2 3 2

Describe the measurement error that results from the use of this gauge (what does the R chart indicate?). Estimate total variability and product variability. What percentage of total variability is due to the gauge? If specifications are at 10015, find the P/T ratio for the gauge. Comment on the adequacy of the gauge.
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In Class Exercise Problem 8-25

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Precision and Accuracy

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Setting Specifications on Components of Assemblies


A quality measure of each component in an assembly will vary within its own specifications. The quality measure of the final product (assembly) is a result of the interaction of the components that make it up.
Tolerance stack-up.
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Setting Specifications on Components of Assemblies


How do you establish specifications for individual components so that the final product will likely be within specifications?
You need a model of how the quality measure of the final product is determined from the quality measures of its components.

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Setting Specifications on Components of Assemblies


One model is a linear model
x1 , x2 ,K, xn are the quality measures of components 1,2,K, n. Product measure y = a1 x1 + a2 x2 + L + an xn

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Setting Specifications on Components of Assemblies


If x1 , x2 , K, xn are normally distributed with means i and variance i2 (i = 1,2,K, n). Then the product measure y = a1 x1 + a2 x2 + L + an xn is normally distributed with
2 mean y = ai i and variance y = a i2 i2 . i =1 i =1 n n

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Example 8-9
An assemblies length is determined by the addition of the lengths of three components that make it up. x1, x2, and x3 are the lengths of the components (random variables) that are normally distributed with mean 1=1.00, 2=3.00, 3=2.00. If assembly specifications are 6.000.06 and we want a Cp 2.0, how does this affect the specifications for the components?

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Example 8-9

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Example 8-10
An axle must fit into a bearing. The internal diameter of the bearing x1, is normally distributed with a mean 1=1.500 inches, and standard deviation 1=0.0020. The external diameter of the axle x2, is normally distributed with a mean 2=1.480 inches, and standard deviation 2=0.0040.

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Example 8-10

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