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Know the functions of nervous system: monitors environmental changes, integrates sensory information, and coordinates in/voluntary responses of other organ systems. 2. Know the differences between the CNS & the PNS: CNS = Efferent + Brain + Gray Matter + Somatic nervous systems (SNS) + Autonomic nervous system (ANS) + Para/sympathetic divisions + most tissues. PNS = Afferent + Spinal Cord + White Matter + Somatic (outside environment) / visceral (inside environment) sensory receptors 3. Know the various types of neurons, their structure differences: Multipolar: Many dendrites, one axon (most common) Unipolar: Dendrites and Axons continuous (dendrites axon) (most PNS sensory neurons) Bipolar: One dendrite and one axon (for special senses: sight, smell, and hearing; a rare type) Sensory Neurons: ex/internal + proprio + visceral (internal) receptors Motor Neurons: somatic + visceral motor neurons Interneurons: Inbetween brain and spinal cord for communication Neuroglia: Astrocytes (blood-brain barrier in CNS), Oligodendrocytes (myelination in CNS), Microglia (eats phagocytes and bateria for protection), and Ependymal (CSF fluid cirrculation in brain) 4. Know why gray matter is gray and why white matter is white: Gray matter: Axons in the brain are unmylinated; found in outer rims of brain, inner rims of spinal cord. White matter: Axons in the spinal cord are mylinated; found in the inverse of gray matter. 5. Know the types of cells that form the myelin sheaths of the CNS are formed CNS: Oligodendrocytes (myelin, wraps around) PNS: Schwann cells (gaps called nodes of ranvier) 6. Know repolarization and depolarization of the nerve fiber as it relates to ions, Na+, K+, etc Na+: into cell = depolarization K+: out of cell = repolarization; too much out of cell = hyperpolarization (-80mV instead of restinf potential of -70mV) 7. Know where neurotransmitters are released from: released from: synapses / gap junctions stored in: presynaptic vesicles near axon terminal 8. Know multicolor, bi-polar, uni-polar neuron structures and their differences: see number 3. 9. Know interneurons and the role they play in afferent and efferent pathways: see number 3. 10. Know the molecule that blocks pain: norepinephrine 11. Know the structure of the most numerous neurons of the CNS (the brain) i.e. multipolar, unipolar, etc.: multipolar, see number 3.

12. Know the various reflexes of the CNS and PNS, i.e knee jerk, withdrawal: polysynaptic / withdrawal / flexor (withdrawal in muscles of a limb), Babinski sign (plantar reflex = curling of the toes = negative babinski = normal). 13. Know the major center for automatic control of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate, digestive activities: medulla oblongata 14. Know what and where gray matter is found and why it is gray: see number 4. 15. Know where the visual cortex is located: occipital lobe (part of the cerebral cortex) 16. Know the areas of the brain involved with interpreting data, or coordinating motor responses: parts of the brain stem and diencephalons (pons, medulla, mid brain, cerebrum, cerebellum (the lobe)). 17. Know ascending tracts vs. descending tracts Ascending: sensory neurons that deliver information to brain from the spinal cord. Descending: motor neurons that deliver information from the brain to the spinal cord. 18. Know the nerve tracts that link the cerebellum with the brain stem: superior brachium conjunctivum/ ventrospinoccerebellar tract / trochlear nerve tracts 19. Know what bundles of axons in the spinal cord are called: Funiculi 20. Know the functions of the cerebral association areas of the body: to analyze and interpret sensory experiences, memory, and reasoning and judgment. 21. Know why neurons do not regenerate through the cell cycle: because neurons would grow and interconnect with one another, which would make communication amongst them harder. 22. Know the name of the area of the skin that is responsible for sensory information from a particular dorsal root: hypodermis / subcutaneous layer. 23. Know what area of the CNS is responsible for balance: cerebellum 24. Know special senses: smell (olfaction), taste, vision, hearing, touch

25. Know the different receptors and the information they relay to the CNS, i.e.nociceptors, thermoreceptors, chemoreceptors, etc. Nocireceptors: Pain = epidermis Thermorecptors: Heat = dermis Mechanoreceptors: tactile receptors (touch), baroreceptors (pressure), proprioreceptors (position) 26. Know the receptors responsible for change in blood pressure: baroreceptors 27. Know where taste receptors are found and their characteristics: found on the surface of the tongue adjacent to the pharyx and larynx. Sensory structures are called taste buds, protected by epithelial projections called papillae. Sensory receptors are called gustatory cells, which funnels fluid into the taste pours. The primary taste sensations are: sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. Others include umami receptors (pleasant), and water receptors. 28. Know the structures of the eye, their names and locations: Top Bottom Back: eyelid, eyelash, conjunctiva, pupil, cornea, lens, fovea, optic nerve. 29. Know where Rhodopsin is found and the function of this molecule: A pigment in the retina that forms photoreceptors cells and helps to perceive light. 30. Know circadian rhythms and what gland is responsible for regulation of sleep/wake cycles: Circadian rhythms: The Sleep Cycle, which is regulated by the pineal gland. 31. know the ossicles, the smallest, how heating is produced from the ear structures: malleus (outer hammer) Incus (middle anvil) stapes (inner stirrup, smallest). Heat produced from mechanical sound energy. 32. Know the endocrine system; be able to locate each major organ as studied/seen in the Felis domestica dissection: see diagram. 34. Know the hypothalamus function and location: automatic function control, endocrine function control. Inferior to the thalamus 35. Know what happens when blood glucose levels fall: hypoglycemia 36. Know what the adrenal medulla is responsible for and the location: secretes nor/epinephrine. Located at the innermost part of the adrenal gland. 37. Know the type of diabetes where a patient is insulin dependent: type 1 38. Know the functions of the blood: transport/maintain temp/control pH/remove toxins/regulate electrolytes. 39. Know what blood is composed of: 55% plasma, 45% blood cells

40. Know how/where red blood cells are formed: within the bone marrow 41. Know the function of hemoglobin: transport oxygen from the lungs to tissue. then transport carbon dioxide from tissue to the lungs. 42. Know what determines a persons blood type: genetics 43. Know why white blood cells are important, where they are formed, and what role each plays in defense: developed in bone marrow(stem cells more specifically). without WBCs, the immune system cannot maintain homeostasis. 44. Know everything about the heart, location and function 45. Know how the heart pumps blood and the routes of the systemic circulation and pulmonary circulation know the differences 46. Know Starlings Law of the heart Cardiac Output = etc.: Starting's Law states that the stroke volume of the heart increases in response to an increase in the volume of blood filling the heart. 47. Know the name of the disease or infection when a person has an inflammation of the heart: myocarditis 48. Know the location and function of the spleen: creates lymphocytes for the destruction and recreation of red blood cells. located behind the stomach 49. Know why tissue swells and what its called: capillaries leak fluid. Iit is called sinsunitis. 50. Know the primary functions of the Lymphatic system, and how lymph is formed: Lymphatic system functions: -collect and return interstital fluid to maintain fluid balance -defend body by producing lymphocytes -absorb lipids from the intestine and transport them to the blood Lymph is formed during capillary exchange in the plasma 51. Know passive immunity: transfer of antibodies from individual to individual i.e. mother to offspring 52. Know the location of the thymus gland: produce T cells (these cells work like white blood cells). located behind the sternum 53. Know how urine is produced: -filtration of water from blood -reabsorbtion of water out of kidney tubules back into the blood -secretion of H+, K+, and NH3 ions from blood, to kidney tubules, where they turn into urine

54. Know the functions of the liver: -Bile production -metabolism of fats, proteins -enzyme activation -storage of glycogen -synthesis of plasma proteins -blood detoxification 55. Know where Bile is stored: Gallbladder 56. Know how many lobes the human lung has: 5 (2 left lung, 3 right lung) 57. Know the functions of the large intestine: transport waste out of the body, absorb water from the waste before it leaves 58. Know the regions of the colon, Ascending, Transverse, Descending, etc.: see diagrams. 59. be able to identify organs of the thoracic cavity, and abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity: see diagrams.