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National Institute of Technology, Calicut

VOLTAGE MODE DC-DC BUCK CONVERTER


Project Report-Mid Semester Evaluation GUIDE : Dr. MUKTI BORAI

SUBMITTED BY A SAIRAM (B090530EE) VINAYAK R KARTHA ( B090534EE) VIVEK NANDAKUMAR( B090550EE) VINEETH SATHYAN (B090501EE)

VOLTAGE MODE DC-DC BUCK CONVERTER

ABSTRACT
The aim of the project is to design and implement a voltage mode controlled DC-DC converter circuit. This circuit will be able to rectify a Single Phase 230V, 50Hz AC supply and provide a Output voltage of 5-12V with a current of 1-2A. The maximum ripple in the output voltage is 2%.The circuit will employ a bridge rectifier to convert AC voltage to a lower DC voltage to power the DC-DC buck converter.

VOLTAGE MODE DC-DC BUCK CONVERTER

Introduction
The goal of the project is to design a Voltage mode controlled DC-DC converter. Most electronic devices sold in the stores require a fixed DC supply. The design will be able to rectify input AC voltage and provide a DC output voltage in the range 5-12V. An adjustable DC-DC buck converter will allow the design to convert to a variable DC. There are three major parts of the design 1) The AC rectification 2) The DC-DC Conversion 3) The GATE drive of switching device.

Design Procedure

AC INPUT

TRANSFOR MER

BRIDGE RECTIFIER

CONTROLER

DC OUTPUT

DC-DC BUCK CONVERTER

VOLTAGE MODE DC-DC BUCK CONVERTER

The AC Rectification

To begin with, there is an obvious need of converting the standard AC supply of 230V,50Hz to a suitable DC voltage of 24V which will power the components within the converter. For this we will step down the standard AC supply to a 24V supply using a transformer. This is achieved by using a full wave bridge rectifier as shown.

The rectifier design is composed 4 diodes in a full-wave bridge configuration. D1and D2 are forward biased, D3 and D4 are reverse biased. Since Vac is a sinusoidal input voltage, during the positive half of the input voltage cycle, Vac is positive, D1 and D2 are forward biased, have the same current direction with Vac, but since D3 and D4 are reverse biased, so they are cut off. At the negative half of the input voltage cycle, D3 and D4 are reverse biased, have the same current direction with Vac, but since D1 and D2 are forward biased, they are turned off. By using the full bridge rectifier, both of positive and negative cycle of Vac are totally rectified. The output waveform of the rectifier is as shown.

The DC Voltage is given by the equation

2 3

VOLTAGE MODE DC-DC BUCK CONVERTER

The ripple factor is defined as 1 43

The DC-DC Conversion


This is achieved by using a simple DC-DC Buck converter as shown.

The Buck Converter steps down a higher DC voltage to a lower one The switch can be turned on when the positive voltage Vg is applied to the gate. When the switch is closed the diode is reverse biased and the current flows through the inductor to the load.. Once the gate voltage is brought down to zero the switch is open and the diode is forward biased. Now the current in the inductor reduces. The rate of increase of current is controlled by the value of inductance. The capacitor placed in parallel to the load reduces the ripple in the output voltage. The output voltage depends upon the duty ratio of the switching pulse used to control the switch. We know the output of the Buck Converter is given as Vout= D*Vin Where D is the Duty ratio of the switching pulse

VOLTAGE MODE DC-DC BUCK CONVERTER

By changing the duty ratio the output voltage can be varied and brought to the suitable value. Here we will employ a MOSFET in place of an ideal switch. The We also have the maximum and minimum current limitations in the circuit and is given as max 1 1 2

min

1 2

The ripple factor that gives us the percentage ripple in the circuit is decided by both Capacitor and Inductor values and is given as 1 8

THE GATE CONTROL


A dc-dc converter must provide a regulated dc output voltage under varying load and input voltage conditions. The converter component values are also changing with time, temperature, pressure, and so forth. Hence, the control of the output voltage should be performed in a closed-loop manner using principles of negative feedback.

In the voltage-mode control scheme shown in Fig. the converter output voltage is sensed and subtracted from an external reference voltage in an error amplifier. The error amplifier produces a control voltage that is compared to a constant-amplitude saw tooth waveform. The comparator produces a PWM signal that is fed to drivers of controllable switches in the dc-dc converter. The duty ratio of the PWM signal depends on the value of the control 5

VOLTAGE MODE DC-DC BUCK CONVERTER


voltage. The frequency of the PWM signal is the same as the frequency of the saw tooth waveform. An important advantage of the voltage-mode control is its simple hardware implementation and flexibility. The error amplifier in Fig. reacts fast to changes in the converter output voltage. Thus, the voltage-mode control provides good load regulation, that is, regulation against variations in the load. Line regulation (regulation against variations in the input voltage) is, however, delayed because changes in the input voltage must first manifest themselves in the converter output before they can be corrected. To alleviate this problem, the voltage-mode control scheme is sometimes augmented by a so-called voltage-feed forward path.

DESIGN
INPUT POWER SUPPLY Specification : 230V, 50Hz, Single Phase AC Supply. Transformer Ratio : 230V/24V (RMS values) THE AC RECTIFICATION The AC Rectification is done by using the full wave bridge rectifier and the Specification of the Circuit used are as under 1) Diodes Resistance =0.001 Forward Voltage= 0.8V Snubber Resistance= 500 Snubber Capacitance=250e-9F 2) Load Resistance =2.2k 3) Capacitor 1 43 C65.607uF C=100uF 4) Output DC voltage =

1+2

Vdc=33.72V (approx.) THE BUCK CONVERTER The chopper Circuit was designed with the following Specifications 1) Max Inductor current=2A 2) Min Inductor current=1A 3) Max Ripple =2% 4) The Switching pulse : 5V (peak) , 10kHz For the above design considerations the Capacitor and inductor values obtained are 6

VOLTAGE MODE DC-DC BUCK CONVERTER


1) Inductor 0.193mH<L<0.212mH L= 0.2mH 2) Capacitor C251uF C=250uF The diode used has the same specification as the ones in the rectifier circuit.

SIMULATION
The open loop system with the AC Rectifier and the DC-DC Buck Converter was simulated using the SIMULINK ( MATLAB R2011a) software.

Simulation Circuit used

The feedback control loop can be implemented once the open loop system is design is completed without errors.

OBSERVATIONS
The value of R was set at 50 (Load Resistance) The pulse duty ratio used : 9%

The steady State Output Voltage Obtained : 8.4V Expected Output (SS) % Error Maximum Inductor current : 3.5V :131% :1.25A (Within Limits) 7

VOLTAGE MODE DC-DC BUCK CONVERTER


Ripple Factor : 1% ( Vripple=0.08V)

The various voltage outputs and current output are also plotted with respect to time.

RESULTS
The circuit was designed for the given specifications. The simulation results point that the AC rectifier is working as expected (this can be seen from the voltage plots of the input voltage obtained). The DC-DC Buck Converter designed is not up to the mark. The current rating is satisfied and the ripple is also well within the limits. The Output voltage to input voltage ratio that ie. The duty ratio of the pulse switching wave form is not being satisfied. The designed circuit is working ok with one minor setback ie. The output voltage is very sensitive to the duty ratio of the switching pulse. There are also spikes in the output voltage and current waveforms. This may be eliminated by the use of voltage mode control of the DC-DC buck converter as described in the above pages.

VOLTAGE MODE DC-DC BUCK CONVERTER

REFERENCES
TEXT BOOKS 1)Fundamentals of Power Electronics by Robert W. Erickson 2)Power Electronics Handbook by M.Rasheed 3)Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2) Dr. Zainal Salam

INTERNET LINKS 1) en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rectifier

2) http://web.me.com/junaidi79/Site/Teaching_files/Lecture%206%20diode%20rectifier.ppt

3) http://encon.fke.utm.my/notes/MSc-Chopper.pdf

4) http://www.k7mem.com/Electronic_Notebook/power_supplies/unreg_ps.html