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British Steel

BS7191 :45oEM/EMZ

Quenched and Tempered High Strength Steel Plates for Offshore Applications
RQT Roller Quenched and Tempered Steel Plates

CONTENTS
SPECIFICAT ION TYPICAL CHEMISTRY ANDPROPERTIES

2 3 4 4

PLATE SIZEAVAILABIL flY MANUFACTURINGTOLERANCES FABRICATION GUIDANCEON WELDING

4
5

Thickness Range

Minimum Yield Stress

Tensile Slrenglh

Minimum Impact Energy

Maximum LadleCEV

mm

N/mm 470 470 430 620 620 690 690 690 450 430 415 415

N/mm
560-710 560-710 530-700

R0T501

15I50
25<t40

6l<15

50<l80

RQT6O1

6t25
6l'25

@ -40 41@-40 41@-40


41

0.41 0.41 0.41

690-850 690-850
790 -930 790 -930 790 -930 550-700 530-700

27 @-45 27 @-45

0.43 0.47 0.43 0.52 0.57


0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41

RQT7O1

25<l'40 40<t65 16<t25 25<t75 75<t100

27@-45

27 @ -45 27 @ -45

BST191 . 45OEMand 45OEMZ

6t16

530-700 530-700

60@-40 60@-40 60@-40 60@-40

r This document contains


L
REVISION

pages

No.0

Date: February 1993

SPECIFICATION BS7191:450EM/EMZ

Chemical composition limits (Ladle and Product Analysis)

450EM 45OEMZ

016
0.16

*015/060 1.00/1.65 *0 15/060 1.00/1.65

*The minimum silicon level shown in the current version of BS7191 is 0.25% but this grade is normally supplied, by agreement as stated in the table.

Mechanical properties
For plate thicknesses t20mm, testsare on samples as quenched and tempered. Fort>2Omm, tests are on simulated postweld heat treated samples. The PWHT is, typically, 580C (in the range 550C-620C) and at least25C below the tempering temperature for 1 hourper25mm thickness or 4 hours, whichever isthe greater.

Impact properties
Transverse,Charpy-V (Sub-surface fort40mm thick and at both sub-surface and mid-thickness fort>4Omm). Impact test requirements at lower temperatures canbe supplied by agreement.
Thickness
Range

Minimum Average

Minimum Individual

Tensile properties
Thickness Range t mm Yield Stress N/mm2 450 430 415 415 Tensile Strength N/mm2 Elongation on GL %

mm

J@C
60

J@c
42 @ -40

12.5t100

-40

5.65/
19

16<t25 25<t75 75<t100

6t16

550-700

For plates below 12.5mmthickness, subsidiary standard Charpy specimens will be used with proportionate adjustment oftheenergyvalues.

*530700 *530700 *530700

19 19
19

Grade 45OEMZ Through Thickness Guarantee


Grade45OEMZsteel is guaranteed to meet a minimum average Reduction of Areacriterion of 35 percent as measured on a setof six specimens taken inthe manner specified in Option B.24 of BS7191 :1989. If required this would be verified by testing.

*Theminimum tensile strength shown in the current version of BS7191 is 550 N/mm2but this grade is normally supplied, by agreement, as stated in the
table. N.B. Elongation measured on a tensile specimen of different proportions may give a different value.

TYPICAL CHEMISTRY AND PROPERTIES

TheSpecification statestheguaranteed limits ofchemical analysis and of mechanical properties. To help the user toevaluate the suitability ofthe steelfor the proposed application, typical product

analyses and histograms showing typical distributions of mechanical properties and product CEV for one thickness range (5O<t8Omm) are shown below.

Chemical analysis
Thickness Range
mtm C

Si
'/

Mn '/

S
'/

P
'/

Cr
'I

Mo

Nb

V
'/

Ti
'/

Ni
'/

Cu
"

Al
'/

CEV
"

50<t75 75<t100

15t50

6t<15

0.12 0.10

0.09 0.09

0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30

1.45 1.30 1.25 1.25

0.003 0.003 0.002 0.002

0.011 0.011 0.011 0.011

0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02

0.01

0.17 0.17 0.17

0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003

0.01

0.05 0.05 0,05

0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004

0.02 0.02 0.50 0.50

0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02

0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03

0.38 0.37 0.38 0.38

80 50 70

>- 40

0 z w 0 w
a:

30

>0 z w 0 w

60 50 40 30 20

U- 20

a: LL

10

395 415 435 455 475 495 515 535

Th-i

10

555

510

530

5b0

570

590

610

630

650

YIELD STRESS (N/mm2)

TENSILE STRENGTH (N/mm2)

500

>-

0 z 0 w

400

>-

w 300
a: 200 U100 I I

0 z UJ 0 w
a:
U.

30

60 90 120 150 180 210 230 270 300 IMPACTENERGY (J) @ -40C

0.38 0.39 0.40 0.41

CARBON EQUIVALENT VALUE (CEV)

SIZE AVAILABILITY
Maximum plate length (m) tar stated widths W mm Plate Thickness mm 1800 6 7 8 9 10
11

FABRICATION

Shearing
BS7191:450EM/EMZ steelcan be cold sheared. In viewof the highstrength level, relative to mild steel and otherstructural steels, proportionately higher shearing power is required for anygiven thickness.

2000
12 12 12 12 12 12 12 15 15 15 15 15 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12

2250

2500

2750

3050

12 12 12 12 12 12 12 15 15

::
12
12

:
12 12 12 12 12 15 15 15 15 15 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 11.5 10.5 10

;:

* *
12 12 12 15 15 15 15 15 12 12 12 12 12

:
12 12 12 15 15 15 15 15 12 12 12 12
11

Flame cutting
Platesof the ROT seriescanbe cutsatisfactorily with standard oxy-gas equipment. Neither preheating nor postheating is normally required. However,where fabrication codesstipulate maximum hardness levels, due attention must be paid tothe selection of appropriate gascuttingprocedures. Care shouldbe taken to ensure thatflamecut edges arefreefromsharp notches as thesewould be
detrimental to subsequent cold forming operations. In multiple cutting situations, care is required to achieve a balanced arrangement ofcuttingtorches to minimise the possibility of distortion.

12

12 12 12 15
15 15

12.5 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 63.5 65 70 75 80

15
15

15
12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12

15 15
12 12

12
12 12

12 12 12
12
11

11.5 10.5 10.5 9.5 9 8.5

10 9.5 9.5 8.5 8


7.5

Plasma cutting
Within the operating thickness ranges of available equipment, BS7191 :450EM/EMZ steel can be plasma cut.All plasma cutedges which form partofa weld preparation should be incorporated fully intothe weld. As with gascutedges, plasma cutedges should be ground backpriorto cold forming in regions to be bent.

11.5

105

9.5

* Available, byagreement, if discussed at timeof


initialenquiry. Forthicknesses exceeding 80mmplatesizes wifi be agreed at the timeof ordering. Other plate sizescan be produced by arrangement.

Cold forming
BS7191 :450EM/EMZ steel plates can readily be

TOLERANCES AND SURFACE QUALITY


Themanufacturing tolerances for ROTsteel plates are in compliance with BS EN 10029:1991, "Toleranceson dimensions, shape and mass for hot rolled steelplates3mm and above': except for flatness. ROT platesare supplied tocomplywith the following flatnesstolerances(mm), based on a
measuring length of 1000mm.
Nominal Thickness, mm Plate Width, W mm

cold formed. Because of the higherstrength level, the power required for cold forming is proportionately greaterthan that required for mild steel plates of the samethickness. Forthe samereason, greater springback will be experienced for which due allowance must be made. Bending and brake press forming should, where possible, be carried out with the axis of bending at right angles to the rolling direction. Minimum values of bending radius and of die opening for 90 bends, expressed as multiples of plate thickness are given in the following table.
Bend Axis vs. rolling direction Perpendicular Parallel Minimum inside bendingradius 3t 4t Minimum die opening 8.5t

W<2750
6.0 4.5

W2750
7.5

6't<8

t8

4.5

Other tolerances can be offered subject to special agreement at the timeof enquiry and order. Thesurface quality ofthe ROTseries of steels is in accordance with the requirements of BS EN 10163:1991, "Delivery requirements for surface condition of hot rolled steel plates, wide flats and sections:'
A

lot

Customers with bending requirements more stringent than the foregoing are asked to state the requirement atthe time of ordering. It is recommendedthat sheared or gascut edges be ground to a smooth finish inthebend areas.

Hot forming and warm forming


BS7191:450EM/EMZ steels are notsuitablefor Should it be necessary to consider a warm forming operation, or a line heating operation, it should be performed at a temperature below 550C and at least50 degrees below the tempering temperature stated on thetest certificate. Total heating times, forsingle or multiple forming operations, should be restricted to less than 1 hour per 25 mm of plate thickness. Because BS7191 :450EM/EMZ steels derive their properties from efficientquenching, re-

quenching and tempering afterhot forming operations is not recommended.

hot forming.

Machining, drilling and boring


BS7191 :450EM/EMZ steels canbe machined, drilled and bored. It should be noted that, at the low sulphur level of thissteel, power requirements are likely to be greaterthan with highsulphur steels and tool life may be affected. Normal tool life would be maintained by a reduction of about 30% in cutting speed relative to values givenin tool manufacturers' tablesof machining and drilling parameters for steels at thisstrength level.

WELDING

Introduction
Thefollowing guidance is intended to be used to identifythe approximate range of welding conditions whichcanthen be worked out in detail by a welding
engineer. Thermal cycles occurring duringwelding exert a decisive influence on heat affected zonehardness and toughness. A graphical method forestimating the desired combination of preheat and weld heat input usingthe relationship between these properties and cooling timein the weld thermal cyclehasbeen developed and used in the later sections on HAZ hardness and toughness. Upper limitsof heat input, beyond which impact toughnessdeteriorates due to the inabilityto maintain adequately grain refined heat affected zones are indicated as are lower limitsbelow which practical procedures do not exist. British Steel is willing to discuss and advise on or specific applications developments which may encroach on these areas. There maybe cost and productivity implications in the selection of a particular weld procedure. British Steel would be happy to discuss and offerguidance. wide. Thetable listssome consumables produced by a few manufacturers whichmaybe found suitable forwelding BS7191:450EM/EMZ steels. Where levels of impact toughness in the heat affected zone, compatible with the plate toughness, are essential, the listed consumables may be used but care should be taken to ensurethat weld dilution from the parent steeldoesnot unduly reduce the weld metal properties. Guidance in the useof consumables and onthe achievement of specificmechanical properties in suchcircumstances canbe provided by British Steel. Some ofthe consumables listed are more appropriate for positional welding and further details can be obtained fromthe suppliers. The choice of consumables maybe dependent on factors otherthan matching mechanical properties. Forfabrication with quenched and tempered steels, low hydrogen practices should be employed to avoid cold cracking problems. The data in the tablehave been compiled from welding consumable manufacturers' recommendations for matching thetensileproperties and it is emphasised that inclusion of particular consumables in the tablemustnot be interpreted as endorsement of the products by British Steel.

Consumables
Therange of available consumables potentially suitable for welding quenched and tempered steels is

Some examples of consumables for use with BS7191:450EM/EMZ steel Supplier

MMA (SMAW) Solid

MIG/MAG(GSMAW) Cored Wire SD3 lNi.0.25Mo OK Autorod 12.34 OK Autorod 12.27 OK Autorod 13.32
LNS16O LA9O

SAW Flux
OP122TT

Oerlikon

Tenacito JOB Tenacito 70

Carbotil Mo

Fluxofil20 Fluxofil41
OK Tubrod 15,17 OK Tubrod 15.11

ESAB/Murex

OK53.08
(Hytuf Ni) Fortrex 8018C1

OK Autorod 13.28

OK 10,62 OK 10.62 OK 10.62


P230 880

LincolnWeldro

Hyrod 8018G Hyrod 8018C1

LAT5

Outershield

Kryo 1 Kryo 3
LH1O18-C1-MR
L

81-Nil-H lnnershied
NR-450

HAZ hardness
Fabrication specifications commonly set limits on the hardness levels permitted in the heataffected zone. Therelationships between HAZ hardness, weld heat input and plate thickness are defined in Diagram 1, the HAZ HardnessAssessment Diagram, which also provides agraphical method of estimating the heat input appropriate to any specified HAZhardness limit. The diagram consists of three graphs: Graph A hastwo curves representing the range of HAZhardness whichwould be observed in welded joints. The lower curveshowsthetypical levels of HAZhardness to beexpected in multipass butt weldsand the upper shows the pessimistic values appropriate tofillet weldsand the capping passes of butt welds. Graph B shows combinations of heat input and platethickness fortheno preheat condition. Graph C shows combinations of heat input and platethickness for the 100C preheat condition. To estimate the range of heat inputs likely to be used, draw a horizontal line on Graph A atthe desired or specified level of hardness to intersect both curves. Vertical straight lines through these intersections into Graphs B and Cwill indicate heat input levels appropriate to the range of thickness shown. Theseestimates are indicative of the minimum heat inputsrequired to avoidexceeding thehardness limitsspecified and may be used as thestarting point for establishing appropriate weld procedures.All heat inputconditions to the right of theverticallines drawn on the figures will give lower hardness values.
E E

EBA

THE HEAT INPUT LEVELSARE


REPRESENTED ON THE

() Co
w

GRAPHSAS
30 FOLLOWS:-

I I0

20

HI

5kJ/mm

%PAT
1

HI 100 1000

4kJ/mm

COOLING TIME(sec) 800/500C


HI

3kJ/mm

CLI
>
1400

AND CAPPING
PASSES BUTT WELDS

FILLETWELDS

HI

2kJ/mm

Z300
HI

lkJ/mm

1200 N <

I
A

10

100

1000

Not practical

COOLINGTIME (sec)8OO/5OOC

F.
Not recommended

.Co Cl)

w z

I
Ui
Q-

0
I-

10

100

1000

COOLING TIME (sec)800/500C

Diagram 1 HAZHardnessAssessmentDiagram

Filletwelds
Various welding processes are appropriate for

filletwelding of BS7191 :450EM/EMZ steel and the following tablecontains guidance on the maximum heat inputsto be used for a range of fillet leg lengths. Heat inputs for positional welding may be lowerthan those quoted in the table. Also, restrictions of heat inputto limit maximum heat affected zonehardness may be required to prevent
hydrogen cracking. Typical parameters for the various processes can be obtained fromthe suppliers of welding consumables and may differ in detailfrom those givenin thetable.

Fillet Leg
Length mm
FCAW

Heat InputkJ/mm FCAW* Rutile


1.1

MCAW

MMA

Basic 1.3

6 8 10

1.2

2.0 2.6

1.6

2.0

1.5 2.4 (3.8)

FCAWflux cored MIG/MAG welding MCAW metal cored MIG/MAGwelding MMA manual metal arcwelding *Care must betaken inthechoice of appropriate consumables.

()Notrecommended.

HAZ toughness

THE HEAT INPUT LEVELSARE


REPRESENTED

The relationships between HAZtoughness, weld heat inputand platethickness are shown in Diagram 2, which consists of two graphs, A and B. Graph A shows the relationship range for Charpy impact toughness and has two curves. The upper represents typical levels to be expected and thelower curverepresents the minimum levels
anticipated.

ON THE GRAPHSAS FOLLOWS:HI 3.5kJ/mm

AU
HI

3kJ/mm

GraphB shows the relationship between heat input and platethickness for 100C preheat. This pairof graphs canbe used, in the same way as the hardness assessment diagram, to estimate the range of levels of HAZimpact to toughness be expected in weldedjoints using the of heat inputs shown. range Provided a similar range of coolingtimesis employed, equivalent levels of HAZtoughness may be expected in jointsweldedwithoutpreheat.

BE
HI 2kJ/mm

A
HI

C.
lkJ/mm

E E
(I)

p.
Not practical Not recommended

C') LU

0
-J a.

I I
LU

COOLING TIME(sac) 8OOI5OOC

AssessmentDiagram Diagram 2 HAZToughness

Avoidance of HAZ cracking

The HAZcracking assessment diagram graphs illustrate the extent of cold cracking susceptibility of BS7191:450EM/EMZ steel.Thegraphsin Diagram3 are derived from observations over the whole of the combined thickness and heat inputranges shown and are based on hydrogen levels (1O-l5mlIlOOgm) typicalofgood site welding practice. Theminimum heat input required to avoid cold cracking is shown as a function of combined joint thickness forno preheat and 100C preheat respectively. The combined joint thickness is as defined in BS5135. In practice, the requirement forpreheat depends on the joint restraint as wellas combined joint thickness, and therefore thefigures should be used for guidance only.Generally, preheat levels can be lowered if low hydrogen processes whch consistently achieve hydrogen levels below 5m1/lOOgm are used.

BOTH GRAPHS AS SCALEB OF BS5135


HYDROGEN

LEVELOF
1O-15m1/lOOgm

&)
C')
LU

E E

CRACK

I IIz

UNO
NOCRACK

PREHEAT

0 -,
0

F---1
0
B

HEATINPUT (kJ/mm)

Diagram 3 HAZcrackingAssessmentDiagram

British Steel
Sections, Plates & Commercial Steels P0 Box 30, Motherwell, Lanarkshire ML1 1AA
Telephone:0698 266233 Telefax:0698 262020 Telex:777961

Care hae been takento eeaure that the conteets of thia publication are accurate, but Britiah Steelplc and itu subsidiary companies do not accept responsibility for errors or tor intormation which is band to be misleading. Suggestions for or descriptions ot the end use or application of products or methods of working are for information only and British Steel plc and its subsidiaries accept no liability in

PLEASE NOTE

respect thereof. Before using products supplied or manufactured by British Steel plcfhe customer shoufd satisfy himself ottheIr suitabflity. If furtherasaisfance is required. British Steelplc withinthe operational limits of its research facilities may oftenbe able fo help

Reference No: P6E(1)/2.93