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Faktor pertimbangan untuk pemilihan jenis haiwan dan ciri haiwan 1.

Tujuan pemeliharaan y Sebagai hobi, perniagaan & sumber pendapatan - Untuk tujuan perniagaan, perlukan tempat, kawasan yang luas, kuantiti yang lebih banyak berbanding pemeliharaan sebagai hobi. Kucing, hamster sesuai untuk kanak-kanak, penyelengaraan mudah dan tidak melibatkan kos yang tinggi.


2. Gaya hidup y y y Gaya hidup yang sibuk mungkin menyebabkan kebajikan haiwan peliharaan dan ikan hiasan akan terabai. Waktu pemberian makanan tidak menentu, sangkar tidak dijaga dengan rapi dll. Pemelihara yang tidak penyayang, akan menganiaya haiwan.

3. Tabiat semula jadi haiwan y Lincah y haiwan penggerit. y manja. y licik. y Mencakar y Pemangsa. y garang. y berani. 4. Kos y y y y y y Sangkar, tempat tinggal. Akuarium dan aksesori Makanan, makanan sampingan. Perubatan Alat permainan Kemampuan menyediakan tempat tinggal dan kemudahan yang sesuai untuk ikan hiasan dan haiwan kesayangan.

5. Masa y y y y Penjagaan rutin. Memberikan makanan, minuman. Membersihkan sangkar dan peralatan lain seperti permainan hamster. Membersihkan haiwan itu sendiri.

perlukan kawasan yang lebih luas untuk menempatkan akuarium mahupun sangkar. aksesori. Ruang y y Membersihkan akuarium. Ruang yang mencukupi untuk menempatkan sangkar. 7.y 6. akuarium. Haiwan peliharaan lain yang sedia ada y Jika ingin memelihara ikan hiasan. air. haiwan peliharaan yang sedia ada seperti kucing perlu diberi perhatian Ciri-ciri haiwan yang perlu diperhatikan semasa pemilihan y Baka y Jantina y Peringkat umur y Ciri-ciri istimewa y Bentuk luar badan haiwan y Kesihatan y Kesempurnaan pergerakan haiwan . JIka memelihara untuk perniagaan.

the less the price (except for those under 10 gallons). Water is very heavy. For example. Cost: Unfortunately. which will encourage algal growth and can affect the water temperature. Generally glass tanks are less expensive than Plexiglass tanks. the temperature of a 10 gallon tank can be affected more rapidly by sunlight or a cold night than a 55 gallon tank. Therefore. furnace) that will overheat the tank. and 55 gallon tanks. an Arowana or Oscar cannot be expected to survive in a 10 gallon tank. The reason that large tanks are less trouble because there is more water volume for waste dispersal. Similarly. . and a more stable environment. Both of these materials appear to work well for keeping aquarium fish. For example. The tank should be away from direct sunlight. Avoid placing the tank near a window or door where drafts may cool the tank. the type and number of fish should be considered. for best results. the tank should be clear of any heating units (stove. For instance. beginning aquariasts should choose as large a tank that they can accommodate.THE AQUARIUM Selecting the Aquarium The type and size of the aquarium depends on the space available. Choosing the Tank Location: The first requirement for the location of a fish tank is in an area that can support its weight. The least expensive tanks are usually those that are mass produced. The tank should be near electrical outlets and in a location where water changes can be easily made. A 55 gallon tank tends to have a much more stable pH than a 10 gallon tank. Take into account the size of tank that the species requires. economically and space-wise.cost is usually an important factor in selecting the type and size of tank one can afford. such as 10. Although it is not essential to decide what fish your are planning to have before buying the tank. that larger tanks are easier to take care of than small tanks. a 20 gallon tank weighs more than 160 pounds not including gravel or rocks. check that the location fills other requirements. Once a place that can support such a weight is found. more surface area for waste breakdown. decide beforehand. Type of Aquarium The most common types of material used for tanks in the United States are glass and plexiglass. Keep in mind. about 8 lbs a gallon (about 1 k/l). 20. and the needs of the fish. Fish Needs: Before selecting a tank. the cost. Usually the smaller the tank.

The composition of the gravel is important in that gravel that contains minerals will dissolve and harden the water. Some report that large tanks may "bow" with time. Glass tanks. but they are not nearly as common as the two mentioned types. a means of filtration with undergravel filter systems. Hexagon tanks do not allow as much long. Whatever tank is chosen. and are available in a variety of sizes and shapes. are generally reliable as far as not leaking. and a region for fish to carry out activities such as breeding and feeding. some cheaply manufactured tanks are subject to leakage and breakage. cannot support as many fish as a rectangular aquarium. again because of the smaller surface area. the most common being rectangular. open. swimming room. In some cases with African Rift Lake fish. so-called "tall" tanks which have little surface area are less suitable and strong aeration is required. Rectangular aquariums are good for housing fish because they usually have a large surface area for gas exchange. but for many fish and plant species. All glass tank are heavy. water-hardening substrates are acceptable. However. the increasing water hardness is detrimental. Tank Shape Aquariums are available in a number of shapes. attractive. Plexiglass tanks are less likely to leak than glass tanks. These tanks are light. tall tanks cannot support as large a fish load as shallower tanks. However. There are a few drawbacks including a higher cost than glass tanks and a vulnerability to scratches. Generally. Plexiglass tanks are gaining popularity in the United States. such as hexagon. Be sure the tank you buy is guaranteed against leakage for a period of time. Tanks with other shapes. The gravel in the tank provides support for plants. The cover will reduce evaporation and lessen the chances of a fish jumping out. There are other tanks available. . be sure that a cover is included. Aquarium Furnishings Gravel: The gravel in the serves both an aesthetic and a practical purpose. made by reputable manufacturers.Glass tanks are advantageous because they are widely available at a relativity low cost.

sandstone. quartz gravel. for a longer period of time (12-14 hours) than a tank housing only fish. Many aquariasts. Wood can further add to the acidity of the water. followed by a layer of 5-7 mm size. Fluorescent tubes consume little power. Fluorescent tubes are available in a wide range of . or glass strips. Rocks: The tank should be furnished with rock structures to provide hiding and breeding places for fish. Before adding the gravel to the tank. nor release calcium. basalt. as the wood will affect the alkalinity. Suitable types of rocks for the aquarium include lava. and then cover the Styrofoam and base of the rocks with gravel. the gravel should be 2-5 mm in diameter. Do not use wood in tank with fish that require hard. slate. and nourishment for some catfish. The strength of lighting should be about 1 watt per gallon of water. only light the tank for 10-12 hours a day.Suitable substrate materials for the aquarium include river sand. who raise plants. The gravel can be added to the tank and arranged levelly or terraced. layer the gravel. To minimize algal growth. The light hood should have a reflector. wood. Plants require light in order to carry out photosynthesis and grow. and provide an even distribution of light. Wood: Wood provides a refuge. although fluorescent and mercury vapor lamps are the most practical. (1) Fluorescent tubes -. Perhaps the best way to construct rock structures is to place the rocks on a thin layer of Styrofoam (directly on the tank floor). On the bottom is placed 5-10 mm size gravel. Plants require more light. use flat rocks. Only use bog wood for the aquarium. and gravels that are available in aquarium shops. and the light equipment should be UL approved. Accessories Lighting: The type of lighting is not especially important if plants are not grown. To terrace the gravel. Do not only use colored incandescent lights for tropical fish as these cause ill effects. When constructing rock structures. be sure that they are stable and will not collapse on burrowing fish. The result is a 3" (8 cm) gravel depth with a composition that in which plants can thrive. and quartz. granite. basalt. Almost any incandescent or fluorescent light does fine. and finally a top layer of 2-4 mm size gravel. followed by base fertilizer (available at aquarium stores) like laterite.Fluorescent tubes are the most popular type of bulb among aquariasts with plants. as most other wood will rot in aquaria. secure them. the gravel should be carefully washed to remove all small particles. If plants are kept in the tank. There are several types of bulbs that can be used. a spawning site. produce little heat. The rocks used should not dissolve or crumble in water. benefiting fish that prefer acidic water. alkaline water.

incoming water is heated. These highly accurate. although they work well for tanks with a depth greater than 20" (50 cm). One draw back to fluorescent lights is that their intensity decreases with time. the temperature does not vary much. the heater must be unplugged for 10 minutes before it leaves the water.Mercury vapor lamps are not that common. as this heating system creates circulation through the gravel. always unplug the heater for safety reasons. Then read the temperature on the thermometer and adjust the heater accordingly. The fish cannot be burned when the heater is in the filter. The air pump can be used to power air . although they are safe and will not burn fish. These fish often receive burns. Another beneficial device is a dimmer switch which can be used to vary the levels of light. Air Pump: The air pump is an important part of the aquarium. Some authors have suggested wrapping the heater with plastic airline tubing. Set the timer so that the light is on for 12-14 hours. place the heater into the water and let it sit for 10-15 minutes. Light output can be increased by using a reflector or foil on the ceiling of the hood to reflect more light to the tank. a timer can be purchased. There are two types of glass immersion heaters. but still affects plants. To prevent this problem. so that the clean. In order to set the temperature with one of these units. because they are usually more reliable and need not be unplugged whenever the water drops more than 6" (15 cm) from the top. If possible. Heater: The most popular means to heat the aquarium is a glass immersion heater. If the heater is immersed it is subject to breakage. Thus fluorescent tubes should be replaced every six months. Most heaters include a thermostat. so that once the temperature is set.types including full-spectrum bulbs. place the heater in the filter unit (wet-dry filter). Some fish species may rest or hide on the heater. Two other heating devices are available: undergravel (cable) heaters and heaters that use electronic thermostats. Then plug in the heater and let it run until the tank reaches a constant temperature and the pilot light (indicates the heater is running) turns off. These lights require special fixtures. (2) Mercury vapor lamps -. especially if there is no power filter to create surface disturbance for oxygenation. With both types. Sometimes this decrease is not noticeable to the keeper. To control the amount of lighting each day. When working in the tank. protect the fish by surrounding the heater with a mesh. but expensive heaters are excellent. Undergravel (cable) heating systems are most popular for the aquariast having plants. Heaters using electronic thermostats are a new innovation. non-submersible and submersible.25 watts per inch. These are generally expensive. cage-like structure. In tanks deeper than 20" (50 cm) use about 6. The submersible heaters are a better investment. These types of heaters are generally fairly inexpensive. Be sure to use the right size heater for the tank: 2-3 watts per gallon of water is usually suggested. Fluorescent lights are not usually strong enough to light a tank taller (deeper) than 20" (50 cm).

chemical. clean only one at a time. medications. Peat is used in a similar way to bring down the pH and reduce hardness for species that prefer "blackwater" conditions. no air stone should be necessary. excess food. and some fish wastes. Water current can be created by the filter. The filter should have three means of filtration: mechanical.Mechanical filtration refers to the filtering of water through a strainer or filter media. so as not to kill off too much of the beneficial bacteria. Bacteria need plenty of oxygen to do their work. The larger the surface area of the media.stones which drive undergravel filters. The major drawback to air pumps is the noise they produce. If there are two biological filter containers. Ion exchange resins reduce the water hardness by removing salts from the water. . the more gas exchange). With a good filter. and plant matter. Separate air stone can be used for further aeration. This is why newly established tanks must "cycle" (build up a culture of nitrifying bacteria) before expensive fish are introduced. and flowing rivers. One popular material for chemical filtration is ammonia absorber (zeolite) which binds to free ammonia. Most of these can be "recharged" in a soaking in a salt water solution. . the mechanical filter media begins to serve as biological filtration as bacteria cultures colonize the media. prefer water with current. creeks. Some fish species. Less expensive models are often noisier than higher quality. more expensive models. so less there is disruption of biological filtration.Chemical filtration refers to the process of removing particles or altering water conditions by chemical means. Without biological filtration. Most motorized filters achieve aeration by surface disturbance. The filter is the device that must be capable of handling fish waste and particles in the aquarium. After four weeks. Many chemical filter medias only work for a period of time before they are saturated. thus lowering the pH and softening the water. and biological. internal power filters. and sponge filters. The filter should also provide oxygen for the fish. Nitrifying bacteria (see Water Chemistry) break down organic wastes from ammonia to nitrite to nitrate. . Nitrate absorbers are a new product that binds nitrates to render them less toxic. Biological filter media should be rinsed only every month or two with cool to luke warm water. internal box filters. to remove particles from the water. ammonia is present from the fish excrement. Activated carbon serves as a means of mechanical filtration by absorbing small particles including toxins. and most quality filters provide an adequate supply. Filtration: The filter is one of the most important pieces of equipment in the aquarium. especially power heads. such as filter wool or foam. the more area for bacteria to interact with organic compounds. especially when they are vibrating against something. Thus most media for biological filtration are porous or in irregular shapes to provide more surface area.Biological filtration is the most important function of the filter. The amount of oxygen dissolved in the aquarium can be proportional to the amount of surface disturbance (the more disturbance. those inhabiting streams. circulating .

A 2. and spray bars from canister filters.5 to 3 gallon (about 10-12 L) bucket is sufficient. The net should be fine mesh designed for aquarium use. a 20 gallon tank should be equipped with a filter that pumps at least 100-120 gallons an hour. Siphon Hose: A siphon hose is needed for water changes." Use a filter that is rated to pump five to six times the tank's capacity an hour. Many filters are rated in terms of "gallons (liters) per hour. The filter should be large enough to handle the amounts of wastes produced by the fish and plants in the tank. Net: Every fish owner should have at least one (preferably more). Siphon hoses are available in a range of sizes and designs: from inexpensive hoses to long hoses used for both emptying and filling. The bucket should be used only for the aquarium. .pumps. Bucket: A bucket is needed for water changes and adding water. For example.

danios. Some of the smaller species are very popular in community tanks. however it should be emphasized that this listing is just an outline and there are often many unique differences between fish in the same family and individual research into each specific species should be done before making your final decision. sharp substrate (gravel) can damage or irritate some of the bottom feeding catfish Some catfish need to live in groups y Characiforms (characins. Each one of these categories contains fish that are similar in many of their traits. They are covered with skin or an armor like plating. The bright colors and diversity of habitat common to these species make them popular in many aquariums. Some of the larger ones (piranhas) are more difficult and better suited to experts. pencilfish. there are over 2000 species of fish available. To help make your search for the right fish easier. some have very different eating habits.000 species of catfish each with their own unique characteristics but as a group none of these fish have scales. hatchetfish. rasboras. splash tetras): This category includes a very large number of fish that are commonly found in Africa and the Americas. loaches. Cichlids: This category consists of a large very diverse number of fish that are commonly found in Africa. the tropical Americas and Asia. I have divided the most commonly available tropical fish into 7 main categories. 'sharks'. Many catfish are used as scavengers in tanks and while many species are well adapted to this. koi): These fish are found in many locations throughout the world and the species include both tropical varieties and . The Cichlids all practice parental care which makes them more territorial. goldfish. The important thing is to find the catfish that will work best in your tank. There is probably a species of catfish that would work well in just about any type of aquarium set up.Seven Categories of Aquarium Fish To repeat what I mentioned earlier. This aggression makes most of them better suited to living in tanks where other species or fish aren't present. Many of these species are wild caught. tetras. When they are guarding their young or eggs they can be very aggressive towards any other fish in the area and may even guard their nest areas when they aren't actively hatching young. Cypriniforms (barbs. Some things to consider when choosing a catfish are: y y y y Some catfish can get very large (over seven feet) Some catfish are nocturnal and need to be fed after dark Some catfish are specialized feeders and are not scavengers Coarse. However some species (dwarf cichlids and angelfish) will live together well in a community tank if the right conditions are provided. Catfish: There are over 2.

paradise fish. and make good additions to a community tank. Many of these species are popular in the aquarium because of their hardiness. fighting fish. Many species are sociable and do well in a community tank. hardy. Labyrinth Fish (gouramis. and both sexes of the adult combtails. peaceful. mollies. silversides): The fish from this family come from a variety of different habitats and the individual needs of each species should be researched. These fish tend to have an iridescent quality to their skin that makes them change colors as they move through the light. peaceful fish that are well suited to community aquariums with the exception of some of the aggressive males of the fighting fish.coldwater species such as the goldfish. They are generally small. combtails. Most species are small. The toothcarps consist of the egg layers that can be rare and difficult for beginners and the live bearers that are popular aquarium species such as guppies. and platys. paradise fish): This group of fish is very popular with the aquarist. Cyprinodonts (toothcarps. Rainbowfish (rainbowfish. ease of maintenance and willingness to breed. killifish): These fish are usually small and live and feed near the surface. and colorful. . swordtails.

The breeding program was not entirely successful at first. Twenty-four species are known but. forty years later. 1930. compared with five hundred per minute in the active animal. only one . This group seems to have thrived for thirty years. live specimens were brought to England from Syria by James Skene. A temperature in excess of 20 C (68 F) is ideal. possibly via breeding stock at the London Zoo. Clearly. since four of the eight hamsters escaped. in a room in the home heated during cold weather. Subsequently. coupled with declining periods of light. Some of the progeny were sent to Dr. Golden Hamsters became available to the pet-owning public. A fall in temperature. Hibernation An unusual and often disconcerting habit of hamsters is their ability to hibernate if environmental conditions are unfavorable. such behavior is less likely to occur. with the final progeny dying in 1910. The young hamsters were transferred to the Hebrew University at Jerusalem. To encourage a hibernating hamster to wake from its sleep.has become popular as a pet throughout the world. transfer it to a warm position where it can awake gradually. there seems to have been none of these rodents in captivity until April. to the casual observer a hibernating hamster appears dead. which to some extent is now less apparent in domesticated stock. Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) . apart from the southeastern corner. This is a natural trait. who had been serving there in the diplomatic service. Israel Aharoni discovered a nest of Syrian Hamsters on Mount Appo in Syria. The Golden. Hamster The Golden Hamster was first discovered in 1839 and. until Dr. it was suggested that the species was extinct. It was not until the start of the Second World War that these hamsters were seen alive in North America. the male mated successfully with both the other females and. and then a female died as a result of a fight with the only surviving male. Since the heart beat can also be as low as four contractions per minute.the Golden. or Syrian. whereas under normal circumstances the figure reaches up to one hundred or more. as in the gerbils. will trigger hamsters to enter this torpid state. however. From this unpromising beginning. Indeed. from northern Europe in a broad band across much of Asia. Gradually the . The respiratory rate is barely one breath a minute. or Syrian. The hamster's body temperature falls from the normal level of about 37 C (98. It is amazing to reflect that all such hamsters kept throughout the world today are believed to be the direct descendants from that nest found on Mount Appo more than half a century ago. Edward Hindle in England and. three hundred and sixty-four offspring had been reared.A Complete Introduction to Hamsters These rodents are found in a wide range of habitats.7 F) to a little above the environmental temperature. within a year.

treat it in this way to establish whether or not it has simply entered a torpid state. with food being taken back in the cheek pouches and stored in the nest. Other factors also influence a hamster's readiness to enter a state of dormancy. significantly. . and its body will warm up as blood flow to the skin increases. These include the provision of a very deep layer of bedding material and. Hoarding behavior is quite natural. an opportunity for the hamster to store food.hamster's breathing will become apparent. If you discover a hamster apparently dead in the nest.