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Faktor pertimbangan untuk pemilihan jenis haiwan dan ciri haiwan 1.

Tujuan pemeliharaan y Sebagai hobi, perniagaan & sumber pendapatan - Untuk tujuan perniagaan, perlukan tempat, kawasan yang luas, kuantiti yang lebih banyak berbanding pemeliharaan sebagai hobi. Kucing, hamster sesuai untuk kanak-kanak, penyelengaraan mudah dan tidak melibatkan kos yang tinggi.

2. Gaya hidup y y y Gaya hidup yang sibuk mungkin menyebabkan kebajikan haiwan peliharaan dan ikan hiasan akan terabai. Waktu pemberian makanan tidak menentu, sangkar tidak dijaga dengan rapi dll. Pemelihara yang tidak penyayang, akan menganiaya haiwan.

3. Tabiat semula jadi haiwan y Lincah y haiwan penggerit. y manja. y licik. y Mencakar y Pemangsa. y garang. y berani. 4. Kos y y y y y y Sangkar, tempat tinggal. Akuarium dan aksesori Makanan, makanan sampingan. Perubatan Alat permainan Kemampuan menyediakan tempat tinggal dan kemudahan yang sesuai untuk ikan hiasan dan haiwan kesayangan.

5. Masa y y y y Penjagaan rutin. Memberikan makanan, minuman. Membersihkan sangkar dan peralatan lain seperti permainan hamster. Membersihkan haiwan itu sendiri.

y 6. Ruang y y

Membersihkan akuarium, air, aksesori.

Ruang yang mencukupi untuk menempatkan sangkar, akuarium. JIka memelihara untuk perniagaan, perlukan kawasan yang lebih luas untuk menempatkan akuarium mahupun sangkar.

7. Haiwan peliharaan lain yang sedia ada y Jika ingin memelihara ikan hiasan, haiwan peliharaan yang sedia ada seperti kucing perlu diberi perhatian

Ciri-ciri haiwan yang perlu diperhatikan semasa pemilihan y Baka y Jantina y Peringkat umur y Ciri-ciri istimewa y Bentuk luar badan haiwan y Kesihatan y Kesempurnaan pergerakan haiwan

THE AQUARIUM Selecting the Aquarium The type and size of the aquarium depends on the space available, the cost, and the needs of the fish. Keep in mind, that larger tanks are easier to take care of than small tanks. The reason that large tanks are less trouble because there is more water volume for waste dispersal, more surface area for waste breakdown, and a more stable environment. For instance, the temperature of a 10 gallon tank can be affected more rapidly by sunlight or a cold night than a 55 gallon tank. A 55 gallon tank tends to have a much more stable pH than a 10 gallon tank. Therefore, beginning aquariasts should choose as large a tank that they can accommodate, economically and space-wise. Choosing the Tank Location: The first requirement for the location of a fish tank is in an area that can support its weight. Water is very heavy, about 8 lbs a gallon (about 1 k/l). For example, a 20 gallon tank weighs more than 160 pounds not including gravel or rocks. Once a place that can support such a weight is found, check that the location fills other requirements. The tank should be away from direct sunlight, which will encourage algal growth and can affect the water temperature. Avoid placing the tank near a window or door where drafts may cool the tank. Similarly, the tank should be clear of any heating units (stove, furnace) that will overheat the tank. The tank should be near electrical outlets and in a location where water changes can be easily made. Cost: Unfortunately,cost is usually an important factor in selecting the type and size of tank one can afford. Generally glass tanks are less expensive than Plexiglass tanks. Usually the smaller the tank, the less the price (except for those under 10 gallons). The least expensive tanks are usually those that are mass produced, such as 10, 20, and 55 gallon tanks. Fish Needs: Before selecting a tank, the type and number of fish should be considered. Take into account the size of tank that the species requires. For example, an Arowana or Oscar cannot be expected to survive in a 10 gallon tank. Although it is not essential to decide what fish your are planning to have before buying the tank, for best results, decide beforehand.

Type of Aquarium The most common types of material used for tanks in the United States are glass and plexiglass. Both of these materials appear to work well for keeping aquarium fish.

Glass tanks are advantageous because they are widely available at a relativity low cost. Glass tanks, made by reputable manufacturers, are generally reliable as far as not leaking. However, some cheaply manufactured tanks are subject to leakage and breakage. Be sure the tank you buy is guaranteed against leakage for a period of time. All glass tank are heavy. Plexiglass tanks are gaining popularity in the United States. These tanks are light, attractive, and are available in a variety of sizes and shapes. Plexiglass tanks are less likely to leak than glass tanks. There are a few drawbacks including a higher cost than glass tanks and a vulnerability to scratches. Some report that large tanks may "bow" with time. There are other tanks available, but they are not nearly as common as the two mentioned types. Whatever tank is chosen, be sure that a cover is included. The cover will reduce evaporation and lessen the chances of a fish jumping out.

Tank Shape Aquariums are available in a number of shapes, the most common being rectangular. Rectangular aquariums are good for housing fish because they usually have a large surface area for gas exchange. However, so-called "tall" tanks which have little surface area are less suitable and strong aeration is required. Generally, tall tanks cannot support as large a fish load as shallower tanks. Tanks with other shapes, such as hexagon, cannot support as many fish as a rectangular aquarium, again because of the smaller surface area. Hexagon tanks do not allow as much long, open, swimming room.

Aquarium Furnishings Gravel: The gravel in the serves both an aesthetic and a practical purpose. The gravel in the tank provides support for plants, a means of filtration with undergravel filter systems, and a region for fish to carry out activities such as breeding and feeding. The composition of the gravel is important in that gravel that contains minerals will dissolve and harden the water. In some cases with African Rift Lake fish, water-hardening substrates are acceptable, but for many fish and plant species, the increasing water hardness is detrimental.

Suitable substrate materials for the aquarium include river sand, quartz gravel, basalt, and gravels that are available in aquarium shops. If plants are kept in the tank, the gravel should be 2-5 mm in diameter. Many aquariasts, who raise plants, layer the gravel. On the bottom is placed 5-10 mm size gravel, followed by base fertilizer (available at aquarium stores) like laterite, followed by a layer of 5-7 mm size, and finally a top layer of 2-4 mm size gravel. The result is a 3" (8 cm) gravel depth with a composition that in which plants can thrive. The gravel can be added to the tank and arranged levelly or terraced. To terrace the gravel, use flat rocks, wood, or glass strips. Before adding the gravel to the tank, the gravel should be carefully washed to remove all small particles. Rocks: The tank should be furnished with rock structures to provide hiding and breeding places for fish. The rocks used should not dissolve or crumble in water, nor release calcium. When constructing rock structures, be sure that they are stable and will not collapse on burrowing fish. Perhaps the best way to construct rock structures is to place the rocks on a thin layer of Styrofoam (directly on the tank floor), secure them, and then cover the Styrofoam and base of the rocks with gravel. Suitable types of rocks for the aquarium include lava, sandstone, slate, granite, basalt, and quartz. Wood: Wood provides a refuge, a spawning site, and nourishment for some catfish. Wood can further add to the acidity of the water, benefiting fish that prefer acidic water. Only use bog wood for the aquarium, as most other wood will rot in aquaria. Do not use wood in tank with fish that require hard, alkaline water, as the wood will affect the alkalinity.

Accessories Lighting: The type of lighting is not especially important if plants are not grown. Almost any incandescent or fluorescent light does fine. Do not only use colored incandescent lights for tropical fish as these cause ill effects. To minimize algal growth, only light the tank for 10-12 hours a day. Plants require light in order to carry out photosynthesis and grow. Plants require more light, for a longer period of time (12-14 hours) than a tank housing only fish. The light hood should have a reflector, and the light equipment should be UL approved. The strength of lighting should be about 1 watt per gallon of water. There are several types of bulbs that can be used, although fluorescent and mercury vapor lamps are the most practical. (1) Fluorescent tubes -- Fluorescent tubes are the most popular type of bulb among aquariasts with plants. Fluorescent tubes consume little power, produce little heat, and provide an even distribution of light. Fluorescent tubes are available in a wide range of

types including full-spectrum bulbs. Light output can be increased by using a reflector or foil on the ceiling of the hood to reflect more light to the tank. One draw back to fluorescent lights is that their intensity decreases with time. Sometimes this decrease is not noticeable to the keeper, but still affects plants. Thus fluorescent tubes should be replaced every six months. Fluorescent lights are not usually strong enough to light a tank taller (deeper) than 20" (50 cm). (2) Mercury vapor lamps -- Mercury vapor lamps are not that common, although they work well for tanks with a depth greater than 20" (50 cm). These lights require special fixtures. In tanks deeper than 20" (50 cm) use about 6.25 watts per inch. To control the amount of lighting each day, a timer can be purchased. Set the timer so that the light is on for 12-14 hours. Another beneficial device is a dimmer switch which can be used to vary the levels of light. Heater: The most popular means to heat the aquarium is a glass immersion heater. There are two types of glass immersion heaters, non-submersible and submersible. The submersible heaters are a better investment, because they are usually more reliable and need not be unplugged whenever the water drops more than 6" (15 cm) from the top. With both types, the heater must be unplugged for 10 minutes before it leaves the water. If the heater is immersed it is subject to breakage. These types of heaters are generally fairly inexpensive. Be sure to use the right size heater for the tank: 2-3 watts per gallon of water is usually suggested. If possible, place the heater in the filter unit (wet-dry filter), so that the clean, incoming water is heated. The fish cannot be burned when the heater is in the filter. Most heaters include a thermostat, so that once the temperature is set, the temperature does not vary much. In order to set the temperature with one of these units, place the heater into the water and let it sit for 10-15 minutes. Then plug in the heater and let it run until the tank reaches a constant temperature and the pilot light (indicates the heater is running) turns off. Then read the temperature on the thermometer and adjust the heater accordingly. When working in the tank, always unplug the heater for safety reasons. Some fish species may rest or hide on the heater. These fish often receive burns. To prevent this problem, protect the fish by surrounding the heater with a mesh, cage-like structure. Some authors have suggested wrapping the heater with plastic airline tubing. Two other heating devices are available: undergravel (cable) heaters and heaters that use electronic thermostats. Undergravel (cable) heating systems are most popular for the aquariast having plants, as this heating system creates circulation through the gravel. These are generally expensive, although they are safe and will not burn fish. Heaters using electronic thermostats are a new innovation. These highly accurate, but expensive heaters are excellent. Air Pump: The air pump is an important part of the aquarium, especially if there is no power filter to create surface disturbance for oxygenation. The air pump can be used to power air

stones which drive undergravel filters, internal box filters, and sponge filters. Separate air stone can be used for further aeration. The major drawback to air pumps is the noise they produce, especially when they are vibrating against something. Less expensive models are often noisier than higher quality, more expensive models. Filtration: The filter is one of the most important pieces of equipment in the aquarium. The filter is the device that must be capable of handling fish waste and particles in the aquarium. The filter should have three means of filtration: mechanical, chemical, and biological. - Mechanical filtration refers to the filtering of water through a strainer or filter media, such as filter wool or foam, to remove particles from the water. After four weeks, the mechanical filter media begins to serve as biological filtration as bacteria cultures colonize the media. Activated carbon serves as a means of mechanical filtration by absorbing small particles including toxins, medications, and some fish wastes. - Chemical filtration refers to the process of removing particles or altering water conditions by chemical means. One popular material for chemical filtration is ammonia absorber (zeolite) which binds to free ammonia. Ion exchange resins reduce the water hardness by removing salts from the water, thus lowering the pH and softening the water. Peat is used in a similar way to bring down the pH and reduce hardness for species that prefer "blackwater" conditions. Nitrate absorbers are a new product that binds nitrates to render them less toxic. Many chemical filter medias only work for a period of time before they are saturated. Most of these can be "recharged" in a soaking in a salt water solution. - Biological filtration is the most important function of the filter. Nitrifying bacteria (see Water Chemistry) break down organic wastes from ammonia to nitrite to nitrate. Without biological filtration, ammonia is present from the fish excrement, excess food, and plant matter. This is why newly established tanks must "cycle" (build up a culture of nitrifying bacteria) before expensive fish are introduced. Bacteria need plenty of oxygen to do their work, and most quality filters provide an adequate supply. The larger the surface area of the media, the more area for bacteria to interact with organic compounds. Thus most media for biological filtration are porous or in irregular shapes to provide more surface area. Biological filter media should be rinsed only every month or two with cool to luke warm water, so as not to kill off too much of the beneficial bacteria. If there are two biological filter containers, clean only one at a time, so less there is disruption of biological filtration. The filter should also provide oxygen for the fish. With a good filter, no air stone should be necessary. Most motorized filters achieve aeration by surface disturbance. The amount of oxygen dissolved in the aquarium can be proportional to the amount of surface disturbance (the more disturbance, the more gas exchange). Some fish species, those inhabiting streams, creeks, and flowing rivers, prefer water with current. Water current can be created by the filter, especially power heads, internal power filters, circulating

pumps, and spray bars from canister filters. The filter should be large enough to handle the amounts of wastes produced by the fish and plants in the tank. Many filters are rated in terms of "gallons (liters) per hour." Use a filter that is rated to pump five to six times the tank's capacity an hour. For example, a 20 gallon tank should be equipped with a filter that pumps at least 100-120 gallons an hour.

Bucket: A bucket is needed for water changes and adding water. A 2.5 to 3 gallon (about 10-12 L) bucket is sufficient. The bucket should be used only for the aquarium. Siphon Hose: A siphon hose is needed for water changes. Siphon hoses are available in a range of sizes and designs: from inexpensive hoses to long hoses used for both emptying and filling. Net: Every fish owner should have at least one (preferably more). The net should be fine mesh designed for aquarium use.

Seven Categories of Aquarium Fish To repeat what I mentioned earlier, there are over 2000 species of fish available. To help make your search for the right fish easier, I have divided the most commonly available tropical fish into 7 main categories. Each one of these categories contains fish that are similar in many of their traits, however it should be emphasized that this listing is just an outline and there are often many unique differences between fish in the same family and individual research into each specific species should be done before making your final decision. Catfish: There are over 2,000 species of catfish each with their own unique characteristics but as a group none of these fish have scales. They are covered with skin or an armor like plating. Many catfish are used as scavengers in tanks and while many species are well adapted to this, some have very different eating habits. There is probably a species of catfish that would work well in just about any type of aquarium set up. The important thing is to find the catfish that will work best in your tank. Some things to consider when choosing a catfish are:

y y y y

Some catfish can get very large (over seven feet) Some catfish are nocturnal and need to be fed after dark Some catfish are specialized feeders and are not scavengers Coarse, sharp substrate (gravel) can damage or irritate some of the bottom feeding catfish Some catfish need to live in groups

Characiforms (characins, tetras, hatchetfish, pencilfish, splash tetras): This category includes a very large number of fish that are commonly found in Africa and the Americas. Some of the smaller species are very popular in community tanks. Some of the larger ones (piranhas) are more difficult and better suited to experts. Many of these species are wild caught. Cichlids: This category consists of a large very diverse number of fish that are commonly found in Africa, the tropical Americas and Asia. The bright colors and diversity of habitat common to these species make them popular in many aquariums. The Cichlids all practice parental care which makes them more territorial. When they are guarding their young or eggs they can be very aggressive towards any other fish in the area and may even guard their nest areas when they aren't actively hatching young. This aggression makes most of them better suited to living in tanks where other species or fish aren't present. However some species (dwarf cichlids and angelfish) will live together well in a community tank if the right conditions are provided. Cypriniforms (barbs, danios, rasboras, 'sharks', loaches, goldfish, koi): These fish are found in many locations throughout the world and the species include both tropical varieties and

coldwater species such as the goldfish. Many of these species are popular in the aquarium because of their hardiness, ease of maintenance and willingness to breed. Many species are sociable and do well in a community tank. Cyprinodonts (toothcarps, killifish): These fish are usually small and live and feed near the surface. The toothcarps consist of the egg layers that can be rare and difficult for beginners and the live bearers that are popular aquarium species such as guppies, mollies, swordtails, and platys. Labyrinth Fish (gouramis, fighting fish, combtails, paradise fish): This group of fish is very popular with the aquarist. They are generally small, hardy, peaceful fish that are well suited to community aquariums with the exception of some of the aggressive males of the fighting fish, paradise fish, and both sexes of the adult combtails. Rainbowfish (rainbowfish, silversides): The fish from this family come from a variety of different habitats and the individual needs of each species should be researched. These fish tend to have an iridescent quality to their skin that makes them change colors as they move through the light. Most species are small, peaceful, and colorful, and make good additions to a community tank.

A Complete Introduction to Hamsters

These rodents are found in a wide range of habitats, from northern Europe in a broad band across much of Asia, apart from the southeastern corner. Twenty-four species are known but, as in the gerbils, only one - the Golden, or Syrian, Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) - has become popular as a pet throughout the world.

The Golden, or Syrian, Hamster The Golden Hamster was first discovered in 1839 and, forty years later, live specimens were brought to England from Syria by James Skene, who had been serving there in the diplomatic service. This group seems to have thrived for thirty years, with the final progeny dying in 1910. Subsequently, there seems to have been none of these rodents in captivity until April, 1930. Indeed, it was suggested that the species was extinct, until Dr. Israel Aharoni discovered a nest of Syrian Hamsters on Mount Appo in Syria. The young hamsters were transferred to the Hebrew University at Jerusalem. The breeding program was not entirely successful at first, since four of the eight hamsters escaped, and then a female died as a result of a fight with the only surviving male. From this unpromising beginning, however, the male mated successfully with both the other females and, within a year, three hundred and sixty-four offspring had been reared. Some of the progeny were sent to Dr. Edward Hindle in England and, possibly via breeding stock at the London Zoo, Golden Hamsters became available to the pet-owning public. It was not until the start of the Second World War that these hamsters were seen alive in North America. It is amazing to reflect that all such hamsters kept throughout the world today are believed to be the direct descendants from that nest found on Mount Appo more than half a century ago. Hibernation An unusual and often disconcerting habit of hamsters is their ability to hibernate if environmental conditions are unfavorable. This is a natural trait, which to some extent is now less apparent in domesticated stock. The hamster's body temperature falls from the normal level of about 37 C (98.7 F) to a little above the environmental temperature. The respiratory rate is barely one breath a minute, whereas under normal circumstances the figure reaches up to one hundred or more. Since the heart beat can also be as low as four contractions per minute, compared with five hundred per minute in the active animal, to the casual observer a hibernating hamster appears dead. A fall in temperature, coupled with declining periods of light, will trigger hamsters to enter this torpid state. Clearly, in a room in the home heated during cold weather, such behavior is less likely to occur. To encourage a hibernating hamster to wake from its sleep, transfer it to a warm position where it can awake gradually. A temperature in excess of 20 C (68 F) is ideal. Gradually the

hamster's breathing will become apparent, and its body will warm up as blood flow to the skin increases. If you discover a hamster apparently dead in the nest, treat it in this way to establish whether or not it has simply entered a torpid state. Other factors also influence a hamster's readiness to enter a state of dormancy. These include the provision of a very deep layer of bedding material and, significantly, an opportunity for the hamster to store food. Hoarding behavior is quite natural, with food being taken back in the cheek pouches and stored in the nest.