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Physical Characte ristics 1.

Color

Description

Explanation Based on our observations, the color of the urine sample is yellow-orange.Compared to the normal urine, which has amber yellow in color, is due to the pigmentcalled urochrome (urobilin + urobilinogen). Studies show that the changes in the normal color of urine may be caused bydisorders, diseases, recent food intakes and many other causes. Since the urine sampleused has yellow-orange in color, it shows that it is not nomal. Based on resources,dark yellow or orange urine can be caused by recent use of laxatives or consumption of Bcomplex vitamins or carotene. Orange urine is often caused by phenazopyridine (used inthe treatment of urinary tract infections), rifampin, and warfarin. The result shows that the odor of the urine sample is aromatic, which means that itis normal. Based on resources, urine may develop an ammoniacal odor, if stored longer,which is due to hydrolysis or urea to ammonia The normal urine is clear and transparent when it is freshly voided. Based on our results, it shows that the transparency of the urine sample is normal because it is clear andtransparent. If urine has a cloudy phase, it may contain different substances like mucus,leukocytes and ephithelial cells, which may have been caused by current diseases. It mayalso contain calcium phosphate or ammonium-magnesium phosphate if the urine isalkaline Based on our results, the urine sample has a pH of 6.0. The pH level is obtainedthrough pH paper. This shows that the urine sample has a normal pH level. The pH of normal urine is generally in the range 4.6 - 8, a typical average being around 6.0.The pH level of urine may vary because of the food and water intake, drugs used or diseases that are currently present in the human body. A high urine pH (alkaline urine) may indicate: Gastric suction, Renal or Kidneyfailure, Renal or Kidney tubular acidosis, Urinary tract infection, Vomiting. A low urine pH (acidic urine) may indicate: Chronic obstructive pulmonarydisease (such as emphysema), Diabetic ketoacidosis, Diarrhea, Starvation

2. Odor

3. Transpar ency

4. pH

5. Correcte d Specific Gravity

The specific gravity of urine may vary, depending on the solid and fluid intake of the person. Specific Gravity may be influenced by the macromolecules or pathologicalconditions that are present in the urine sample. The specific gravity of normal urine has ausual range of 1.015-1.025. Based on our results, it shows that the urine sample used hasa 1.020 sp. Gr. This somehow shows that the urine sample contains substances thatresulted to a high specific gravity, within the normal range

Normal Constituents Reagents Added Urea Phenol Red (a) Dil. Acetic 1% Urease (b) Uric Acid (b) Creatinine Baryta Mixture Alcohol Conc. HCl Sat. Picric 10% NaOH

Result 15 Minutes Small Crystals formed Small Crystals formed Orange

Explanation