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Rate of solution Lab

v4

Chemistry, Dr. Breinan

p. 1

Rate of solution formation


You may have studied different types of solutions and the solubility limits of these solutions. A separate question to ask is What factors affect how fast a solution forms? In other words, how fast will a solute dissolve in a solvent? These answers are not related to how much dissolves. In this lab we will investigate the three main factors that determine how fast a solid solute in crystal form will dissolve in a liquid solvent: The affect of the solute particle size (or surface area) The amount of agitation (mixing) during formation The temperature of the solvent For a given mass of material, as the size of the particles decreases, the amount of surface area always increases. Therefore, particle size and surface area are related variables. Agitation simply means shaking or mixing in this context. You will make qualitative conclusions on how these variables affect the rate of dissolving (is dissolving slower, faster, or the same) and explain them on a particle-level. Objectives: 1) To determine the effects of solute particle size (or surface area), agitation (mixing), and temperature on the rate of solution formation. 2) To explain these effects on a particle level. Materials: 7 test tubes and rack distilled water bottle hot, cold, and warm water mortar and pestle copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO45H2O) ** SAFETY AND LAB TIPS - Goggles, gloves and aprons will be worn at all times - Copper sulfate is an irritant and should be washed off immediately if it spills - Be careful with the hot water - For each part of the experiment the test tubes must be agitated by flicking in a consistent manner (the same for every tube) to ensure good results. Work on your technique. Pre-lab (answer on a separate sheet) 1. What are the states of the solute and solvent that we will study in this lab? 2. List the three factors that affect the rate of solution formation for these states. 3. Prepare a data table for part I of this lab that will allow a reader to basically understand your work without reading the procedure. Use the numbers 1 to 4 to show where the data for tubes 1 to 4 will go . What are the independent and dependent variables being studied? 4. Prepare a data table for part II of this lab that will allow a reader to interpret your work without reading the procedure. What are the independent and dependent variables being studied? 5. For a given mass of material, what is the relationship between particle size and surface area? Procedure Part I: Effects of particle size / surface area and agitation (mixing). 1. Obtain 4 crystals of copper sulfate pentahydrate of approximately the same size (just estimate... do not mass them... it will not be possible to have them exactly the same). 2. Obtain 4 dry test tubes and place them in a rack. Put one crystal in test tube #1 and one crystal in test tube #2. These pieces are considered large particle size which is the same as small surface area.

graduated cylinder plastic spoon sodium chloride (NaCl)

forceps

3. Use the mortar and pestle to crush the third crystal. Do not smash the pestle into the mortar... grind with constant force until a fine powder is formed (a few larger particles are OK as long as the crystal is mostly crushed). Scrape the ground crystal onto weigh paper with a spoon and roll the paper to carefully transfer the ground crystal into test tube #3. 4. Repeat step 3 with the fourth crystal and test tube #4. Tubes 3 and 4 are considered small particle size which is the same as large surface area. 5. Note the time on the clock. At about the same time, use a squirt bottle to add about 1 inch of water to each of the 4 test tubes. * To prevent mixing in tubes 2 and 4, you must slowly squirt the side at the top and let the water run down. Leave the test tubes 2 and 4 undisturbed. These are your no agitation or no mixing tubes. Immediately start to mix / agitate tubes 1 and 3 by flicking (each partner flicks one tube). These are your mixed or agitated tubes. Use good flicking technique. 6. Obtain data on how long the crystals in each tube take to dissolve. For the first 5 minutes or so, check the progress of all tubes every 30 seconds to 1 minute. If the solute completely dissolves in any tube, record the approximate time for that tube (times do not need to be exact since you are only making qualitative conclusions). If you and your partner do not flick the same, you can trade every 30 seconds. Try not to mix tubes 2 and 4 when you check them. 7. After about 5 min., one partner can continue mixing if needed while the other sets up for part II. If some tubes still havent dissolved, start part II and check back between trials in part II. 8. Disposal: pour the copper sulfate solutions into the waste beaker provided. Part II: Effect of the temperature of the solvent. IMPORTANT NOTES: You can do the three trials in part II in any order. Try to add about the same amount of water each time... you can save the first filled tube as a guide for filling the others. Have the same person mix all three tubes. 1. Obtain 3 dry test tubes. Place 0.4 g of NaCl in each using folded or rolled weigh paper. 2. Check the clock. Fill one tube 1/4 to 1/3 full (NO MORE) with near boiling water and immediately start to mix by flicking. BE CAREFUL pouring hot water! Record the time it takes the salt to dissolve. (NOTE... you might record the time when you see only a few very small crystals left since it can be hard to tell exactly when all dissolve. The solution will still be cloudy due to small particles you cannot see. You will have to stop mixing for a moment to see whether particles are still swirling around, but otherwise mix constantly and rapidly). 3. Repeat step 2 two more times, once with warm water and once with cold water. 4. Disposal: pour salt water down the drain. Once part II is done, take any final observations on part I. Dispose of chemicals as directed above and rinse and brush all test tubes. Check in your mortar and pestle and test tubes. Processing: Use your results and text to answer the following. Complete on a separate sheet. 1. Write a very short qualitative conclusion for each of the following effects of a solid dissolving in a liquid. For a-c, state clearly the controlled comparisons by tube numbers that support your conclusions: (save your explanations for question 2) a. The effect of the solute particle size on the rate of solution formation b. The effect of the solute surface area on the rate of solution formation c. The amount of agitation (mixing) on the rate of solution formation d. The temperature of the solvent on the rate of solution formation

Rate of solution Lab

v4

Chemistry, Dr. Breinan

p. 3

2. Using your text book and class discussions, explain in your own words on a particle level the effects you just stated from processing 1a, 1c, and 1d. Use the kinetic theory and our particle model of solvation. Extra credit: Will the large particle in tube 2 eventually dissolve? Explain.