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Exam 1, EE 553, Spring 2011, Dr. McCalley


Close books, closed notes, calculator permitted, 75 minute time limit.
Students are permitted to bring in their worked problem 9.1 from the W&W text.

1. (16 pts) (This problem is identical to prob 9.1 in the W&W text; if you worked it in advance and brought
the solution with you, you may turn in that as your solution to this part of the exam.) Suppose that you are
given a single area with three generating units. The load base MVA of the system is 1000 MVA. Data for
the units are below.
Unit Rating (MVA) Speed droop R (pu on unit base)
1 100 0.01
2 500 0.015
3 500 0.105
The units are initially loaded as follows: P
1
=80 MW, P
2
=300 MW, P
3
=400 MW. Assume D=0; what is the
new generation on each unit for a 50 MW load increase? Repeat with D=1.0 pu (i.e., 1.0 pu on load base).
Be careful to convert all quantities to a common base when solving.

2. (15 pts) A 2000 bus system has 300 generators, all of which are modeled in a power flow program with
constant (known) terminal voltage.
a. How many type PV buses are there in the power flow model?
b. How many type PQ buses are there in the power flow model?
c. What is the minimum number of equations required to solve this problem?
d. How many bus voltage magnitudes are unknown in this problem?
e. How many bus voltage angles are unknown in this problem?

Solution:
a. 299
b. 1700
c. 3699
d. 1700
e. 1999
3. (20 pts) The three-bus power system shown in the figure below has a tap-changing under load (TCUL)
transformer that regulates to control the voltage magnitude at bus 3 to be V
3
=1.0 pu. The transmission line
has a series admittance of y
12
=-j2.0 pu and total line charging of y
charging
=j0.04 pu. The transformer has an
admittance of y=-j4.0 pu given on the bus 3 side. Bus 3 has specified demand of P
D
pu and Q
D
pu. Bus 1 is
a generator bus with specified terminal voltage magnitude of V
1
=1.0 pu. We desire to solve the power flow
problem for this system.

a. Form the Y-bus for this system. Some equations to help with treatment of the TCUL are below.
ty y
L
=

y t t y
s
) 1 (
1
=

y t y
s
) 1 (
2
=
b. Identify the variables in the solution vector x.
c. Write down the general form of the mismatch equation(s) that are required in the solution procedure.
Express each equation symbolically (no numbers) in the form g
i
(x)=P
k
(x)-P
k
or g
i
(x)=Q
k
(x)-Q
k
where
you must appropriately identify for each equation i, the correct bus k and the correct value P
k
or Q
k
.
Transformer
y
Bus 1 Bus 3
t
V
1
=10
V
3
=V
3

3

P
2
+jQ
2
= - (P
d
+jQ
d
)
y
12
V
2
=V
2

2

Bus 2
Name:_________________________________________________
2

d. Write down the Jacobian matrix J to be used in the solution procedure. Indicate the elements in the
matrix using partial derivative notation; you do not need to differentiate anything or provide any
numerical values.
e. Write down the update formula for this system in terms of J and the solution vector, expressing all
vectors in terms of their individual parameters.

Solution:

a. The Y-bus is:
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

+
+ +

=
1 0
98 . 1 0 . 2
0 0 . 2 98 . 1
) 1 ( ) 1 ( 0
) 1 ( ) 1 ( 98 . 1 0 . 2
0 0 . 2 98 . 1
2
2 2
y t
y t y t j j
j j
ty y t ty y t t
ty y t t ty y t t j j
j j
Y
bus



b.
(
(
(
(

= =
t
V
x solution
2
3
2
u
u

c.
3 3 3 3 4
2 2 2 2 3
3 3 3 3 2
2 2 2 2 1
) ( ) ( ) (
0 ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
0 ) ( ) ( ) (
Q Q x Q Q x Q x g
Q x Q Q x Q x g
P P x P P x P x g
P x P P x P x g
d
d
A
A
A
A
= + = =
= = =
= + = =
= = =


d.
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
=
t
g
V
g g g
t
g
V
g g g
t
g
V
g g g
t
g
V
g g g
J
4
2
4
3
4
2
4
3
2
3
3
3
2
3
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
1
2
1
3
1
2
1
u u
u u
u u
u u

e.
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(

3
2
3
2
2
3
2
Q
Q
P
P
t
V
J
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
u
u

4. (16 pts) Line outage distribution factors:
a. At one step in our in-class development of line outage distribution factors, we were troubled by
the inverse contained within the following relation.
3

( ) P e e b B
T
ij ij ij
1
'

+ = A + u u (eq *)
Apply the Matrix Inversion Lemma (MIL) to the appropriate part of the above expression, where
MIL is given by:
( ) | |
1
1
1 ) ( 1 1
1
' ' ' ' '

+ = + B d c B d I c B B d c B
T T M T

Your result should be expressed only in terms that appear in (eq *). You do not need to simply
your expression, except to make use of the value of M in your expression.
b. At a later step of our in-class development of line outage distribution factors, we found the
following expression:
ij
T
ij
ij
j i ij
e B e
b
e B
1
1
'
1
) ( '

= A +
u u
u u u
(eq **)
Recalling that we do not like to invert matrices in power system calculations (because they are
often large matrices), explain how we avoided the two instances of inversion of B in (eq **), and
provide an equivalent expression that does not contain matrix inversions.
Solution:
a. Observing that we can define
T
ij
T
ij ij
e d e b c = = ,
we obtain
( ) | |
1
1
1 ) ( 1 1
1
' ' ' ' '

+ = + B e e b B e I e b B B e e b B
T
ij ij ij
T
ij
M
ij ij
T
ij ij ij

Recalling that M is the number of columns in c and d, and recalling that c and d are vectors (and
therefore with only 1 column), we see that M=1. Therefore the above expression may be written as
( )
ij ij
T
ij
T
ij ij ij T
ij ij ij
e b B e
B e e b B
B e e b B
1
1 1
1
1
' 1
' '
' '

+
= +

b. Both instances of B inverses occur as a pre-multiplication of e
ij
T
. So lets name this n1 vector as
g
ij
, i.e.,
ij
ij
e B g
1
'

=
Therefore,
ij
ij
e g B = ' (eq ***)
And we can solve for the vector g
ij
in (eq ***) by LU decomposition and forward-backwards
substitution. This results in (eq **) being
ij T
ij
ij
j i
ij
g e
b
g
+

= +
1
) ( u u
u u u A

5. (15 pts) We define the following:
a
l,i
the generation shift factor for circuit l, given a change in injection at bus i, when all
circuits are in service.
d
l,k
the line outage distribution factor for circuit l, given outage of circuit k.
P
i
a shift in injection at bus i.
0
k
f the flow on circuit k before any shift or any outage (when all circuits are in service)
Consider taking the following actions in the network:
(1) Change generation at bus i by P
i
,
(2) Remove circuit k.
Derive the total change in flow on circuit l, f
l
, in terms of the parameters defined above, that reflects the
effect of these actions.

Solution:
4

Let
) 1 (

f A be the change in flow on circuit l due to P


i

i i
P a f A = A
,
) 1 (

.
Let
) 2 (

f A be the change in flow on circuit l (after


) 1 (

f A has occurred) due to the circuit removal.


Then
) 1 ( ) 2 (
k
f d f
k l,
= A

where
i
i k
k
k
k
k
P a f f f f A + = A + =
,
0 ) 1 ( 0 ) 1 (
so that
( ) P a f d f
i k
k
A + = A
,
0 ) 2 (
k l,

The total change is the sum:
( )
( )
0
, ,
0
, , ,
0
,
) 2 ( ) 1 (
k
k
i
i k k i
k i
i k
i i i
i k
k i i
f d P a d a
f d P a d P a P a f d P a f f f
l, l,
k l, k l, k l,
+ A + =
+ A + A = A + + A = A + A = A



The quantity inside the brackets is called the effective generation shift factor.
6. (18 pts) A 2-bus power system is interconnected by a transmission line having series admittance of y
12
=-j10
pu. Bus 2 is a load bus. Bus 1 is a generator bus. A SCADA system presents the following measurements to
the state estimator:
0 . 2 ; 0 . 1 ; 02 . 1
12 3 2 2 1 1
= = = = = = P z V z V z
.
The standard deviations of error on the meters are 0.05, 0.05, and 0.1, respectively.

a. Identify the elements for the state vector x for this problem.
Solution:
States are x=[V
1
V
2

2
]
T

b. Express h(x), the measurements as functions of the states using AC power flow expressions.
2 2 1 3
2 2
1 1
sin 10 ) (
) (
) (
u V V x h
V x h
V x h
=
=
=

c. The first iteration of the state estimator assumes an initial state x
(0)
and solves Ax=b using
) 0 (
) ( ) (
1
x
T
x H R x H A

=
,
( ) | |
) 0 (
) ( ) (
1
x
T
x h z R x H b =


Express H, R, and z-h(x) for this problem. You need not evaluate anything, just express
in a fashion so it is clear that you know how to evaluate it.
Solution:
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
=
2
3
2
3
1
3
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
3
3
2
3
1
3
3
2
2
2
1
2
3
1
2
1
1
1
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) (
u
u
u
x h
V
x h
V
x h
x h
V
x h
V
x h
x h
V
x h
V
x h
x
x h
x
x h
x
x h
x
x h
x
x h
x
x h
x
x h
x
x h
x
x h
x
x h
H

(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(

=
01 . 0 0 0
0 0025 . 0 0
0 0 0025 . 0
0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0
0 0
2
2
2
2
1
m
R
o
o
o


5

(
(
(

=
2 2 1
2
1
sin 10 2
0 . 1
02 . 1
) (
u V V
V
V
x h z