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API 653 Preparatory

Introduction & Workbook

API 653 CERTIFICATION COURSE FOR

* STORAGE TANK INSPECTOR *


COURSE NOTES

VOLUME - 1
CONDUCTED FOR

Reliance Industries Limited


Navi Mumbai

CONDUCTED BY

Asian Training Academy, Pune.


19/ A-4 Sarita Vihar, S No 119/3/1 Parvati, Off Sinhgad Road, Pune 411030. India Tel: + 91-20-24252214, 24308068, E-mail: asiantraining.academy@gmail.com

Asian Training Academy. Pune, India

API 653 Preparatory

Introduction & Workbook

API 653- STORAGE TANK INSPECTOR PREPARATORY COURSE

CONDUCTED BY

Asian Training Academy, Pune.


19/ A-4 Sarita Vihar, S No 119/3/1 Parvati, Off Sinhgad Road, Pune 411030. India Tel: + 91-20-24252214, 24308068, E-mail: asiantraining.academy@gmail.com

Statement
This course manual has been prepared by Asian Training Academy, Pune; INDIA., strictly for the use of attendees to API-653 Examination Preparation Course from Reliance Industries Ltd. This manual is to be used as an aid to assist those persons wishing to take the API-653 Aboveground Storage Tank Inspector Certification Examination. This manual is not all-inclusive and should not be used in place of any recognized Code or Standard. The information contained in this manual was obtained from the authors research and experience and is intellectual property of the author. This manual or any part of it shall not be reproduced by any means without the written consent of Asian Training Academy, Pune.

Asian Training Academy. Pune, India

API 653 Preparatory

Introduction & Workbook

API 653- STORAGE TANK INSPECTOR PREPARATORY COURSE

VOLUME-1

CONTENTS

1. Program Schedule 2. PART 1 - Examination/Certification Information from API. 3. PART II- Guidelines and useful tips for Examination 4. PART III- Case Studies- WPS/PQR Roadmap & Examples 5. PART IV- Mathematics in API 653 Exam. 6. PART V Questions on API 653-Tank Inspection Code

Asian Training Academy. Pune, India

API 653 Preparatory

Introduction & Workbook

API 653- STORAGE TANK INSPECTOR PREPARATORY COURSE


PROGRAMME SCHEDULE API 653 ABOVEGROUND STORAGE TANK INSPECTOR PREPARATORY COURSE DAILY TIME TABLE Session I
Introduction API 653: Examination Scheme Question Types API 650 Design Aspects Points to Recall-Day 1 Review of Quiz-Day 1 Introduction to API 653 API 653 Sec. 4 Existing tank shell thickness evaluation Evaluation of pitting Points to Recall Day2 Review Quiz -Day 2 Repair of Tank Bottom API 653 Sec. 10 Dismantling and reconstruction Points to Recall (Day 3) Review of Quiz (Day 3) Evaluation of change of service Evaluation of flaws and distortions Points to Recall (Day 4) Review of Quiz (Day 4) ASME Sec. IX Welding Qualifications WPS/PQR Points to Recall (Day 5) Review of Quiz (Day 5) API 571 Degradation mechanisms

Session II
API 650 contd Design temperature Tank Materials Impact Testing of Materials Weld sizes for shell and roof openings Evaluating of corrosion on bottom plates Foundation evaluation API 653 Sec. 5 Brittle fracture

Session III
API 650 contd Shell design Bottom & roof design Fabrication requirements

Session IV
API 650 contd Inspection requirements Extent of Radiography Introduction to API 653 Sec. 1 Quiz (Day 1) API 653 Sec. 7 API 653 Sec. 8 API 653 Sec. 9 Tank repair and alteration Repair of Shell Quiz (Day 2)

Day 1

Day 2

API 653 Sec. 6 Inspection frequency (routine inspection) External Inspection Internal Inspection Inspection Intervals Inspection Records

Day 3

API 653 Sec 11 Welding API 653 Sec. 12 Examination & Testing

API 653 Sec. 13 API 653 App. B Evaluation of Tank Bottom Settlement Reports & Records

API RP 575 Types of Tanks Procedures and evaluations of internal and external inspection Quiz (Day 3) ASME Sec. V NDT Magnetic Particle, UT Examination Quiz (Day 4)

Day 4

API RP 651 Cathodic Protection Requirement Methods of Cathodic Protection Review of WPS/PQR documents Road map for document review Case studies in WPS/PQR API 577 Welding, NDT and metallurgy.

ASME Sec. V NDT RT Examination Penetrant Testing,

Day 5

API RP 652 Tank Bottom Lining Types of linings Selection and Application of Linings Final Simulated Test (Close Book) - Test Feedback

API 571 Damage Mechanisms Quiz (Day 5)

Day 6

Final Simulated Test (Open Book) Test Feedback Concluding Session

Asian Training Academy. Pune, India

API 653 Preparatory

Introduction & Workbook

API 653- STORAGE TANK INSPECTOR PREPARATORY COURSE

PART I
EXAMINATION/CERTIFICATION INFORMATION FROM API.

Asian Training Academy, Pune.


19/ A-4 Sarita Vihar, S No 119/3/1 Parvati, Off Sinhgad Road, Pune 411030. India Tel: + 91-20-24252214, 24308068, E-mail: asiantraining.academy@gmail.com

Asian Training Academy. Pune, India

API 653 Preparatory

Introduction & Workbook

API 653 CERTIFICATIN FOR IN-SERVICE INSPECTION

INTRODUCTION
1. Preamble: Storage Tanks are the major installations in Petroleum Refineries, Petrochemical plants, Oil terminals and other process plants. They store variety of fluids, which may be Explosive, Corrosive or Toxic in nature. The equipments are also subjected to fluid head pressures and moderate temperatures. All these factors may cause corrosion and other damages to the vital equipments. The corrosion may cause thinning, pitting or cracking of tank walls. The internal head will tend to bulge the tanks or piping at the corroded locations, releasing the explosive or toxic contents resulting in serious consequences to the plant, personnel and the people at large. It is therefore essential that during the planned shutdowns, the degradation and damages inflicted to the Plant equipment, Piping and Tanks should be monitored and evaluated so as to arrive at the 3R decisions. i.e. RunRepair-Replace decisions. More specifically, these courses describe the essentials of what to inspect, where to inspect, how much to inspect and what to accept so as to evaluate the safety and mechanical integrity of in-service equipments. The courses also cover methods of repair, alteration, re-rating and replacements of affected equipments.

Asian Training Academy. Pune, India

API 653 Preparatory

Introduction & Workbook

2. Course objectives: The API Courses provide the participants the guidelines and methodology of carrying out inspection of in-service equipments. It also provides techniques for the assessment of the wear and tear of the equipments as well as to measure degradation and damages caused to the process equipments due to the process conditions. If the assessment indicates that the equipment is safe to run, the participants are further taught how to estimate the safe remaining life and the methods to extend the useful life of the equipments. If the decision is that the equipment needs repair, the course teaches the participants, how to carry out such repairs of the damaged part without causing damage to the whole equipment. It also covers the methods of re-rating the equipment by evaluating the mechanical integrity if it is not possible to restore the equipment to its original design conditions.

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API 653 Preparatory

Introduction & Workbook

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Introduction & Workbook

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API 653 Preparatory

Introduction & Workbook

Examination Information
1. API 653 examination consists of 150 multiple-choice questions with an open and closed book sections. The examination is administered by participating members of the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors and by the Professional Examination Service (PES). Total length of examination is 8 hours. Individual jurisdictions may charge a sitting fee to take the examination in their jurisdiction. Please contact the jurisdiction you select for an exact amount. There is no additional sitting fee at the locations where examination is administered by PES. 2. If you pass the examination, and all sections of your application are complete, you will be certified and receive a wallet card and a certificate approximately 3 months after the examination date. 3. API grants each applicant three consecutive attempts during the 18-month period to sit and pass the test, starting with the first exam administration the applicant registers for. If you fail the examination on your first attempt, you may retake it twice. If you fail to appear for the test, it will still count as an official attempt. 4. If you do not pass the examination on the first attempt, you need to submit a $50.00 rescheduling fee. If you do not pass it on the second attempt, you must also submit an updated Employment Reference form. If the candidate is unsuccessful on the third attempt, a new application must be submitted with a new application fee. 5. Examination results will be mailed to you approximately 8 weeks after you have taken the exam. DO NOT call API, PES, or your jurisdiction for examination results; these results WILL NOT be given over the telephone. What to Bring to the Examination
o No. 2 pencils; o A non-programmable calculator (a calculator with only simple functions); o The applicable API and ASME reference publications. Please note: highlighting,

underlining, page tabs, and notes written in margins of the code books are acceptable. However, loose pages inserted in the code books are not acceptable. Note: API and ASME publications are copyrighted material. Photocopies of publications are not permitted at the exam; o Your examination site confirmation letter; o A picture ID (i.e. drivers license).

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Introduction & Workbook

Step-by-step certification process


Please complete the following steps in order to get certified: 1. Check out minimum qualification requirements for your chosen certification program, and confirm your eligibility for certification. 2. Review API's testing and certification policies. 3. Determine the most convenient location, test date and application deadline for your chosen program. 4. Download the application for your program or request the application package to be sent to you via mail. 5. Fill out your application completely. 6. Mail your application, supporting documentation and payment to API by the deadline indicated. 7. Download the Body of Knowledge for your chosen program. 8. Obtain necessary technical documents and publications. Effective publication dates are listed in the application package. 9. Prepare for examination. Training programs are optional and not provided by API. 10. Take the examination.

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Introduction & Workbook

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Introduction & Workbook

API 653- STORAGE TANK INSPECTOR PREPARATORY COURSE

PART II
GUIDELINES AND USEFUL TIPS FOR API 653 CERTIFICATION EXAMINATION

Asian Training Academy, Pune.


19/ A-4 Sarita Vihar, S No 119/3/1 Parvati, Off Sinhgad Road, Pune 411030. India Tel: + 91-20-24252214, 24308068, E-mail: asiantraining.academy@gmail.com
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API 653 Preparatory

Introduction & Workbook

Preface
This examination preparation course is designed to prepare the participant to successfully sit for the API-653 exam. Through your concentrated effort, and the material provided in this course, you should have sufficient information to pass the examination. The majority of the classroom study will focus on the Open Book portion of the exam. The goal, since this is open book, is to obtain a perfect score in this section. Study for the practical questions (Closed Book) will be included in the daily classroom activity and assigned homework. The material contained in this manual is to be thoroughly studied and practiced prior to attending the course. The math examples and practice problems are based on the types of questions given on the API-653 exam. Through the use of these examples, you will be exposed to many of the formulas used during the course. Remember, this is a very intense course. There will be eight hours of classroom study each day. The instructor will be available to answer questions or to assist any participant having difficulty with the homework assignments or any topic discussed during class. There will be from two to three hours of homework assignments each day. Daily quizzes are given and one practice API-653 examination is provided. The pace is fast and focused. The participant is responsible for making all arrangements for taking the examination including confirming your eligibility and applying to the American Petroleum Institute. No reference material of any kind will be permitted during the closed book portion; some examining proctors may permit language translation dictionaries. There will be some common knowledge mathematical questions on the practical portion of the exam - remember to have your calculator available for this part of the exam.

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During this course, we will attempt to duplicate actual examination conditions including using a separate answer sheet during the practice examination.

1. EXAMINATION SCHEME As per the present scheme, API 653 examination is one-day, 8-hour, 2 session examination, comprising of pre-lunch session (4 hours) for open-book examination and post-lunch session (4 hours) for closedbook examination. There are a total of 150 questions carrying 1 mark each (total of 150 marks), split into open-book (approximately 50 questions) and closedbook (approximately 100 questions). The distribution of 50 and 100 questions respectively for open-book and closed-book examinations is approximate; however the total is always 150 questions. Each question is multiple choice questions with given 4 possible choices. Only one is the correct choice. The candidate has to pick-up the correct choice and indicate the same on separate answer sheet. The answer sheet along with the question paper should be returned back to the Supervisor. The correct answer is to be indicated by blackening (filling) the relevant circle by a pencil. There is no set passing percentage. However a score of about 95 to 105 out of 150 is a good estimate of passing score. Please note the following: Fill only one circle out of four given Fill the circle fully and completely. Half or less than half blackened circle area is not reckoned for answer. Never indicate the answers by ticking () the circles. There is no negative marking.

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During the open-book session, you are permitted to refer to the codes and other documents as per Effectivity Sheets. Code pages may be tabbed, highlightened, underlined or notes in margin of the pages are accepted. Additional new pages to codes are not accepted. Always carry the following to the exam hall. 2 Nos. B or 2B pencils and eraser Non-programmable calculator Photo identity (passport, driving license, etc.) Exam confirmation letter

Be present in the exam hall at least 15 minutes prior to scheduled start of exam. The supervisor announces important instructions during this period. Do not miss them. Now relax and attempt the exam calmly. Time is always more than enough. Good luck, friends!

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2.

DISTRIBUTION OF MARKS

As per the Effectivity Sheet, there are total 9 codes prescribed for examination. However, all of them are not equally important and do not therefore require equal emphasis. About 50 percent questions are asked from one code API 653 which is hardly 40 pages, while all other 8 codes contribute 50% marks which are more than 1,000 pages. Following distribution scheme will help the participant to decide how much time he should spend for each document during preparation. 3. Codes and Standards for study and their weight age: Note: The weight age indicated is approximate and for guidance only. A . API Publications: API RP 650 Vertical storage tanks Construction code API 653, Aboveground tanks Inspection Code API RP 575, Inspection of Storage tanks API RP 651 Cathodic Protection of Storage tanks API RP 562 Lining of Tank bottom API RP 571, Damage Mechanisms API RP 577, Welding Inspection and Metallurgy B. ASME Publications: Section V, Nondestructive Examination Section IX, Welding and Brazing Qualifications
Asian Training Academy. Pune, India

20 % 45 % 06 % 05 % 03 % 03 % 03 %

07 % 08 %
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API 653 Preparatory

Introduction & Workbook

3.

SALIENT FEATURES OF THE EXAMINATION

As stated earlier, the examination comprises of open book and closed book parts. The closed-book examination includes such questions which the inspector is normally expected to know without referring the Codes, i.e., the questions are awareness level questions. Whenever you find a very definitive or quantitative statement in body of the Code, a closed book question may be expected on it. Thus, the basic requirements of a code, specific DO and DONT statements, important quantified statements, important definitions and well-known inspection principles will constitute such questions. Where the student is required to refer to the diagrams or formulas or tables or graphs and curves from the Codes, it will always be an open-book question. All calculation oriented questions will normally be open-book type. The Code information which is not short and crisp, (i.e., large paragraphs, several descriptive statements clubbed together) will normally be asked in open-book part. Here the participant is expected not to remember the information but should know where to find it in the body of the Code. The questions asked in closed book part are straight forward statements directly taken form Code without much of the modifications and therefore are easy to answer. To answer open-book questions, one only needs to know where to find the answer in the code and therefore tabbing of Code pages, highlighting the paragraphs or additional explanatory notes in page margins is useful for saving time. Closed-book part of the exam (100 marks) can be finished in hardly 2 to 2 hour though 4 hours are allotted. While open-book part (50 marks) takes a little longer and may require all the 4 hours that are allotted.

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4.

HOW TO PREPARE FOR EXAM:

If your aim is only to get certified, i.e., to obtain just around 100-110 marks, detailed study of documents nos. 1 to 4 above (Chapter 2) may be adequate. Additionally, one should try to remember all the Points to Recall and review the mock examinations attempted during the Preparatory Course. If two or more participants from same organization are appearing for exam, then joint discussions and one putting question to another and vice versa has been found very effective during preparation. Other 5 codes (i.e., Serial No. 5 to 9) may be studied in detail if there is additional preparation time available. An overall awareness level knowledge of these 5 Codes may be okay. If your objective is to get certified and also to obtain a good score, (say 125+) then it is worthwhile to study the 5 Codes (Serial No. 5 to 9). However, please remember that study of API 653 has to be thorough and total, while study of API 650, ASME Sec. IX and ASME Sec. V should be such that it can cover the topics mentioned in the Body of Knowledge. The last 5 Codes (Serial No. 5 to 9) should be read at least once and note the important points. A very thorough study of these documents however will not result in gains commensurate with the efforts put in. If you are about a month away from examination, read all the Codes at least once and concentrate on highlighted text in the Codes and also try to solve the question bank. If you are about two weeks away from the exam, concentrate on highlighted text as well as the mock examinations conducted during the course. In the last week of preparation, focus on Points to Recall and mock exams.

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5.

TIPS FOR MAXIMIZING THE SCORE a. b. There are only 5 or 6 important definitions from Chapter 3 of API 653. Normally 3 to 4 definitions are asked in closed-book exam. From Chapter 4 of API 653, nearly 15 questions are asked (7 to 8 closed book and 7 to 8 open book). Concentrate more on clauses 4.2.1.2, 4.2.3.1, 4.2.4.3 to 4.3.7. Chapter 5, knowing figure 5-2 and only 3 clauses 5.3.5 to 5.3.7 is enough. From Chapter 6, about 10 questions are asked. It is only 3 page chapter. Particularly pay attention to Inspection intervals. From Chapter 7 and Chapter 8, generally 2 or 3 questions are asked. Chapter 9, about 7 to 8 questions are asked. Concentrate more on Figure 9-1 and hot tap (Clause 9.14). Chapter 10, about 3 or 4 questions are asked and those generally open book type. So you can refer to the code and get answers. Chapter 11, it is hardly 8 to 10 lines chapter but 1 or 2 questions are asked .Chapter 12, about 7 to 8 questions are asked. Normally the questions are on NDT. The participant is expected to know that NDT procedures shall be as per relevant article of ASME Sec. V, the NDT extent shall be as per API 650 or 653 while acceptance criteria is as per API 650 or ASME Sec. VIII, Div. 1. he should also know that qualification standard of NDT personnel is ASNT SNT-TC 1A (or API 650). This chapter is better explained in Appendix F (API 653) as NDE Summary or in Appt. (API 650)
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c. d. e. f. g. h. i.

Asian Training Academy. Pune, India

API 653 Preparatory

Introduction & Workbook

j. k.

Chapter 13, generally 1 question covering name plate stamping is asked. Appendices: App. A. Here note that API 650 was introduced in 1961 (prior to this was API 12C) and seventh edition (1980) onwards the joint efficiency (E) is taken as 1.

App. B: The important topics are number of settlement monitoring points (Figure B-1, B-2) and formula B = 0.37 R (R in feet while B is in inches) App. C: This being item wise inspection checklist concerning what to check where. Normally, 1 or 2 open book questions are set. No need to remember this table. App. D: Note certification requirement (Clauses D.2 and D.5) From API 650. Normally, two questions are asked on materials. (Fig. 2-1, Table 2-3, Table 2-4 and Clause 2.8). Usually 5 to 6 questions are asked on Chapter 3 concerning shell, bottom and roof thickness, attachment welds. From Chapter 5, normally 2 or 3 questions will be asked. Focus on weld reinforcement, undercuts, use of low-H electrodes and inspection pressure for pad-test and vacuum box test. From Chapter 6, generally 3 questions covering number of radiographs (Fig. 61) and acceptance standards and personnel qualifications are asked. Since there is no negative marking, there is no harm in making guess. Generally, do not go against your first impulse, unless you are sure you were wrong in the first place. If some questions are still remaining unanswered mark the answers you feel may be right. Do not leave any question unanswered.
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Introduction & Workbook

6.

TIME MANAGEMENT DURING EXAM:

Both open and closed book sessions are 4 hours each. This means about 25 to 28 questions per hour for closed book and 12 to 15 questions per hour for open book. For proper time management following are useful suggestions. a) You may start from Question No. 1 and proceed. If after 1 hour you feel that you are maintaining the required progress as mentioned above proceed serially. b) If, however, you are behind the required rate, start jumping the questions, i.e., start attempting those questions you can answer, deleting whose answer you do not know. Proceed like this till the end. Do not leave any question unanswered whose answer you know. c) Then come back to deleted questions and attempt them using your feel factor. Go on like this till say last 10-15 minutes are remaining. d) If there are still some questions where you have no clue at all just mark the answer at random in last 10-15 minutes. This may give you few chance marks. Do not leave any question unattempted. After completion of writing exam, if you have still time (which you normally have) you may go through your answers just to check quickly if you have filled a wrong circle.

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TEST TAKING TIPS Dont read too much into a question. Do not get too elaborate and ruin your answer. If two choices are very similar, the answer is probably not either of them. If two choices are opposite, one of then is probably correct. Dont go against your first impulse unless you are very sure you were wrong. Check for negatives and other words that can throw you off. The answer is usually wrong if it contains all, always, never, or none. The answer has a great chance of being right if it has sometimes, probably, or some. When you dont know the answer, look for the wrong ones. If you are supposed to read a long passage and then answer questions about it, read the question first. That will tell you what you are looking for and affect the way you read the passage. Be suspicious of choices that seem obvious. Dont give up on a question that, after one reading, seems complicated. Looking at it from a different angle, restating it in your own words, drawing a picture, or breaking it down, etc., may help you realize that its not as hard as you thought.
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Introduction & Workbook API 653 Preparatory Course IMPORTANT CLOSED BOOK QUESTIONS

No. 1 2 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

QUESTION Definition of the Critical zone Definition of Change of Service Minimum thickness of corroded roof plate Limits of L Definition of widely scattered pits Causes for shell distortion Cracks in the shall to bottom weld what should be done What is the reason for the distortion of anchor bolts & excessive cracking of concrete structures Tanks fabricated from steels of unknown toughness, thickness less than can be operated at above what minimum shell metal temperature Interval for routine In-service inspection Who shall carry out External Inspection Interval for External inspection How is the external inspection of Insulated tank carried out What is the method of external inspection of Tank grounding system Interval for ultrasonic thickness inspection If internal inspection is solely for the purpose of determining the condition & integrity of tank bottom what is the method of inspection alternative Internal Inspection method What is the bottom plate minimum thickness Construction records shall include the following information New material for tank reconstruction shall comply to which standard Welding consumables shall conform to which specification What are the minimum dimensions for a replacement shell The corners of a repair plate shall be rounded to what minimum radius Insert plate having higher thickness than the shall plate shall be tapered to

CODE API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653

CLAUSE 3.7 3.9 4.2.1.2 4.3.2.1 4.3.2.2 4.3.5.2 4.3.6 4.5.3 5.3.7 6.3.1.2 6.3.2.1 6.3.2.1 6.3.2.2 6.3.2.3 6.3.3 6.4.1.2 6.4.3 Table 6-1 6.8.2 7.2 7.4 9.2.2.1 9.3.1.4 9.8.2(c)

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Introduction & Workbook API 653 Preparatory Course IMPORTANT CLOSED BOOK QUESTIONS (Cont)

No. 25. 26. 27 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41

QUESTION Minimum thk. of new roof to be used for repair for a fixed roof shall be The minimum height of tank liquid above hot tap location shall be at least During hot tapping operation welding will be done using which electrodes Are hot taps permitted on the roof of a tank The maximum allowed undercutting for horizontal joints of a reconstructed tank is If the material specification for the steel from an existing tank is unknown or obsolete, how do you qualify the welding procedure At what intervals Welders identification shall be marked adj. to welds What alternative methods are used to inspect the integrity of the welded bottom joint Areas of bottom plate repaired by welding in addition to MT/PT are any other testing done. The minimum diagnostic length of each radiograph is For penetration installed using insert plates , butt weld between the insert plate & shell plate shall be radiographed to what extent Hydrostatic test of a reconstructed tank shall be held for how long time. At what intervals shall settlement be measured during hydrotest The maximum spacing across diameter over which measurements of bottom settlement are taken is Internal Bottom settlement formula What is the NDT Inspector Qualification requirement for carrying out UT during tank repair? UT procedure shall follow which Code/Standard

CODE API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653

CLAUSE 9.11.1.1 9.14.1.2 9.14.2.3 9.14.2.4 10.4.2.5 11.1.2 11.2.2 12.1.7.1 12.1.7.3 12.2.1.7 12.2.1.8 12.3.1.1 12.5.2 Fig. B-2 B-3-3 F 4.3 F 4.4

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API 653 PREPARATORY IMPORTANT OPEN BOOK QUESTIONS No. 1 2 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. QUESTION Calculate the t min. welded tank shell What is the maximum allowable stress for bottom & second course To change the service of the tank to above 200F what requirements are to be met What is the maximum allowable stress for reconstructed tank What is the maximum allowable stress for revited tank Annular bottom plate thickness (Sp. Gr. < 1.0) Assessment of the safe use of a tank constructed of unknown materials What records shall be maintained by the Owner / Operator What are the material specifications for structural materials Shell design for a reconstructed tank, with materials whose allowable stresses are not given in Table 3-2 of API 650, what allowable stresses are to be taken After the valve has been installed on the flange at what pressure the pressure test shall be performed In tank re-construction, new vertical joints in adjacent shell courses shall be offset by what minimum distance During tank reconstruction / repair what is the maximum allowed undercutting for vertical joints What is the maximum reinforcement allowed for horizontal joint of plate In completed horizontal butt joints, the upper plate shall not project beyond the lower plate by how much Calculation of Internal Bottom settlement or bulges Problem on edge settlement For welding A516 Gr 70 materials what electrode classification shall be used CODE API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API653 API650 CLAUSE 4.3.3.1 4.3.3.1 4.2.4.4 4.3.3.1 4.3.4.1 Table 4-4 Fig. 5.2 6.8.1 7.3.2 8.4.2 9.14.5.3 10.4.2.1 10.4.2.5 Table 10-1 10.4.4.2 B.3.3 Fig B-10 2.8

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Introduction & Workbook

API 653- STORAGE TANK INSPECTOR PREPARATORY COURSE

PART III
CASE STUDIES

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API 653 TRAINING COURSE Case Study 1: Impact Testing of Plates (Question) An Aboveground Storage Tank is to be constructed using ASTM A 516 gr 60 plates. The plates are normalized. The plates were tested for impact value and the following were the test results. The test results are presented for 32 mm thk plates (Lot A) and 30 mm thk plates (Lot B). A) Longitudinal Specimen: Three specimens failed at 13 ft-lb, 15 ft-lb and 18 ft-lb respectively B) Transverse Specimen: Three specimens failed at 12 ft-lb, 14ft-lb and 14ft-lb respectively Your assessment is: a. Plate A is okay. B is not. b. Plate B is okay. A is not. c. Both A and B are okay. d. Both A and B are not okay.

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API 653 TRAINING COURSE Case Study 1: Impact Testing of Plates (Solution) The material belongs to Group III A. The thicknesses are within acceptable limits. (Ref: 2.2.2, 516 gr60 can be used up to 40 mm thickness) Plate A (Longitudinal): Average of 3 specimen =
13 + 15 + 16 = 14.66 ft. lb. 3

Average of 3 specimen, 14.66 ft. lb is less than required average of 15 ft. lb. Reject. Plate B (Transverse): Average of 3 specimen =
12 + 14 + 14 = 13.33 3

Average of 3 specimen, 13.33 is greater than required average of 13 ft. lb. Also only one specimen (12 ft. lb) is below average and its value is greater than 2/3 x 13, i.e., greater than 8.66. Accept Plate B. Correct answer: b

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API 653 TRAINING COURSE Case Study 2: Shell Design of AST (New Tank) (Question) The following data are presented for an Aboveground Storage Tank: 1) Code of construction: API 650 2) Tank diameter = 60ft 3) Tank height = 48ft; width of plates used = 8ft 4) Maximum fill height = 48ft 5) Product specific gravity = 0.92 6) Material of construction; ASTM A 516 gr 60 7) Corrosion allowance = 1/8 in Determine: a. Required thickness for bottom course (first course) b. Required thicknesses for courses 2 to 6

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API 653 TRAINING COURSE Case Study 2: Shell Design of AST (New Tank) (Solution)
td = 2.6 D(H 1)G + CA Sd tt = 2.6 D(H 1) St

a.

or

From table 3.2, S d = 21,300 psi , S t = 24,000 psi


td =

2.6 60 (48 1) 0.92 1 + in 21300 8

t d = 0.3167 + 0.125 = 0.4417"

tt =

2.6 60 (48 1) = 0.3055" 24000

0.4417" > 0.3055"

Select 0.4417 thick plate, i.e. 11.22 mm Use 12 mm thick plate

b.

It is obvious that for all other courses, td will govern, since td will be greater than tt
td = 2.6 D(H 1)G + CA Sd

For the 2nd Course, H = 40ft


td = 2.6 60 (40 1) 0.92 1 + in 21300 8

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t d = 0.2628 + 0.125 = 0.3878" = 9.85mm

Use 10mm plate

For the 3rd Course, H = 32ft


td = 2.6 60 (32 1) 0.92 1 + in 21300 8

t d = 0.2089 + 0.125 = 0.3339" = 8.48mm

Use 10mm plate

For the 4th Course, H = 24ft


td = 2.6 60 (24 1) 0.92 1 + in 21300 8

t d = 0.1550 + 0.125 = 0.2800" = 7.11mm Use 8mm plate

For the 5th Course H = 16ft


td = 2.6 60 (16 1) 0.92 1 + in 21300 8

t d = 0.1011 + 0.125 = 0.2261" = 5.74mm Use 6mm plate

For the 6th Course H = 8ft


td = 2.6 60 (8 1) 0.92 1 + in 21300 8

t d = 0.0472 + 0.125 = 0.1722" = 4.37 mm 5mm plate may be OK

But, As per table 3.6.1, (Diameter-Thickness Table) minimum thickness (for D = 60ft) is 6mm. Use 6mm plate

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API 653 TRAINING COURSE Case Study 3: Tank Shell Thickness Evaluation (Old Tank) (Question)

Data: Code of Constr. API 650 Basic. Year of Constr. 1984 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Tank diameter = 100 feet Tank height = Maximum liquid height = 56 feet Course width = 8 feet Product specific gravity = 0.98 Corrosion rate = 0.1 mm / year Thickness provided = 20mm (new) M. O. C. = ASTM-A-36 After 20 years, a patch was observed on the second shell course, at 46 feet from the top (i.e. in 2nd course). Least thickness in the area of corrosion was 15.25mm (0.6). The next interval for inspection is 10 years. Readings in vertical planes a, b, c, d over the length L were:
No. 1 2 3 4 5 a 19 18 18 17 19 b 18.5 18 17.5 18 18.5 c 18 17.75 15.25 16.5 17.5 d 18.5 17.5 17.5 18 18.5

9)

Is the tank safe until next inspection?

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API 653 TRAINING COURSE Case Study 3: Tank Shell Thickness Evaluation (Old Tank) (Solution) 1) t 2 = 0.6" = 15.25 2) L = 3.7 D t 2 = 3.7 100 0.6 = 28.66" 3) tavg for plane a = 91/5 = 18.2 mm. tavg for plane b = 90.5/5 = 18.1 mm tavg for plane c = 85/5 = 17.0 mm tavg for plane d = 90/5 = 18.0 mm (Total of 5 readings = 91) (Total of 5 readings = 90.5) (Total of 5 readings = 85) (Total of 5 readings = 90)

So, the weakest plane is c. And lowest of tavg = 17 mm


t1 = 17 mm

4) t min =

2.6 D H G 2.6 100 46 0.98 = = 0.471" = 11.965mm SE 24900

For safe operation:


t1 t min + (CR Interval ) 17 11.965 + 0.1 10 17 12.965 OK

and

t 2 0.6 t min + (CR x int erval ) 15.25 0.6 11.965 + 1 15.25 8.179 OK

Therefore the tank is safe.

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API 653 TRAINING COURSE Case Study 4: Minimum Thickness of Bottom Tank Evaluation (Question) An aboveground storage tank provided with sketch plate type bottom construction was observed to be having following thickness readings on bottom plate by UT measurement. (The tank does not have leak detection system on bottom.) Bottom thickness provided when tank was new (excluding corrosion allowance = 10 mm. Maximum depth of corrosion pits from inside of tank on the tank bottom = 3.5 mm. Maximum corrosion from bottom side (metal loss) = 4.5 mm. Rate of corrosion on topside of bottom = 100 microns / year. Rate of corrosion on bottom side = 150 microns / year. Calculate when the next inspection interval should be due.

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API 653 TRAINING COURSE Case Study 4: Minimum Thickness of Bottom Tank Evaluation (Solution) RTbc = RTip = M RT = M RT = 2.5 = 10 4.5 = 5.5 mm 10 3.5 = 6.5 mm 0.1 (from Table 6-1) = 2.5 mm (Minimum of RTbc or RTip ) Or (StPt + U Pr) 5.5 - Or (0.1 + 0.15)

Or x 0.25 = 3.0 Or = 3.0 / 0.25 = 12 years Answer: 12 years

Note: In examination, problems will be simple. Out of the various terms in formula for MRT, all data except one will be given and you will be asked to find the missing one.

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Introduction & Workbook

Review of WPS/PQR (Road Map)


Start at Front side of PQR.

No

Do the P, F & A Nos. match with mtl. Spec No & filler AWS

No

Go to back side of PQR.Are the results (QW 140) for tensile, and bend tests stated.
Ye For tensile test are qty of specimen, area and unit stress calculation right Ye Is location of failure stated

No

(QW

No

R
Start
Is the WPS supported by PQR. Does WPS show reference No. of the supporting PQR
Ye Ye

Ye No Is unit stress > SMTS

of base metal Was break in weld 95% of SMTS of base metal


Ye No Ye

(QW 153)

No

No No Is unit stress >

(QW 153)

Has PQR been revised Is PQR signed and


Ye Accept for detailed review

Ye No

J
No No

Is bend test Qty, type stated and correct


Ye

(QW (QW 163)

Yes

Are results for toughness test (if any) OK


Yes

(QW 172)

Place WPS & PQR side by

C
No

Go to tables as follows SMAW - QW 253 SAW QW 254 Check WPS/PQR for QW 402 to QW 410 for the following WPS: EV, NEV, PQR: EV,
No

If the welder is to be qualified on the basis of PQR. Is his Identifying code. Position of welding recorded on
Ye

Accept
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WPS / PQR PRACTICE QUIZ - OPEN BOOK (Refer to Attached PQR / WPS Documents) Note: Encircle the letter of only one alternative which you think is most appropriate. 1. Choose correct statement from the following: a. b. c. d. 2. The PQR shows root spacing of 1/8 and same shall be followed in production welding. PQR shows beval angle 37. It shall be followed in production welding without change. PQR does not show backing ring, hence production weld also can not be with backing ring None of above is correct statement.

What condition below describes the results of the guided bend test? a. b. c. d. The three bend tests are acceptable and the fourth one is not acceptable The test result overall is acceptable The test result is not acceptable due to the linear indication The bend test result is indeterminable, carry out retest.

3.

What welding process is qualified by this PQR? a. b. c. d. GTAW SMAW GMAW SAW

4.

What is the P number and the tensile strength of SA-106-C? a. b. c. d. P No. 1 and 70 ksi P No. 1 and 60 ksi P No. 3 and 70 ksi P No. 3 and 60 ksi

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5..

In accordance with the PQR, the WPS is qualified for what welding positions? a. b. c. d. Flat and horizontal Flat, vertical, overhead and horizontal Vertical and overhead All positions

6.

What is the F No. of an E 7010 electrode? a. b. c. d. F no. 4 F No. 3 F No. 2 F No. 1

7.

The welder who welded the test plate for PQR 101 is qualified to weld in what position? a. b. c. d. Flat Flat and horizontal Flat and vertical Flat, vertical and horizontal

8.

The bend test specimen used are side bend. They are: a. b. c. d. Not accepted since 2 face bend and 2 root bend must be used Accepted since as alternative to (a) 4 side bend may be used Accepted since only 2 bend tests are required where as 4 bend tests are performed Not accepted since all 3 types of bend tests (face, root, side) are required.

9.

As far as thickness ranges for Base Metal (B.M.) and weld metal (W.M.) as shown on WPS are concerned, your decision about the qualified range is: a. b. c. d. B.M. is okay and W.M. is not okay. Both B.M. and W.M. are okay. Both B.M. and W.M. are not okay. W.M. is okay and B.M. is not okay.
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API 653 Preparatory

Introduction & Workbook

API 653- STORAGE TANK INSPECTOR PREPARATORY COURSE

PART IV
CALCULATIONS IN API 653 EXAMINATION

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CALCULATIONS IN API 653 EXAM Calculation questions found on the API-653 examination are oriented toward existing tanks and not new tanks. API authorized above ground storage tank inspectors are expected to be able to check and perform calculations necessary to ensure compliance with appropriate Codes and standards. For this reason, the inspector must have a thorough understanding of the formulas and procedures used to calculate the following: Corrosion Rates and Inspection Intervals Remaining Life determination Joint Efficiencies Maximum Height (Hydrostatic Testing) Determining appropriate weld sizes for shell opening Minimum spacing between existing and new hot tap nozzles Settlement evaluation including the number of survey points Minimum Thickness for Existing Tank and Reconstructed Tank Shells Corroded areas of tank shells including evaluation of pitting Bottom plate thickness determination and evaluation Reinforcement of opening The American Petroleum Institute does not permit the use of programmable calculators while taking the exam; therefore, programmable calculators will not be permitted during the course. Mathematics Fundamentals: As we all know, mathematics has a language of its own, made up of signs, symbols, and characters. During this course of study many common mathematical signs, symbols, and characters, which you must be familiar with, will be used. Some of these are listed below. + Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division Pi Expressed as 3.14 Less than Greater than Therefore Less than or equal to Greater than or equal to Equal Number squared Square root

< > = X2

()

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Pre-Test: 1. Find the minimum acceptable shell plate thickness of the first course of an AST. tmin D H G S E = Minimum acceptable thickness = Nominal diameter of tank, in feet = Height of tank in feet = Specific gravity of contents = Maximum allowable stress = Joint efficiency of tank ? 120 48 1 21000 .85

t min =

2.6 D( H 1)G SE

2. Find the corrosion rate of an AST given the following information. Original thickness = .875 Measured thickness = .625 Years since last thickness measurement = 11

CR =

t original t last Time

3. Using the corrosion rate determined in problem number 2, what would the remaining life expectancy of this tank be if the minimum required thickness is 0.436?

RL =

t actual t min imum CR

4. Shell settlement evaluation measurements are to be taken on a 146 feet diameter AST. Given the following formula, how many elevation measurements would be required?

N=

D 10

5. Using the information in number four, does this number meet the requirements of API-653, which does not permit the measurement points to exceed 32 feet?

Dis tan ce =

D
N

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Pre-Test continued:

Introduction & Workbook

6. Find the throat of a right angle fillet weld with a weld leg length of .4375 inches.

7. Using the following information, what is the maximum vertical length (also known as critical length), in inches, over which hoop stresses are assumed to average out around local discontinuities? Diameter of the tank is 136 feet, the least thickness in an area of corrosion, exclusive of pits, is determined to be .563

L = 3.7 Dt 2

8. A 6 inch nozzle is to be placed in the tank shell of an AST. The shell course where the nozzle will be installed is .875 thick. What is the required area of reinforcement?

A = ODnozzle t shell

9. The maximum ultrasonic thickness measurement interval shall be five years when the corrosion rate is not known. What is the interval based on a known corrosion rate? The tank information is as follows: Initial thickness of the tank was 1.0625, the actual thickness is .815, the calculated required thickness is .473, the tank has been in service for 16 years with no measurements taken since it was installed. RCA = .342 N = .015

Interval =

RCA 2N

10. What is the circumference of an AST that is 96 feet in diameter?

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Practice problems #1: Problem #1 Find S when tmin, D, H, G, and E are known where: D=78, H=29, G = 1, E=.85, and tmin =.602

t min =

2.6 DHG SE

Problem #2 Find E when D, H, G, S, G, and tmin are known where: D =128, H=60, S = 22,300 G = .87, and tmin =
1.125

t min =

2.6 DHG SE

Problem #3 Find D when H, E, S, G, and tmin are known where: H=45, E=.90, S=22500, G= .7 and tmin =.9375

t min =

2.6 DHG SE

Problem #4 Find St when E, Ht, D, G, and tmin are know where: E = .80, Ht = 54, D= 70, G = 1 and tmin =.4325

Ht =

S t Et min 2.6 D

Problem #5 Find C when D and H are know where D = 60, H = 54

C = 014 D 2 H .

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Pre-Test: ANSWERS 1. Find the minimum acceptable shell plate thickness of the first course of an AST. Tmin D H G S E = Minimum acceptable thickness = Nominal diameter of tank, in feet = Height of tank in feet = Specific gravity of contents = Maximum allowable stress = Joint efficiency of tank ? 120 48 1 21000 .85

t min =

2.6 D( H 1)G SE

t min =

14664 (2.6)(120)(48 1)(1) t min = =.8215" (21000)(.85) 17850

2. Find the corrosion rate of an AST given the following information. Original thickness = .875 Measured thickness = .625 Years since last thickness measurement = 11

CR =

t original t last Time

CR =

.875.625 CR =.023 11

3. Using the corrosion rate determined in problem number 2, what would the remaining life expectancy of this tank be if the minimum required thickness is 0.436?

RL =

t actual t min imum CR

RL =

.625.436 RL = 8.2 years .023

4. Shell settlement evaluation measurements are to be taken on a 146 feet diameter AST. Given the following formula, how many elevation measurements would be required?

N=

D 146 N= N = 14.6 = 15 10 10

5. Using the information in number four, does this number meet the requirements of API-653, which does not permit the measurement points to exceed 32 feet?

Dis tan ce =

D
N

Dis tan ce =

(314)(146) . Distance = 30.5ft. yes meet requirements 15


68

Reference: API-653 Paragraph 10.5.1.2 definition of N


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6. Find the throat of a right angle fillet weld with a weld leg length of .4375 inches.

Throat =.707Wleg Throat = (.707)(.4375) Throat = .309

7. Using the following information, what is the maximum vertical length (also known as critical length), in inches, over which hoop stresses are assumed to average out around local discontinuities? Diameter of the tank is 136 feet, the least thickness in an area of corrosion, exclusive of pits, is determined to be .563

L = 3.7 Dt 2

L = 3.7 (136)(.563) L = 3.7 76.568 L = (3.7)(8.75) L = 32.375"

8. A 6 inch nozzle is to be placed in the tank shell of an AST. The shell course where the nozzle will be installed is .875 thick. What is the required area of reinforcement?

A = ODnozzle t shell A = (6.75)(.875) = 5.906 square inches API-650 3.7.2.1 & 3.7.2.2

9. The maximum ultrasonic thickness measurement interval shall be five years when the corrosion rate is not known. What is the interval based on a known corrosion rate? The tank information is as follows: Initial thickness of the tank was 1.0625, the actual thickness is .815, the calculated required thickness is .473, the tank has been in service for 16 years with no measurements taken since it was installed. RCA = .342 N = .015

Interval =

RCA .342 . Interval = = 114 years API-653 4.3.3.2 b. 2N (2)(.015)

10. What is the circumference of an AST that is 96 feet in diameter? Circumference = D Circumference = (3.14)(96) = 301.44 feet.

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Answers of Practice problems #1: Problem #1

Introduction & Workbook

Find S when tmin, D, H, G, and E are known where: D=78, H=29, G = 1, E=.85, and tmin =.602

t min =

2.6 DHG 2.6 DHG 58812 . (2.6)(78)(29)(1) S= S= S= S = 11493.4 SE Et min (.85)(.602) .5117

Problem #2 Find E when D, H, G, S, G, and tmin are known where: D =128, H=60, S = 22,300 G = .87, and tmin = 1.125

t min =

2.6 DHG 2.6 DHG 17372.16 (2.6)(128)(60)(.87) E= E= E= E = .692 SE St min 25087.5 (22300)(1125) .

Problem #3 Find D when H, E, S, G, and tmin are known where: H=45, E=.90, S=22500, G= .7 and tmin =.9375

t min =

t SE 2.6 DHG D = min SE 2.6 HG

Problem #4 Find St when E, Ht, D, G, and tmin are know where: E = .80, Ht = 54, D= 70, G = 1 and tmin =.4325

Ht =

S t Et min 2.6 D

Problem #5 Find C when D and H are know where D = 60, H = 54

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Post Test Questions.

1. What is the required hydrostatic test height (Ht) of an AST given the following data? Maximum allowable hydrostatic stress (St)= 21350 Diameter of the tank = 110 feet Hydrostatic test shell thickness (tmin) is .625 Shell joint efficiency = 70% Use API-653 2.3.3.1 formula for tanks to be hydrostatically tested. 2. What is the area of a tank bottom that is 121 feet in diameter? 3. A reinforcing plate is installed around a nozzle installed in the first course of an AST. What is the throat dimension of the leg fillet weld around the periphery of the reinforcing plate. 4. What is the minimum acceptable thickness of the bottom course of an existing AST that is 135 feet in diameter, maximum fill height is 56.5 feet? The product stored in the tank has a specific gravity of .87 and all shell butt-welds were 100% radiographically examined. The yield strength of the material is 28,000 and the tensile strength is 60,000. Use API-653 paragraph 2.3.3.1.

t min =

2.6 DHG SE

5. What is the required area of reinforcement for a 14 NPS nozzle installed in a shell course that is 1.0625 thick. Use API 650 Paragraph 3.7.2.1 6. A bulge is noted in a tank bottom, what is the maximum height of the bulge permitted if the radius of the inscribed circle is 10.8 feet? Use API-653 Appendix B 3.3 7. If the throat of a fillet weld is .309, what is the leg length of the weld? 8. An AST is 175 feet in diameter. How many tank settlement survey points are required? Use API653 paragraph 10.5.1.2. 9. Do the number of settlement measurement locations and maximum spacing comply with API 653? Use API 653 Paragraph 10.5.1.2 10. What is the design liquid level of an AST that is 140 feet in diameter, thickness of the bottom or first course is .765, stress of the material is 21300. The specific gravity of the product to be stored is 1 and no corrosion allowance is needed nor provided.

td =

2.6 D( H 1)G + CA Sd

t S H = d d +1 2.6 DG

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Post Test Answers

1. What is the required hydrostatic test height (Ht) of an AST given the following data? Maximum allowable hydrostatic stress (St)= 21350 Diameter of the tank = 110 feet Hydrostatic test shell thickness (tmin) is .625 Shell joint efficiency = 70% Use API-653 2.3.3.1 formula for tanks to be hydrostatically tested.

Ht =

S t Et min 2.6 D

Ht =

(21350)(.7)(.625) 9340.625 = = 32.6 ft (2.6)(110) 286

2. What is the area of a tank bottom that is 121 feet in diameter?

A = R 2 A = (3.14)(60.5)2 A = (3.14)(3660.25) A = 11493 sqft


3. A reinforcing plate is installed around a nozzle installed in the first course of an AST. What is the throat dimension of the leg fillet weld around the periphery of the reinforcing plate. Throat = .707Wleg Throat = (.707)(.5) = .3535 4. What is the minimum acceptable thickness of the bottom course of an existing AST that is 135 feet in diameter, maximum fill height is 56.5 feet? The product stored in the tank has a specific gravity of .87 and all shell butt-welds were 100% radiographically examined. The yield strength of the material is 28,000 and the tensile strength is 60,000. Use API-653 paragraph 2.3.3.1.

t min =

2.6 DHG SE

t min =

(2.6)(135)(56.5)(.87) (24640)(1)

t min =

17253.405 =.7" 24640

S = (.8)(28000) = 24640 S = (.429)(60000) = 25740 5. What is the required area of reinforcement for a 14 NPS nozzle installed in a shell course that is 1.0625 thick. Area = (14)(1.0625) = 14.875 square inches 6. A bulge is noted in a tank bottom, what is the maximum height of the bulge permitted if the radius of the inscribed circle is 10.8 feet? B = .37R B = (.37)(10.8) = 3.996 inches or 4 inches 7. If the throat of a fillet weld is .309, what is the leg length of the weld?

Throat =.707Wleg Wleg =

.309 Throat Wleg = =.437" .707 .707


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8. An AST is 175 feet in diameter. How many tank settlement survey points are required? Use API653 paragraph 10.5.1.2.

N=

D 175 = 17.5 N = 10 10

9. Do the number of settlement measurement locations and maximum spacing comply with API 653? Yes (175)(3.14) = 549.3 549.3 18 = 30.5 feet spacing

10. What is the design liquid level of an AST that is 140 feet in diameter, thickness of the bottom or first course is .765, stress of the material is 21300. The specific gravity of the product to be stored is 1 and no corrosion allowance is needed nor provided.

td =

2.6 D( H 1)G (.765)(21300) t S + CA H = d d + 1 H = +1 2.6 DG (2.6)(140)(1) Sd

16294.5 H= + 1 H = 44.76 + 1 H = 45.76 feet 364

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API 653- STORAGE TANK INSPECTOR PREPARATORY COURSE

PART V
QUESTIONS ON API 653 Tank Inspection Code

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QUESTIONS ON API 653 -Tank Inspection Code


Section 1, 2, 3 Introduction
1. API-653 covers which of the following types of tanks? a) Carbon and low alloy steel tanks built to ASME Section VIII, Div.1 b) Carbon and low alloy steel tanks built to ASME Section X c) Carbon and low alloy steel tanks built to API - 650 and 12C d) Carbon and low alloy steel tanks built to API - 510 Reference: API-653 Paragraph 1.1.1 2. API-653 provides the requirements for construction of which of the following? a) Process pressure vessels b) Aboveground petroleum storage tanks c) LNG Storage spheres d) This standard does not provide construction requirements Reference: API-653 Paragraph 1.1.1 3. API-653 provides for all but which of the following with regard to aboveground storage tanks? a) Repair b) Operation c) Relocation d) Alteration Reference: API-653 Paragraph 1.1.1 4. The scope of API-653 is limited to all of the following except? a) Tank foundation b) Tank Bottom c) Tank roof d) Tank mixing motor Reference: API-653 Paragraph 1.1.2 5. The API-653 standards states that many of the requirements for design, welding, and materials of API-650 and API-12C can be applied with regard to _____. a) Repair, inspection, rating, and alteration. b) Repair, personnel assignment, maintenance, and inspection. c) Inspection, product in storage, rating, and alteration. d) Alteration, refinery equipment, electrical controls, and repair. Reference: API-653 Paragraph 1.1.2

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6. a) b) c) d)

Introduction & Workbook

In the application of the requirements for welding, design, and materials of API-650 or API-12C to in-service aboveground storage tanks (AST), which of the following code or standard takes precedence? ASME Section VIII, Pressure Vessels API-12C API-653 API-650

Reference: API-653 Paragraph 1.1.2 7. The API-653 Standard may only be applied to aboveground storage tanks (AST) that have been constructed to and meet the requirements of API-650. a) True b) False Reference: API-653 Paragraph 1.1.3 8. The use of API-653 is intended for organizations that have personnel who are technically trained and experienced in which of the following? a) All ASME, AWS, ASNT, and API Codes and Standards b) Tank design, fabrication, repair, construction, and inspection c) Refinery operations, safety requirements, personnel management, and refinery design d) Mechanical integrity program, OSHA regulations compliance program, and Process Safety Management Reference: API-653 Paragraph 1.1.4 9. When design and construction details are not given and not available in the original construction standard, then details that will provide a level of integrity equal to the current edition of what Code or Standard must be used? a) ASME Section VIII, Division 1, Pressure Vessels b) ASME Section VIII Division 2, Alternative Rules for Pressure Vessels c) API- 650, Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage d) API-12C Steel Storage Tanks for Oil Storage Reference: API-653 Paragraph 1.1.5 10. Ultimate responsibility for compliance with this standard rests with ____? a) The Owner/Operator b) The Owner/Operators Inspector c) The repair organization of the Owner/Operator d) The manufacturer of the AST Reference: API-653 Paragraph 1.2

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11. According to API-653, if any provision presents a direct or implied conflict with any statutory regulation, the regulation governs. What governs if API-653 requirements are more stringent than the statutory regulation? a) The statutory regulation applies in all cases b) The conflict must be submitted to the American Petroleum Institute for resolution c) The owner/operator has the option of applying the requirement best suited to the situation d) The API-653 requirements shall govern Reference: API-653 Paragraph 1.3 12. Safe working practices shall comply with what requirements concerning confined space entry? a) Procedures must comply with any trade developed safety precautions b) Procedures must comply with any federal or state regulations c) Procedures need only comply with owner/operator/s requirements d) Procedures need only comply with NFPA requirements Reference: API-653 Paragraph 1.4 Answers to API-653 Section 1, 2, 3 Introduction Question Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Answer C D B D A C B B C A D B

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Section 4 Suitability for Service


1. When must an evaluation, to determine the suitability for continued use, be conducted? a) Evaluations shall be conducted when a tank inspection reveals a change has occurred from the original physical condition of the tank. b) Evaluations shall be conducted at least annually c) Evaluations shall be conducted at an interval not to exceed the calculated tank inspection frequency. d) Evaluations shall be conducted once each ten years of service Reference: API-653 Paragraph 4.1.1 2. What factors are required for consideration when performing an evaluation for continued use of an AST? a) Only those listed in API-653 b) The recommended list of considerations provided in API-510 can be modified to suit this purpose c) Engineering analysis and judgement required for each situation d) Only those items requested by the Certified Aboveground Storage Tank Inspector Reference: API-653 Paragraph 4.1.3 3. Roof plates corroded to an average thickness of less that ____ inch in any ___ square inch area shall be repaired of replaced. a) 0.9 inch in any 100 square inch area b) 0.09 inch in any 10 square inch area c) 0.09 inch in any 144 square inch area (1 square foot) d) 0.09 inch in any 100 square inch area Reference: API-653 Paragraph 4.2.1.2 4. The method of inspecting roof support members shall be acceptable to whom? a) The manufacturer of the AST b) The responsible inspector c) The Owner/Operators design engineering department d) The operations manager Reference: API-653 Paragraph 4.2.2 5. During the inspection of fixed roof support members, particular attention must be given to a) Severe external corrosion of the roof plate where support structures are attached b) Severe internal corrosion of pipe columns c) Severe internal corrosion of the roof plate where support structures are attached d) Deterioration of wind girders at the point of attachment Reference: API-653 Paragraph 4.2.2 .

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6. Inspection of floating roofs is limited to roof plates and pontoons. a) True b) False Reference: API-653 Paragraph 4.2.3.3 7. Evaluation of existing floating roofs shall be based on the criteria of a) API-650, Appendix C for external floating roofs and Appendix H for internal floating roofs b) API-510 Paragraph 6.4.3 for external floating roofs and 6.5.3 for internal c) ASME Section VIII, Div 1 Appendix C for external floating roofs and Appendix H for internal d) ASME Section VIII, Div. 2 Alternative Rules Reference: API-653 Paragraph 4.2.3.4 8. What API Standard or Recommended Practice must be used for evaluating the effects of design partial vacuum on tank roofs? a) API Standard 620 b) API Standard 650 c) API Recommended Practice 651 d) API Recommended Practice 652 Reference: API-653 Paragraph 4.2.4.2 9. Above what operating temperature shall API Standard 650, Appendix M, be considered before changing the service of a tank? a) 500F b) 400F c) 300F d) 200F Reference: API-653 Paragraph 4.2.4.3 10. Under what conditions may a tank be operated at a temperature lower than the original design? a) When the requirements for impact testing of ASME Section VIII, Div, 1 have been met b) When the requirements of the applicable standard or API Standard 650 have been met c) When the requirements of ASTM Specification A-370 have been met d) When the requirements of ASTM Specification A-20 have been met Reference: API-653 Paragraph 4.2.4.4 11. Flaws, deterioration, or other conditions that might adversely affect the performance or structural integrity of the shell of an existing tank must be evaluated. Personnel experienced in tank design shall conduct the evaluation. This analysis shall take into account any of the following except a) Fluid static head b) Internal and external pressure c) Organization that manufactured the tank d) Seismic loads Reference: API-653 Paragraph 4.3.1.2
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12. Of the following, which is not an option available to the owner/operator if it is not possible to satisfy the requirements for minimum thickness calculations for a welded tank? a) Repair damaged areas b) Reduce allowable liquid level c) Retire the tank d) Reduce the fill rate so the tank fills slower and applies pressure gradually Reference: API-653 Paragraph 4.3.1.5 13. Out-of-roundness, buckled areas, flat spots, and peaking and banding of welded joints are all examples of _____. a) Shell Distortions b) Flaws c) Discontinuities d) Severe damage Reference: API-653 Paragraph 4.3.5.1 14. Shell distortions require the tank to be immediately removed from service and inspected. a) True b) False Reference: API-653 Paragraph 2.3.5.3 15. Flaws such as cracks or laminations shall be thoroughly examined to determine their nature and extent and the need for repairs. a) True b) False Reference: API-653 Paragraph 4.3.6 16. What if anything should be done with cracks in the shell-to-bottom weld? a) These cracks can be sealed with caulking and the tank returned to service b) The welds can have a cover weld pass applied over them to prevent leakage c) Cracks of this type are critical and the tank must be retired from service since repairs are prohibited. d) Cracks in the shell-to-bottom weld are critical and shall be removed and repaired Reference: API-653 Paragraph 2.3.6 17. Internal pitting and pitting rates in the anticipated service, corrosion of weld joints (weld and heat affected zone), weld joint cracking history, and stresses placed on the bottom plates by roof support loads and shell settlement are all examples of causes of what type of failure? a) Annular ring failure b) Shell plate failure at first shell course c) Bottom failure d) Fatigue failure due to repeated jacking of floor plates Reference: API-653 Paragraph 4.4.2
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18. Underside corrosion (normally in the form of pitting), inadequate drainage resulting in surface water flowing under the tank bottom, lack of an annular plate ring when required, uneven settlement that results in high localized stresses in the bottom plates, and inadequate provision for movement of roof support columns and other supports are all examples of causes of what type of failure? a) Shell plate failure at first course b) Bottom failure c) Failure of support columns due to hydraulic compression d) Creep cracking failure Reference: API-653 Paragraph 4.4.2 19. Of the following what has historically not been a cause of bottom failures? a) Non-homogeneous fill under the tank bottom b) Rock or gravel foundation pads with inadequately filled-in surface voids c) Inadequate inspection frequency d) Inadequately supported sumps Reference: API-653 Paragraph 4.4.2 20. Where would you look to find the basis for cathodic protection systems for the underside of tank bottoms? a) API Recommended Practice 651 b) API Recommended Practice 652 c) API Standard 2015 d) API Standard 2207 Reference: API-653 Paragraph 4.4.3 21. Where would you look to find procedures and practices for protecting tank bottoms with internal lining? a) API Recommended Practice 651 b) API Recommended Practice 652 c) API Standard 2015 d) API Standard 2207 Reference: API-653 Paragraph 4.4.4 22. What two methods may be used in quantifying the remaining thickness of tank bottoms? a) Drilling and actual measurement b) Ultrasonic and radiography c) Deterministic and probabilistic d) Detailed stress analysis and plate deformation measurement Reference: API-653 Paragraph 4.4.7

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23. Unless a stress analysis is performed, what is the minimum thickness of bottom plates in the critical zone? a) Smaller of the original bottom plate thickness or 50% of tmin of the lower shell course but not less than 0.1 inch. b) Smaller of the original bottom plate thickness or 25% of tmin of the lower shell course but not less than 0.1 inch. c) Smaller of the original bottom plate thickness or 75% of tmin of the lower shell course but not less than 0.1 inch. d) Smaller of the original bottom plate thickness or 50% of tmin of the lower shell course but not less than 0.01 inch. Reference: API-653 Paragraph 4.4.7.4 24. When repairing internal pitting for the extension of in-service operating period, the repair shall be by any of the following methods except. a) Pit welding b) Brazing c) Overlay welding d) Lap Patching Reference: API-653 Paragraph 4.4.7.5 25. The thickness of the bottom plate projection beyond the shell, measured at the toe of the weld of the outside bottom-to-shell fillet weld shall be not less than? a) 0.25 inch b) 0.01 inch c) 0.50 inch d) 0.10 inch Reference: API-653 Paragraph 4.4.7.7 26. The projection of the bottom plate beyond the toe of the shell-to-bottom weld shall be at least? a) 0.125 inch b) 0.250 inch c) 0.375 inch d) 0.500 inch Reference: API-653 Paragraph 4.4.7.7 27. An aboveground storage tank contains a fluid with a specific gravity of less than one. The thickness of the plate in the first course is 7/8. What is the minimum thickness of the annular plate ring, seismic loading is not a consideration, and the stress in the first course is 27,850 pound per square inch? a) 0.22 inch b) 0.31 inch c) 0.20 inch d) 0.23 inch Reference: API-653 Paragraph 4.4.8.2 and Table 4-4

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28. An aboveground storage tank contains a fluid with a specific gravity of greater than one. The thickness of the plate in the first course is 7/8. What is the minimum thickness of the annular plate ring, seismic loading is not a consideration, and the hydrostatic test stress in the first shell course is 27,850 pound per square inch? a) 1 / 4 inch b) 3 / 8 inch c) 9 / 32 inch d) 11 / 32 inch Reference: API-653 Paragraph 4.4.8.3 and Table 3-1 API-650 29. Settlement, erosion, cracking, and deterioration of concrete are all examples of which of the following principle modes of failure or deterioration? a) Annular plate ring failure b) Shell-to-bottom weld failure c) Deterioration of walkways and roadways d) Deterioration of foundations Reference: API-653 Paragraph 4.5.1.1 30. To ensure suitability for service, what is the minimum permitted frequency of tank foundation inspection? a) Annually b) Every five years c) Monthly d) Periodically Reference: API-653 Paragraphs 4.5.1.1 & 4.3.1.2 31. Distortion of anchor bolts and excessive cracking of concrete structures may be indications of what two conditions? a) Serious foundation settlement of a tank overpressure uplift condition b) Inferior material used in the anchor bolts and the concrete structure c) Over tightening of the anchor bolts and improper mixing of the concrete d) The tank was struck by lightning and wind caused movement of the tank Reference: API-653 Paragraph 4.5.3

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Answers to API-653 Section 4 Suitability for Service Question Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Answer A C D B B B A A D B C D A B A D C B C A B C A B D C B C D C A

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Section 5 Brittle Fracture Considerations


1. Incidents of tank failure due to brittle fracture have occurred shortly after erection during hydrostatic testing or in all but which of the following incidents? a) On the first filling in cold weather b) After a change to a higher temperature service c) After a change to a lower temperature service d) After a repair or alteration Reference: API-653 Paragraph 5.2.2 2. The risk of tank failure due to brittle fracture is minimal after what condition(s)? a) The tank has demonstrated its ability to withstand the combined effects of maximum liquid level (highest stresses) and highest operating temperature b) The tank has demonstrated its ability to withstand the combined effects of intermediate liquid level (highest stresses) and lowest operating temperature c) The tank has demonstrated its ability to withstand the combined effects of maximum liquid level (highest stresses) and lowest operating temperature d) The tank has demonstrated its ability to withstand the combined effects of maximum liquid level (highest stresses) and intermediate operating temperature

Reference: API-653 Paragraph 5.2.2 3. If it is decided to change the service to a more severe service, it is necessary to a) Consider the need for pneumatically testing the entire tank b) Consider the need to recalculate the effectiveness of all reinforcement of openings c) Consider the need for hydrostatic testing d) Consider removing all previous welded repairs and have them redone Reference: API-653 Paragraph 5.2.3 4. If a tank shell thickness is less than _____ inch, and an evaluation in accordance with Section 5 of API-653 has been performed, the risk of brittle fracture is considered to be minimal. a) 0.01 b) 0.10 c) 0.05 d) 0.50 Reference: API-653 Paragraph 5.3.5 5. No known tank failures attributed to brittle fracture have occurred at shell metal temperatures of _____F and above. a) -20 b) 20 c) 40 d) 60 Reference: API-653 Paragraph 5.3.6

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6. According to industry experience and laboratory tests, what membrane stress is required to caused failure due to brittle fracture? a) 6 ksi b) 7 ksi c) 10 ksi d) 12 ksi Reference: API-653 Paragraph 5.3.7 7. What is the lowest temperature that a tank, constructed of carbon steel of unknown toughness, may be used? The maximum thickness of the shell is .625 a) 40F b) 45F c) 50F d) 55F Reference: API-653 Paragraph 5.3.8 and Figure 5-2 8. What is the purpose of Figure 5-1 of API-653? a) Provides a procedure to be used in the evaluation of the remaining life of tank bottom plates b) Provides a procedure to be used in the evaluation of the likelihood of floating roof pontoon failure c) Provides an assessment procedure for evaluating aboveground storage tanks operating at 15 psi d) Provides an assessment procedure for evaluating atmospheric aboveground storage tanks Reference: API-653 Paragraph 5.2.1 and Figure 5-1 Answers to API-653 Section 3, Brittle Fracture Considerations Question Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Answer B C C D D B A D

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Section 6 Inspection
1. What is the purpose of periodic in-service inspection? a) The purpose of periodic in-service inspection, assure job security for inspectors b) The purpose of periodic in-service inspection, assure proper operation of AST c) The purpose of periodic in-service inspection is to assure continued tank integrity d) The purpose of periodic in-service inspection is to assure OSHA compliance Reference: API-653 Paragraph 6.1 2. Of the following, which is not a consideration that must be addressed in determining inspection intervals for ASTs? a) Corrosion prevention systems b) Inspection interval of other equipment located near the tank under consideration c) Changes in service (including changes in water bottoms) d) Previous inspection results Reference: API-653 Paragraph 6.2.1 3. What methods of inspection must be considered when establishing inspection frequencies? a) On-stream core sample inspection b) On-stream nondestructive inspection c) In-service aerial inspection d) In-service groundwater inspection Reference: API-653 Paragraph 6.2.2 4. Close visual inspections of aboveground storage tanks, from the ground, may be made by other than the Authorized Inspector , The interval of such inspections shall not exceed: a) At least every five years or 1/4 the corrosion rate life of the shell whichever is less b) 12 months c) 6 months d) 1 month Reference: API-653 Paragraph 6.3.1.2 5. All tanks shall be given a visual external inspection, by an Authorized Inspector, at what frequency? a) Inspection conducted at least every 20 years or at the quarter corrosion rate of the bottom whichever is less b) Inspection conducted at least every 5 years or at the quarter corrosion rate of the bottom whichever is less c) Inspection conducted at least every 5 years or at the quarter corrosion rate of the shell whichever is less d) Inspection conducted at least every 20 years or at the quarter corrosion rate of the shell whichever is less Reference: API-653 Paragraph 6.3.2.1
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6. External ultrasonic thickness measurements of the shell, while the tank is in service, can be a means of determining rate of uniform corrosion. The extent of UT measurements shall be determined by the owner/operator. What is maximum interval of such thickness measurements when the corrosion rate is not known? a) Five years b) Three years c) One year d) Every three months until the corrosion rate is established Reference: API-653 Paragraph 6.3.3.2a. 7. The minimum thickness of a tank was established at 0.585 inch. The shell was fabricated from 3/4 inch plate and included a 0.125 inch corrosion allowance. The tank has been in service for eight years and current ultrasonic thickness measurements reveal an average thickness of 0.712 inch. Based on this information determine when the next ultrasonic thickness measurements will be required. a) Fifteen years b) Thirteen years c) Eleven years d) Nine years Reference: API-653 Paragraph 6.3.3.2b. 8. Internal inspections are primarily required to do all but which of the following? a) Ensure the internal surfaces of the tank are thoroughly cleaned periodically b) Identify and evaluate any tank bottom settlement c) Ensure that the bottom is not severely corroded and leaking d) Gather data necessary for the minimum bottom and shell thickness assessments Reference: API-653 Paragraph 6.4.1.1 9. When can the required internal inspection be performed by some method other than visual inspection? a) Substitution of the visual inspection is never permitted b) If the internal inspection is required solely for determining the condition and integrity of the tank bottom c) If the internal inspection is required solely for determining the condition and integrity of the tank critical zone d) If the internal inspection is required solely for determining the condition and integrity of the tank roof support structure Reference: API-653 Paragraph 6.4.1.2 10. According to API-653, all tanks shall have a formal internal inspection conducted at intervals defined by this standard. Who is required to conduct the visual inspection? a) The corrosion engineer b) The person designated by the Authorized Inspector c) The authorized Inspector d) The person designated by the owner user Reference: API-653 Paragraph 6.4.1.2
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11. Intervals between internal inspections shall be determined by the corrosion rates measured during previous inspections or anticipated based on experience with tanks in similar service. The internal inspection interval shall not exceed how many years? a) Ten years b) Fifteen years c) Twenty years d) Twenty-five years Reference: API-653 Paragraph 6.4.2.1 12. What is the minimum thickness permitted at the next inspection for a tank bottom designed with a means to provide detection and containment of a bottom leak? a) 0.01 inch b) 0.10 inch c) 0.50 inch d) 0.05 inch Reference: API-653 Paragraph 6.4.2.1 & Table 6.1 13. In cases where corrosion rates are not known and similar service experience is not available, the bottom plate actual thickness shall be determined by inspection(s) within how many years? a) 25 years b) 20 years c) 15 years d) 10 years Reference: API-653 Paragraph 6.4.2.2 14. Which of the following is a recognized alternative to internal inspection interval described in API-653? a) Risk-based Inspection procedures (RBI) b) Hydrostatically testing the tank every five years c) Performing complete calculations for minimum required thickness of the tank shell and bottom d) API-653 does not permit any alternatives to the internal inspection intervals Reference: API-653 Paragraph 6.4.3 15. Of the following, which would not be a factor to be considered in a Risk-based assessment of a tank? a) Availability and effectiveness of inspection methods and quality of data collected b) The methods used for determining the thickness of the shell and bottom plates c) Effectiveness of corrosion mitigation methods d) Names of all operators since the initial start-up of the tank Reference: API-653 Paragraph 6.4.3

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16. The owner/operator is required to maintain complete record file consisting of three types of records. Which of the following is not one of the three types of records. a) Repair/alteration history b) Fill cycles c) Construction d) Inspection Reference: API-653 Paragraph 6.8.1 17. General inspection reports shall include which of the following? a) Metal thickness measurement, repairs, conditions found, settlement measurements, and recommendations b) Metal thickness measurement, repairs, operational upsets, settlement measurements, and recommendations c) Metal thickness measurement, repairs, conditions found, name of organization performing environmental impact study, and recommendations d) Metal thickness measurement, list of all personnel who have worked on the tank since the last inspection, conditions found, settlement measurements, and recommendations Reference: API-653 Paragraph 6.9.2 Answers to API-653 Section 6, Inspection Question Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer c b b d c a b a b Question Number 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Answer c c d d a d b a

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Section 7 Materials
1. All new materials used for repair, alteration, and reconstruction shall conform to which of the following? a) The existing material code at the time of original construction b) The latest NFPA Code c) The current applicable tank standards d) Any ASME Code specification for P-1 material Reference: API-653, Paragraph 7.2 2. All shell plates and bottom plates welded to the shell shall be identified. Material identified by any of the following except _____ does not require further identification? a) Original contract drawings b) API name plates c) Suitable documentation d) Owner/operator's experience with similar tanks in similar service constructed of similar material Reference: API-653, Paragraph 7.3.1.1 3. Each individual plate for which adequate identification can not be made; the plate shall be _______. a) Subjected to chemical analysis and mechanical tests as required in ASTM A6 and A370 including Charpy V-Notch b) Subjected to chemical analysis and mechanical tests as required in ASTM A20 and A333 including Charpy V-Notch c) Subjected to Brinell hardness analysis and mechanical tests as required in ASTM A6 and A370 including Charpy V-Notch d) Subjected to Brinell hardness analysis and mechanical tests as required in ASTM A20 and A333 including Charpy V-Notch Reference: API-653, Paragraph 7.3.1.2 4. Under what condition does API-653 require two tension specimens shall be taken at right angles to each other from a corner of each plate? One of those specimens must meet the specification requirements. a) When the direction of rolling is not definitely known b) When the welding will be conducted at a temperature less than 32F c) When the plate is not a full size plate and may be installed with the grain running vertical d) When the material is not a P-1 material Reference: API-653, Paragraph 7.3.1.2

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5. Even when a material is identified, all shell plates and bottom plates welded to the shell shall meet what minimum requirements? a) The chemistry and mechanical properties of material specified for the application with regard to thickness and design temperature given in ASME Section II, Part A b) The chemistry and mechanical properties of material specified for the application with regard to thickness and design temperature given in API Standard 650 c) The chemistry and mechanical properties of material specified for the application with regard to thickness and design temperature given in the owner/operator's engineering design d) The chemistry and mechanical properties of material specified for the application with regard to thickness and design temperature given in the contract for the tank repair, alteration, or reconstruction Reference: API-653, Paragraph 7.3.1.3 6. Is it permissible to reuse existing rolled structural shapes? If so what specification applies? a) Yes, existing rolled structural shapes shall meet the requirement of ASTM A-20 as a minimum b) Yes, existing rolled structural shapes shall meet the requirement of ASTM A-370 as a minimum c) Yes, existing rolled structural shapes shall meet the requirement of ASTM A-6 as a minimum d) Yes, existing rolled structural shapes shall meet the requirement of ASTM A-7 as a minimum Reference: API-653, Paragraph 7.3.2 7. Flange material must meet the minimum requirements of the material specifications of the current applicable standard. a) True b) False Reference: API-653, Paragraph 7.3.3.1 8. Fasteners shall meet the material specifications of the current applicable standard. a) True b) False Reference: API-653, Paragraph 7.3.3.2 9. If existing plates are to be used to reconstruct the tank, they shall be checked for which of the following? a) Chemical compatibility with other plates used in the reconstruction b) Excessive corrosion and pitting c) Mechanical strength including impact properties d) Inadequately reinforced openings Reference: API-653, Paragraph 7.3.4

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Answers to API-653 Section 7, Materials Question Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer C D A A B D B A B

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Section 8 Design Considerations for Reconstructed Tanks


1. Design considerations other than normal product loading shall be specified by the _____. a) Organization performing the reconstruction b) Authorized Inspector c) Owner/operator d) Registered professional engineer contracted by the repair organization Reference API 653 Paragraph 8.1 2. Weld joint details shall meet the requirements of which of the following? a) API Standard 650 b) ASME Section IX only c) The applicable standard d) AWS D1.1 Structural Welding Code Reference API 653 Paragraph 8.2.1 3. The thickness to be used for each shell course when checking tank design shall be based on: a) Measurements taken within 30 days prior to relocation b) Measurements taken within 60 days prior to relocation c) Measurements taken within 120 days prior to relocation d) Measurements taken within 180 days prior to relocation Reference API 653 Paragraph 8.4.1 4. The maximum liquid level for hydrostatic test shall be determined by using which of the following? a) The nominal thickness of each shell course at the time of original construction b) The actual thickness measured for each shell course c) The anticipated thickness for each shell course at the time of next thickness measurements d) Twice the anticipated thickness for each shell course at the time of next thickness measurements Reference API 653 Paragraph 8.4.3 5. The joint efficiency and allowable stress levels for existing welded joints that are not to be removed and replaced shall be based on which of the following? a) Original construction standard b) Original degree and type of inspection c) Current construction standard d) Current degree and type of inspection Reference API 653 Paragraph 8.4.5

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6. Replacement and new penetrations shall be designed, detailed, welded, and examined to meet what requirements? a) The current applicable standard b) The original standard of construction c) The requirements of the Authorized Inspector d) The requirements of the owner/operator Reference API 653 Paragraph 8.5.1 7. Existing penetrations shall be evaluated for compliance with what requirements? a) The current applicable standard b) The original standard of construction c) The requirements of the Authorized Inspector d) The requirements of the owner/operator Reference API 653 Paragraph 8.5.2 8. With regard to seismic design, reconstructed tanks shall be built to meet the stability requirements of: a) The requirements of the owner/operator b) The requirements of the Authorized Inspector c) The original standard of construction d) The applicable standard Reference API 653 Paragraph 8.8 Answers to API-653 Section 8, Design Question Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Answer C C D B B A B D

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Section 9 Tank Repair and Alteration


1. The basis for repairs and alterations shall be equivalent to which of the following? a) API-653 b) API-650 c) API-510 d) API-570 Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.1.1 2. The minimum dimension for a replacement shall plate shall be _____ inches or ____ times the thickness of the replacement plate whichever is ______. a) 12, 12, greater b) 12, 12, lesser c) 18, 18, greater d) 18, 18, lesser Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.2.2.1 3. Unless an entire shell plate is replaced, the replacement plate may be circular, oblong, square or rectangular provide the corners are a) Provided with a radius of at least 1 inch b) Provided with a radius of at least 3% of the short dimension of the plate c) Provided with a radius of at least 3 inches d) Provided with rounded corners Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.2.2.1 4. Prior to welding the new vertical joints, the existing horizontal joints shall be cut for a minimum distance of _____ inches beyond the new vertical joints. a) Six b) Eight c) Twelve d) Sixteen Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.2.2.2 5. Vertical joints shall be welded before the horizontal joints. a) True b) False Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.2.2.2

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6. For existing shell plates over thick, the outer edge of the butt weld, attaching the replacement shell plate shall be at least _____ times the weld thickness or _____ inches whichever is greater from the outer edge of any existing butt-welded shell joints. a) 12, 10 b) 10, 12 c) 8, 10 d) 10, 8 Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.2.3.3 7. For existing shell plates thick and less, the outer edge of the butt weld, attaching the replacement shell plate may be reduced to _____ inches from the outer edge of vertical joints or _____ inches from the outer edge of horizontal joints. a) 10, 8 b) 9, 6 c) 6, 9 d) 6, 3 Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.2.3.3 8. For existing shell plates over thick, the outer edge of the butt weld, attaching the replacement shell plate shall be at least _____ times the weld size or _____ inches, whichever is greater, from the edge (toe) of the fillet weld attaching the bottom shell course to the bottom. This rule does not apply if the replacement shell plate extends to and intersects with the bottom-to-shell joint at approximately _____ degrees. a) 8, 10, 45 b) 8, 10, 90 c) 8, 10, 60 d) There are no exceptions Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.2.3.3 9. The edge of any vertical weld joint attaching a replacement plate shall be at least how far from the edge of the weld joint in the annular plate ring or sketch plate? a) Eight inches b) Ten inches c) Twelve inches d) Six inches Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.2.3.3 10. Lapped patch shell repairs are an acceptable form of repair for butt-welded, lap-welded, and riveted tank shell only when specified by: a) The Authorized Inspector b) Repair organization c) The insurance company d) The owner/operator Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.3.1

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11. Lapped patch shell repairs are not permitted on shell courses exceeding what thickness? a) inch b) inch c) 1 inch d) 1 inch Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.3.1.2 12. When a lapped patch shell repair is used, what is the minimum thickness permitted for the repair plate? a) Not less than .25 inch b) Not less than .1875 inch c) Not less than .50 inch d) Not less than .375 inch Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.3.1.3 13. Repair plates for lapped patch repairs may square or rectangular in shape. These plates must be provided with a corner radius of at least what dimension? a) They shall be rounded to a minimum radius of 1 inch b) They shall be rounded to a minimum radius of 2 inches c) They shall be rounded to a minimum radius of 3 inches d) They shall be rounded to a minimum radius of 4 inches Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.3.1.4 14. The maximum dimension of the lapped patch repair plate vertically and horizontally shall not exceed: a) 24 inches vertically and 36 inches horizontally b) 36 inches vertically and 48 inches horizontally c) 48 inches vertically and 72 inches horizontally d) There are no maximum dimensions Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.3.1.7 15. The minimum lapped patch repair plate dimension is what length? a) 6 inches b) 8 inches c) 10 inches d) 12 inches Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.3.1.7 16. Is it permissible to install a shell opening and its reinforcement within a properly designed lapped patch shell repair? a) Yes b) No Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.3.1.8
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17. When a lapped patch repair plate is used to reinforce the thickness of a shell, which of the following is correct? a) The repair plate thickness shall be based on the latest edition of API-650 and 653 using a joint efficiency not exceeding 0.35 b) The repair plate thickness shall be based on the applicable standard of construction and API Standard 653 using a joint efficiency not exceeding 0.35 c) The repair plate thickness shall be based on the latest edition of API-650 and 653 using a joint efficiency not exceeding 0.70 d) The repair plate thickness shall be based on the applicable standard of construction and API Standard 650 using a joint efficiency not exceeding 0.70 Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.3.3.1 18. With regard to the thickness of the repair plate at the perimeter of the repair plate, when a lapped patch repair plate is used to reinforce the thickness of a shell, which of the following is correct? a) The repair plate shall not exceed the thickness of the shell plate by more than 1/4th but no more than 1/8th inch. The maximum repair plate thickness is 1/2inch. b) The repair plate shall not exceed the thickness of the shell plate by more than 1/3rd but no more than 1/4th inch. The maximum repair plate thickness is 1/2inch. c) The repair plate shall not exceed the thickness of the shell plate by more than 1/3rd but no more than 1/8th inch. The maximum repair plate thickness is 1/2inch. d) The repair plate shall not exceed the thickness of the shell plate by more than 1/4th but no more than 1/3rd inch. The maximum repair plate thickness is 1/2inch. Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.3.3.1 19. Lapped patch repair plates may be used to repair small leaks or minimize the potential of leaks from isolated pitting. The requirements for thickness and design are the same as for reinforcement of shell thickness. This type of repair may not be used to repair small leaks if what condition(s) exists? a) The leak is located anywhere in the first shell course within 12 inches of a vertical joint b) The leak of pit is in an area of the shell where there is a product to atmosphere interface c) There is a possibility of severe environmental impact should the repair fail d) If exposure of the fillet weld to the product would produce crevice corrosion or if a corrosion cell is likely to occur between the shell plate and the repair plate Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.3.4.4 20. An alteration to a tank shell by the addition of new plate material shall be performed in accordance with what standard? a) Current API 650 and latest addenda b) API 650 edition and addenda applicable at the time of original tank construction c) Applicable standard d) Tanks may not be altered by increasing height Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.5

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21. Repairs to existing shell penetrations shall be in accordance with a) API Standard 650 b) API Standard 653 c) API Standard 510 d) National Board Inspection Code Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.7.1 22. API 653 permits the addition of reinforcing plates to existing un-reinforced nozzles. What requirement is necessary to add this reinforcement to the inside of the tank? a) The reinforcement plate may not be added to the inside of the plate b) A telltale hole shall be drilled through the shell opposite the reinforcement plate c) The reinforcement plate is the same material as the nozzle and is attached to the nozzle by full penetration weld d) Sufficient nozzle projection exists Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.7.3 23. The addition or replacement of shell penetrations shall be in accordance with a) API-650 b) API-650 and API 653 c) API-650 and API 510 d) API-650 and AMSE Section VIII, Division 2 Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.8.1 24. Installation or replacement of shell penetrations greater than 2 inches shall be installed with the use of an insert plate if what condition(s) exists? a) The penetration is no closer than 12 inches to an existing penetration b) The shell plate is greater than thickness and the shell plate material does not meet current metal temperature criteria c) The penetration is no closer than 10 inches to an existing penetration d) The shell plate is greater than 3/16 thickness and the shell plate material does not meet current metal temperature criteria Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.8.2 25. An 8 inch diameter penetration is to be installed in a shell which requires an insert plate. What is the minimum permitted diameter of the insert plate? a) Eight inches b) Twelve inches c) Sixteen inches d) Twenty inches Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.8.2(a)

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26. An insert plate containing an opening with a reinforcing plate is to be installed in a tank. The reinforcing plate diameter is thirty-two inches. What is the minimum diameter of the insert plate? a) The insert plate must be 32 inches in diameter b) The insert plate must be 44 inches in diameter c) The insert plate must be 32 inches in diameter plus the diameter of the opening d) The insert plate must be 32 inches in diameter plus twice the diameter of the opening Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.8.2(b) 27. If an integral reinforcement design is used, the thickness of the insert plate, at its periphery and for a distance of 2t from the edge of the weld, shall be the same thickness as the shell. If it is not, the insert plate shall have a ______ taper to match the shell plate thickness. a) 1:2 b) 1:3 c) 1:4 d) 1:5 Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.8.2(c) 28. When it is necessary to install a new tank bottom above an existing bottom, it may be necessary to alter existing shell penetrations. This procedure may require the existing reinforcing plate to be removed and a new reinforcement plate added. This is not permitted when what condition exists? a) The assembly was originally hardness tested b) The existing assembly was not impact tested c) The existing assembly was fabricated from re-claimed material d) The existing assembly was stress relieved Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.9.2.2 29. New reinforcing plates shall be installed in accordance with Fig. 7-2a of API-653. In order to maintain weld spacing, what shape reinforcing plate is permitted? a) Oval b) Diamond c) Tombstone d) Circular is the only permitted shape Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.9.2.2 30. No welding or weld overlays are permitted within the Critical Zone except for welding of widely scattered pits, cracks in the bottom plates, the shell-to-bottom weld, or where the bottom or annular plate is being replaced. a) True b) False Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.10.1.2.1

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31. API Standard 653 defines the Critical Zone for repairs to tank bottoms as what? a) That portion of the bottom or annular plate within 3" from the inside edge of the shell, measured radially inward b) Within the annular plate ring, within 12 inches of the shell, or within 12 inches of the inside edge of the annular plate ring c) That portion of the bottom or annular plate within 6" from the inside edge of the shell, measured radially inward d) Within the annular plate ring, within 3" of the shell, or within 12 inches of the inside edge of the annular plate ring Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.10.1.1 32. If more extensive repairs are required within the Critical Zone than those listed in 7.10.1.2, what must be done with the bottom plate? a) As long as the repairs do not involve the bottom plate, nothing needs to be done b) The bottom plate welded to the shell shall be cut out and a new plate installed c) The bottom plate shall be subjected to suitable nondestructive examination to ensure it has not be adversely affected by the repair d) The bottom plate and the bottom shell course shall be replaced as an assembly Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.10.1.2.4 33. When it is necessary to install a new bottom plate over an existing bottom plate, a suitable ______ material cushion such as sand, gravel or concrete shall be used between the old bottom and the new bottom. a) Drainage b) Compacted c) Non-corrosive d) Non-conductive Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.10.2.1.1 34. When a new tank bottom has been installed in a floating roof tank, what consideration must given to the floating roof level? a) The floating roof will find its own level b) The support legs can be jacked up or shortened by the same amount as the thickness of the cushion and new bottom plate c) The support legs can be jacked up or shortened by the same amount as the thickness of the cushion d) The support legs can be jacked up or shortened by the same amount as the thickness of the new bottom plate Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.10.2.1.5

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35. Which of the following is not acceptable when removing an existing tank bottom, with regard to the separation of the shell from the tank bottom? a) Cutting the shell parallel to the tank bottom a minimum of above the bottom to shell weld b) Removing the entire shell to bottom attachment weld including penetration and heat affect zone c) Removing the entire shell to bottom attachment weld by arc gouging and/or grinding d) Cutting the shell parallel to the tank bottom a minimum of above the bottom to shell weld Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.10.2.2(a) and (b) 36. For installation of a new tank bottom in a tank with shell plates of unknown toughness, not exempted in Table 10-1 of API-653, new welds in the bottom or annular ring shall be spaced at least the greater of _____ inches or ____t from existing vertical weld joints in the bottom shell course. (t is the thickness of the bottom shell course) a) three, five b) six, five c) five, three d) five, six Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.10.2.3 37. What is the minimum thickness of new roof plates for supported cone roofs? a) 7/16 b) 5/16 c) 3/16 d) 1/16 Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.11.1.1 38. The nominal thickness of new roof plates for self-supporting roofs shall be equal to or greater than _____ inch not to exceed _____ inch. a) 1/4th, 5/8th b) 5/16th, 1/2 c) 3/16th, 5/16th d) 3/16th, 1/2 Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.11.2.1 and API-650 3.10.5 or 3.10.6 39. Repairs to internal floating roofs shall be made in accordance with the original construction drawings. To what requirements shall repairs be made if the original construction drawings are not available? a) The original construction standard b) Appendix H of API Standard 650 c) Appendix G of API Standard 650 d) Appendix C of API Standard 650 Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.12.2
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40. To minimize evaporation losses and reduce potential hazard to workers, no more than ____ of the roof seal system should be out of an in-service tank at one time. a) One-eighth b) One-fourth c) One-half d) Three-quarters Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.13.1 41. Mechanical damage to floating roof perimeter seals shall be repaired or replaced. How are buckled parts handled? a) They shall be replaced b) They may be straightened in place c) They may be heated and bent back into position d) They may be removed straightened and re-installed Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.13.4 42. With regard to installation of primary and secondary seals, what must be done if the roof rim thickness is less than 0.10 inch. a) The roof rim shall be thoroughly inspected for damage and corrosion, if it is satisfactory then nothing further needs to be done b) It shall be replaced. The new roof rim shall be 3/16 inch thickness minimum c) It shall be replaced. The new roof rim shall be 1/4 inch thickness minimum d) The tank must be condemned and dismantled Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.13.6.2 43. What is the maximum hot tap connection permitted in an in-service tank with a minimum shell thickness of 3/8 inch? The material is of recognized toughness. a) NPS 6 b) NPS 8 c) NPS 14 d) NPS 18 Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.14.1.1(a) and Table 9-1 44. The owner/operator requires a connection to be made in an in-service tank. The shell material is of unknown toughness and the thickness is 1.25. The minimum design metal temperature is 45F. What is the maximum diameter hot tap connection that may be installed in this tank? a) NPS 18 b) NPS 14 c) NPS 8 d) NPS 4 Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.14.1.1(b)(1) and Fig. 9-6

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45. The minimum height of tank liquid relative to the hot tap location shall be at least ______ during the hot tapping operation. a) The tank liquid shall be at least 3 feet below the hot tap location b) The tank liquid shall be at least 1 foot above the hot tap location c) The tank liquid shall be at least 3 feet above the hot tap location d) The tank liquid shall be at least 1 foot below the hot tap location Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.14.1.2 46. It is permissible to perform hot taps on the roof of a tank or within the gas/vapor space. a) True b) False Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.14.1.4 47. The owner/operator requires an NPS 3 nozzle to be installed in an in-service tank. The tank is 110 feet in diameter, 60 feet maximum fill height, shell thickness at the point of hot tap is .75, and the material is of unknown toughness with a minimum design metal temperature of 38F. This nozzle is to be installed adjacent to an existing nozzle. What is the minimum spacing between these nozzles? a) Minimum distance is 22.24 b) Minimum distance is 9.08 c) Minimum distance is 19.08 d) Minimum distance is 2.24 Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.14.3.1 48. When installing a pipe nozzle into an in-service tank, how shall the pipe nozzle be prepared? a) The pipe nozzle must be cut to the contour of the tank and prepared for full fillet welding b) The pipe nozzle shall be cut to the contour of the tank and beveled to a depth of not more than 1/3 the nozzle thickness to ensure partial penetration groove welding c) The pipe nozzle shall be cut to the contour of the tank and beveled to a depth of not less than 1/3 the nozzle thickness to ensure partial penetration groove welding d) The pipe nozzle shall be cut to the contour of the tank and beveled from the outside for a full penetration weld Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.14.5.1 49. After the reinforcing pad is installed, the pad shall be subjected to a pneumatic test. a) True b) False Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.14.5.3

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50. After the valve has been installed on the flange, a pressure test of at least ______ shall be performed on the nozzle prior to mounting the hot tap machine. a) The same pressure as the pneumatic test of the reinforcing pad b) 1.25 times the hydrostatic head c) 1.5 times the hydrostatic head d) 2.0 times the hydrostatic head (to account for the added stress of the machine) Reference API-653, Paragraph 9.14.5.3

Answers to API-653 Section 9, Repair/Alteration Question Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Answer B A D C A C D B C D A B B D A B B C D C A D B B D

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Answers to API-653 Section 9, Repair and Alteration Continued: Question Number 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Answer B C D C A A B C B D A C D C B A B C D C B A D A C

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Section 10 Dismantling and Reconstruction


1. Bottom plates that will be reused shall be cut by de-seaming of lap-welds or by cutting alongside of the remaining welds at a minimum of _______ away from existing welds. a) One inch b) Two inches c) Four inches d) Six inches Reference API-653, Paragraph 10.3.2.1 2. Shell plates may be cut by any of the following methods except a) Shell rings thick or thinner can be dismantled by cutting through the weld without removing the heat affected zone b) Cuts made a minimum of 6 away from existing welds except where cuts cross existing welds c) Cuts made a minimum of 2 away from existing welds except where cuts cross existing welds d) Any shell ring may be dismantled by cutting out existing weld seams and the heat affected zone of the weld Reference API-653, Paragraph 10.3.3.1 3. API-653 requires that new vertical joints in adjacent shell courses not be in alignment. What is the minimum offset dimension of these joints? a) Vertical joints shall be offset a minimum of 5 inches or 5t which ever is greater b) Vertical joints shall be offset a minimum of 5t where t is the plate thickness of the thicker course at the point of offset c) Vertical joints shall be offset a minimum of 5t where t is the plate thickness of the thinner course at the point of offset d) Vertical joints shall be offset a minimum of 5 inches or 5t which ever is less Reference: API-653, Paragraph 10.4.2.1 4. Roof plates shall be cut by de-seaming of lap-welds or by cutting alongside of the remaining welds at a minimum of _______ away from existing welds. a) One inch b) Two inches c) Four inches d) Six inches Reference API-653, Paragraph 10.3.4.1

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5. In the reconstruction of aboveground storage tanks, welding shall be by any of the following welding processes except. a) Submerged arc welding b) Oxyfuel c) Gas metal-arc d) Forging Reference API-653, Paragraph 10.4.2.2 and API-650 5.2.1 6. No welding of any kind may be performed when the surfaces to be welded are wet from rain, snow, or ice. When rain or snow is falling or during high wind conditions, welding is permitted provided: a) The welder is secured to an anti-fall device and the work is properly grounded b) The welder has agreed to work in such conditions c) The welder and the work are properly shielded d) The owner/operator takes full responsibility for the safety of the welder and the quality of the welds Reference API-653, Paragraph 10.4.2.3 7. According to API-653, no welding is permitted when the temperature of the base metal is below what value? a) Base metal temperature below -20F b) Base metal temperature below 0F c) Base metal temperature below 20F d) Base metal temperature below 30F Reference API-653, Paragraph 10.4.2.3 8. If the base metal is greater than 1 thickness or the temperature of the base metal is between 0F and 32F what requirement does API-653 stipulate? a) The base metal within 3 inches of the weld area shall be heated to a temperature that is warm to the hand (approximately 180F) b) The base metal within 8 inches of the weld area shall be heated to a temperature that is warm to the hand (approximately 140F) c) The base metal within 3 inches of the weld area shall be heated to a temperature that is warm to the hand (approximately 140F) d) The base metal within 8 inches of the weld area shall be heated to a temperature that is warm to the hand (approximately 180F) Reference API-653, Paragraph 10.4.2.3 9. What is the maximum permissible undercut of the base metal for vertical joints? a) 1/64 b) 1/32 c) 1/19 d) 1/16 Reference API-653, Paragraph 10.4.2.5
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10. What is the maximum permissible undercut of the base metal for horizontal joints? a) 1/64 b) 1/32 c) 1/19 d) 1/16 Reference API-653, Paragraph 10.4.2.5 11. What is the maximum weld reinforcement thickness permitted on each side of the plate for a plate, which is 7/8 thick? Vertical joints Horizontal joints a) 3/32 1/8 b) 1/8 3/16 c) 3/16 1/4 d) 1/4 5/16 Reference API-653, Paragraph 10.4.2.6 & Table 10-1 12. Tack welds used in the assembly of vertical joints in tank shells may remain in place when the joints are welded manually provided: a) They are properly cleaned of all weld slag b) They are sound c) Liquid Penetrant or Magnetic Particle examination is performed d) They shall not remain Reference API-653, Paragraph 10.4.2.7 13. What are the requirements for making tack welds according API-653? a) If the tack weld is to be removed, it must be made using qualified weld procedure and qualified welder b) If the tack weld is to remain in place, it must be made using qualified weld procedure and qualified welder c) If the tack weld is to remain in place, it may be made using any weld procedure acceptable to the owner/operator d) If the tack weld is to be removed, it may be made by any welder wishing to gain experience provided the process is the SMAW process Reference API-653, Paragraph 10.4.2.7 14. All coatings must be removed from the weld area prior to welding except weldable primer coatings. What must done if these primer coatings are used? a) Weldable primer coatings must also be removed b) If the coating is applied by brush it may remain provided the application is performed to a written procedure c) They shall be included in welding procedure qualification tests for brand, formulation, and maximum thickness of primer applied d) They shall be included in welding procedure qualification tests for the method of application either by brushing or by spraying or a combination of the two. Reference API-653, Paragraph 10.4.2.8
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15. When welding tank bottoms, when should the shell-to-bottom weld be completed? a) This joint (except for door sheets) can be welded as soon as the bottom plates are laid out and welded b) This joint (except for door sheets) shall be welded as soon as the first bottom weld joint is completed to prevent distortion c) This joint (except for door sheets) shall be welded as work progresses around the tank bottom d) This joint (except for door sheets) shall be completed before the welding of bottom joints Reference API-653, Paragraph 10.4.3.2 16. What is the maximum permissible misalignment of vertical joints in shell plates that are .9375 thick? a) .125 b) .09375 c) .009375 d) .0125 Reference API-653, Paragraph 10.4.4.1 17 What is the maximum permissible misalignment of vertical joints in shell plates that are .625 thick? a) .0625 b) .00625 c) .125 d) .0125 Reference API-653, Paragraph 10.4.4.1 18. Vertical joints shall be completed before the lower horizontal weld is made. a) True b) False Reference API-653, Paragraph 10.4.4.1 19. In completing horizontal joints, what is the maximum projection of the upper plate, beyond the face of the lower plate, at any point for plate thickness of 1.125 a) .25 b) .225 c) .125 d) .0125 Reference API-653, Paragraph 10.4.4.2

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20. When welding horizontal and vertical joints constructed of material that is over 1.5 thick, based on the thickness of the thicker part, what is the required preheat temperature? a) Preheating is not required b) 140F c) 200F d) 300F Reference API-653, Paragraph 10.4.4.3 21. When shall measurements be taken to verify tolerances of reconstructed tanks? a) After hydrostatic testing b) Before hydrostatic testing c) After lay out of all plates d) After fit-up and tack welding used for alignment purposes Reference API-653, Paragraph 10.5.1.2 22. What is the maximum out-of-plumbness of the top of the shell relative to the bottom of the shell of a tank with a total height of 62.25 feet? a) 7.47 b) .6225 c) 6.25 d) 5 Reference API-653, Paragraph 10.5.2.1 23. An aboveground storage tank is 115 feet in diameter. What is the maximum or minimum radius permitted measured at one foot above the shell-to-bottom weld? a) b) c) d) Maximum 115.75 690.75 1380.75 115.5 Minimum 114.25 689.25 1379.25 114.5

Reference API-653, Paragraph 10.5.3 24. An aboveground reconstructed tank is 126.5 feet in diameter. What is the maximum or minimum radius permitted measured at the second shell course up from the bottom? a) b) c) d) Maximum 759.75 761.25 1520.25 128.75 Minimum 758.25 756.75 1515.75 124.25

Reference API-653, Paragraph 10.5.3

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25. Peaking shall not exceed . This is measured using a horizontal sweep board of what dimensions? a) The sweep board shall be 48 long and made to the true outside radius of the tank b) The sweep board shall be 48 long and made to the true inside radius of the tank c) The sweep board shall be 36 long and made to the true outside radius of the tank d) The sweep board shall be 36 long and made to the true inside radius of the tank Reference API-653, Paragraph 10.5.4 26. Banding shall not exceed ____ with a vertical 36 long sweep board. a) One half inch b) Three quarter inch c) One inch d) One and one eighth inch Reference API-653, Paragraph 10.5.5 27. The top of the concrete ring wall of a reconstructed tank, that is 115 feet in diameter, must be level within 1/8 in any 30 feet of circumference. What is the tolerance measured from the average elevation? a) 1/8 b) 3/16 c) 1/2 d) 1/4 Reference API-653, Paragraph 10.5.6.2(a) 28. Where concrete ring walls are not provided, the foundation under the shell shall be level to within what tolerances? a) 1/8 in any 30 of the circumference and 1/2 in the total circumference measured from the average elevation b) 1/8 in any 10 of the circumference and 1/2 in the total circumference measured from the average elevation c) 1/8 in any 10 of the circumference and 1/4 in the total circumference measured from the average elevation d) 1/8 in any 30 of the circumference and 1/4 in the total circumference measured from the average elevation Reference API-653, Paragraph 10.5.6.2(b) 29. For foundations specified to be sloped from a horizontal plane, the actual elevation shall not deviate from the calculated differences by more than which of the following where concrete ring walls are provided? a) 1/8 in any 30 of the circumference and 1/4 in the total circumference measured from the average elevation b) 1/8 in any 10 of the circumference and 1/2 in the total circumference c) 1/8 in any 10 of the circumference and 1/2 in the total circumference measured from the average elevation d) 1/8 in any 30 of the circumference and 1/4 in the total circumference Reference API-653, Paragraph 10.5.6.3(a)
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30. For foundations specified to be sloped from a horizontal plane, the actual elevation shall not deviate from the calculated differences by more than which of the following where concrete ring walls are not provided? a) 1/8 in any 30 of the circumference and 1/2 in the total circumference measured from the average elevation b) 1/8 in any 10 of the circumference and 1/2 in the total circumference c) 1/8 in any 10 of the circumference and 1/2 in the total circumference measured from the average elevation d) 1/8 in any 30 of the circumference and 1/4 in the total circumference Reference API-653, Paragraph 10.5.6.3(b) Answers to API-653 Section 10, Dismantling & Reconstruction Question Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Answer b c b b d c b c a b b d b c d b a a c c b d b b c c d b d b

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Section 11 Welding
1. Welding procedure specifications and welders and welding operators shall be qualified in accordance with __________. a) Original code of construction b) Owner/operators specification c) Section IX of the ASME Code d) Repair organizations specifications Reference API-653, Paragraph 11.1.1 2. According to API Standard 653, if the material specification for the steel from an existing tank is unknown or obsolete what must be done? a) The material can not be used for tank reconstruction b) Test coupons for the WPS shall be taken from the actual plate to be used c) Test coupons for the WPS may be taken from a similar material of known specification d) Test coupons for the WPS shall only be taken from weld filler metal and not from the base metal Reference API-653, Paragraph 11.1.2 3. Each welder and welding operator shall be assigned ________. a) Only one joint to ensure traceability b) A specific welding machine c) An identifying number, letter, or symbol d) Weld joints on only one side of the tank Reference API-653, Paragraph 11.2.1 4. How does each welder and welding operator identify the welds produced by them? a) Each welder and welding operators identification mark shall be hand or machine stamped adjacent to each completed weld. b) Each welder and welding operator shall inform the owner/operator which welds he or she completed c) Each welder and welding operator shall show the inspector exactly which welds they completed d) Each welder and welding operator shall inform the owner/operator which welds they will be making prior to the start of such welding Reference API-653, Paragraph 11.2.2 5. At what intervals must the welder and welding operators identification be stamped adjacent to the completed welds? a) Identification shall be at intervals not to exceed 9 feet b) Identification shall be at intervals not to exceed 7.5 feet c) Identification shall be at intervals not to exceed 6 feet d) Identification shall be at intervals not to exceed 3 feet Reference API-653, Paragraph 11.2.2
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6. In lieu of stamping, a record may be kept that identifies the welder or welding operator for each welded joint. a) True b) False Reference API-653, Paragraph 11.2.2 7. What welds do not require welders identification? a) All welds require identification b) Vertical welded joints which are located within the final shell course since this course will be subjected to relatively low stresses c) Roof plate welds and flange-to-nozzle-neck welds d) Roof plate welds and bottom plate welds Reference API-653, Paragraph 11.2.2 Answers to API-653 Section 11, Welding Question Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Answer C B C A D A C

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Section 12 Examination and Testing


1. Nondestructive examination procedures, qualifications, and acceptance criteria is required for VT, MT, UT, PT, and RT methods and must be in accordance with what Code or Standard? a) ASME Code Section V, Nondestructive examination b) API Standard 650 only c) API Standard 650 and the supplements given in API-653 d) Owner/operators specifications Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.1.1.1 2. Personnel performing nondestructive examination shall be qualified in accordance with _____. a) API Standard 650 and the supplemental requirements of API-653 b) ASME Code Section V, Nondestructive Examination c) SNT-TC-1A d) The owner/operators specifications Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.1.1.2 3. When it is necessary to install a hot tap connection or add a reinforcing plate to an existing unreinforced penetration, API 653 requires what type, extent, and purpose of examination. a) Magnetic particle examination for slight sub-surface discontinuities shall be performed in an area equal to twice the diameter of the opening b) Radiographic examination for cracking shall be performed in the immediate area c) Ultrasonic examination for cracking shall be performed in the immediate area d) Ultrasonic examination for lamination shall be performed in the immediate area Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.1.2.1 4. Completed welds attaching nozzle neck to shell, and reinforcing plate to shell and nozzle neck, shall be examined by _______. a) Ultrasonic or Radiography b) Magnetic Particle or Liquid Penetrant c) Visual examination or Liquid Penetrant d) Ultrasonic or Magnetic Particle Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.1.2.3

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5. How and when does API Standard 653 require the examination of welds of completed stress relieved assemblies? a) Completed welds of stress relieved assemblies shall be examined visually only after stress relief and hydrostatic test b) Completed welds of stress relieved assemblies shall be examined visually as well as by ultrasonic methods after stress relief but before hydrostatic test c) Completed welds of stress relieved assemblies shall be examined visually as well as by magnetic particle or liquid penetrant methods after stress relief but before hydrostatic test d) Completed welds of stress relieved assemblies shall be examined visually or by radiography after stress relief but before hydrostatic test Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.1.2.4 6. Completed butt welds between insert plates and the shell require what type and extent of examination? a) Complete radiography b) Spot Radiography c) Random Radiography d) Random Spot Radiography Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.1.2.5 7. In repairing butt weld flaws, what type and extent of examination is required by API-653? a) Random examination by radiography or ultrasonic methods of the full length of repair b) Examined full length of the repair by liquid penetrant or magnetic particle methods c) Examined at three foot intervals by radiography or ultrasonic methods d) Examined full length of the repair by radiography or ultrasonic methods Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.1.3.2 8. Completed repairs of fillet welds shall be examined over their full length by the appropriate nondestructive method listed in API-653. a) True b) False Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.1.3.3 9. With regards to new welds attaching shell plate to shell plate, what method(s) of examination is/are required on the completed weld? a) Visual b) Visual and Radiography c) Visual and magnetic particle or liquid penetrant d) Visual and ultrasonic Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.1.5

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10. With regards to new welds attaching shell plate to shell plate for plate thickness greater than one inch, what additional extent and method of examination is required by API-653? a) The back gouged surface of the root and final pass (each side) shall be examined for its complete length by the Inspector b) The back gouged surface of the root and final pass (each side) shall be examined for its complete length visually c) The back gouged surface of the root and final pass (each side) shall be examined for its complete length by magnetic particle or liquid penetrant d) The back gouged surface of the root and final pass (each side) shall be examined for its complete length by ultrasonic Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.1.5 11. New welding on the shell-to-bottom joint shall be inspected for its entire length by _____ and _______ or ________. a) Visual examination, liquid penetrant , magnetic particle b) Right-angle vacuum box and solution film, light diesel oil c) Visual examination, ultrasonic, eddy current d) Visual examination, wet fluorescent magnetic particle, helium tracer gas Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.1.6.1 12. In applying light diesel oil to the opposite side of the first pass of new shell-to-bottom joints, how long must the oil remain on the weld and what is the weld inspected for? a) The oil shall be allowed to stand at least four hours and the weld inspected for wicking action b) The oil shall be allowed to stand at least three hours and the weld inspected for wicking action c) The oil shall be allowed to stand at least two hours and the weld inspected for wicking action d) The oil shall be allowed to stand at least one hour and the weld inspected for wicking action Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.1.6.2 13. The existing weld at the shell-to-bottom joint shall be examined visually and magnetic particle or liquid penetrant methods, for the full length under a welded-on patch plate. How much additional shell-to-bottom joint must be examined? a) Three inches on each side of the patch plate b) Six inches on each side of the patch plate c) nine inches on each side of the patch plate d) twelve inches on each side of the patch plate Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.1.6.2

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14. How and to what extent are newly welded bottom joints tested? a) Newly welded bottom joints shall be tested their entire length using liquid penetrant b) Newly welded bottom joints shall be tested their entire length using a vacuum box and a solution film, or a tracer gas and detector c) Newly welded bottom joints shall be tested their entire length using visual and ultrasonic examination d) Newly welded bottom joints shall be tested their entire length using wet fluorescent magnetic particle examination Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.1.7.1 15. What are the requirements, regarding examination, of a welded-on patch plate in the critical zone? a) The final weld shall be examined by radiography over its entire length b) Root and final pass shall be examined by radiography over its entire length c) The root and final pass shall be examined visually over its entire length d) The root and final pass shall be examined visually and by magnetic particle of liquid penetrant method over its entire length Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.1.7.3 16. API-653 requires the number and location of radiographs to in accordance with API-650. In addition, API-653 requires how many and what location for new or repaired shell vertical joints? a) For new or repaired shell vertical joints one radiograph shall be taken in each fifty foot length b) For new or repaired shell vertical joints one radiograph shall be taken in each twenty-five foot length c) For new or repaired shell vertical joints one radiograph shall be taken in every joint d) For new or repaired shell vertical joints one radiograph shall be taken in every other joint Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.2.1.1

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17. API-653 requires the number and location of radiographs to in accordance with API-650. In addition, API-653 requires how many and what location for new or repaired shell horizontal joints? a) For new or repaired shell horizontal joints one radiograph shall be taken in each twentyfive feet of horizontal joint including those required at intersections of vertical and horizontal joints b) For new or repaired shell horizontal joints one radiograph shall be taken in each twentyfive feet of horizontal joint not including those required at intersections of vertical and horizontal joints c) For new or repaired shell horizontal joints one radiograph shall be taken in each fifty feet of horizontal joint including those required at intersections of vertical and horizontal joints d) For new or repaired shell horizontal joints one radiograph shall be taken in each fifty feet of horizontal joint not including those required at intersections of vertical and horizontal joints Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.2.1.2 18. API-653 requires two radiographs to be taken at each new or replacement intersection between vertical and horizontal joints. One to comply with the requirement for vertical joints and one to comply with the requirements for horizontal joints. a) True b) False Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.2.1.3 19. For reconstructed tanks, each butt-welded annular plate joint shall be radiographed in accordance with which of the following? a) API-650 b) ASME - Section V c) API-653 and API-575 d) Owner/operator's specifications Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.2.1.4 20. For reconstructed tanks, radiographic examination is required for what percentage of all junctions of new welds over existing seams? a) 100% b) 75% c) 50% d) 25% Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.2.1.5

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21. Radiographic examination is required for new and replaced shell insert plate and door shell welds. What are the minimum number and location of such radiographs? a) Circular plates - four radiographs are required, one at each quadrant b) Square or rectangular - two radiographs are required in each vertical joint and one in a horizontal joint c) Circular plates - one radiograph and for square or rectangular - one in a vertical joint, one in a horizontal joint, and one in each corner d) Circular and square of rectangular new or replaced insert plates require 100% examination Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.2.1.6 22. What is the minimum diagnostic length of each radiograph? a) The minimum diagnostic length of each radiograph shall be six inches b) The minimum diagnostic length of each radiograph shall be three inches c) The minimum diagnostic length of each radiograph shall be nine inches d) The minimum diagnostic length of each radiograph shall be twelve inches Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.2.1.7 23. If the radiograph of an intersection between a new and old weld discloses discontinuities, which are unacceptable by current standards, what must be done? a) The unacceptable welds must be removed and made in accordance with current standards b) The unacceptable welds shall be repaired to bring them in to compliance c) The existing welds may be evaluated according to the original standard of construction d) The existing welds shall be evaluated using the acceptance criteria of ASME Section VIII Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.2.2 24. Radiographs and radiograph records of all repaired welds shall be marked with what letter(s)? a) "RW" (Repaired Weld) b) "WR" (Weld Repair) c) "A" (Accepted repair) d) "R" Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.2.3.2 25. Hydrostatic testing is required for reconstructed tanks and tanks that have undergone major repairs or alterations. What is the minimum length of time the hydrostatic test must be held? a) The time is up to the discretion of the Inspector b) Twenty-four hours c) The time is up to the discretion of the owner/operator d) Twelve hours Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.3.1.1

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26. Major repair and major alteration is defined by API-653 by which of the following? a) Cutting, addition, removal and/or replacement of the annular plate ring only if the plate is less than 1/2" thick b) Cutting, addition, removal an/or replacement of the annular plate ring, the shell-to-bottom weld, or a sizeable portion of the shell c) Cutting, addition, removal an/or replacement of the annular plate ring, the shell-to-bottom weld, or a 100 square inch portion of the shell d) Cutting, addition, removal an/or replacement of the annular plate ring, the shell-to-bottom weld, or a sizeable portion of the shell in shell material greater than 3/4" thick Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.3.1.2 27. Of the following, which would not be considered a major repair or alteration? a) The installation of a shell penetration NPS 12 above the design liquid level b) The installation of a shell penetration NPS 12 below the design liquid level c) Jacking of a tank shell d) The complete of partial removal and replacement of more than 12 inches of vertical weld joining shell plates, or radial weld joining the annular plate ring Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.3.1.2 28. A full hydrostatic test of the tank is not required for major repairs and alterations when certain conditions are met. Where would you look for these conditions? a) API-650 Paragraph 5.3.6 b) API-RP-575 Paragraph 7.5 c) API-510 Paragraph 6.4 d) API-653 Paragraph 12.3.2 Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.3.2.1 29. Hydrostatic testing is not required for shell repairs when all but which of the following are complied with? a) Impact test requirements shall follow appropriate portions of API-650 and must be specified in the repair procedure b) New vertical and horizontal shell butt-welds must have complete penetration and fusion c) New materials shall meet the current edition of ASME Section II Part A d) Finished weld must be examined by radiography Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.3.22 30. If the owner/operator elects to utilize a fitness-for-service evaluation to exempt a repair form hydrostatic testing, who perform the evaluation? a) Fitness-for-service evaluations may not be used to exempt hydrostatic testing following a repair b) The Authorized Inspector c) Engineer experienced in storage tank design and the evaluation methods used d) Exemption of hydrostatic testing for repairs can only be given by the jurisdiction Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.3.2.6
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31. When settlement is anticipated, a tank that is to be hydrostatically tested shall: a) Have the plumbness checked b) Have the water tested to ensure it is potable c) Have the perimeter dike system checked d) Have the foundation checked for settlement Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.5.1.1 32. The tank settlement shall initially be surveyed with the tank empty. What is the minimum number of settlement measurement points for a tank which is 110 feet in diameter? a) Minimum number of settlement points is 11 b) Minimum number of settlement points is 32 c) Minimum number of settlement points is 8 d) Minimum number of settlement points is 12 Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.5.1.2 33. The tank settlement shall initially be surveyed with the tank empty. What is the minimum number of settlement measurement points for a tank which is 60 feet in diameter? a) Minimum number of settlement points is 12 b) Minimum number of settlement points is 6 c) Minimum number of settlement points is 8 d) Minimum number of settlement points is 4 Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.5.1.2 34. Regardless of the minimum number of settlement measurement points required, what is the maximum spacing between settlement measurement points? a) 24 feet b) 32 feet c) 36 feet d) 40 feet Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.5.1.2 35. When shall settlement be measured? a) Settlement shall be measured after the water reaches 100% of test level and again when the tank is emptied b) Settlement shall be measured during filling and when the water reaches 80% of test level c) Settlement shall be measured during filling and when the water reaches 100% of test level d) Settlement shall be measured during filling and when the water reaches 100% of test level and during emptying of the tank Reference: API-653, Paragraph 12.5.2

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Answers to API-653 Section 12, Examination and Testing Question Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Answer c a d b c a d a b c b a b b d c d b a d c a c d b b a d c c d a c b c

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Section 13 Marking
1. Tanks that are reconstructed, in accordance with API-653 shall be identified by a corrosionresistant metal nameplate. What is the size requirement for the letters and numerals to be used on this nameplate and how are they applied to the nameplate? a) Letters and numerals not less than 1/2" high shall be embossed, engraved, or stamped in the plate b) Letters and numerals not less than 1/4" high shall be embossed, engraved, or stamped in the plate c) Letters and numerals not less than 5/32" high shall be painted on the plate or embossed, engraved, or stamped in the plate d) Letters and numerals not less than 5/32" high shall be embossed, engraved, or stamped in the plate Reference: API-653, Paragraph 13.1.1 2. Where should the new nameplate be attached and what should be done with the existing nameplate a) The new nameplate shall be attached to the tank shell adjacent to the existing nameplate. The existing nameplate shall be cleaned or suitably reconditioned b) The new nameplate shall be attached to the tank shell adjacent to the existing nameplate. The existing nameplate shall be left attached to the tank c) The new nameplate shall be attached to the tank shell adjacent to the existing nameplate. The existing nameplate shall be removed and placed in the tank record file d) The new nameplate shall be attached to the tank shell adjacent to the existing nameplate. The existing nameplate shall then be discarded Reference: API-653, Paragraph 13.1.2 3. All but which of the following information shall be made part of the owner/operator's records for aboveground storage tanks? a) Names of all operators of the tank b) Calculations c) Construction and repair drawings d) Additional supporting data Reference: API-653, Paragraph 13.2.1, 13.2.2, 13.2.3 Answers to API-653 Section 13, Marking Question Number 1 2 3 Answer D B A

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Appendix B Evaluation of Tank Bottom Settlement


1. External measurements for tank settlement shall be taken at points having a maximum spacing of ____ around the circumference. a) 24 feet b) 28 feet c) 32 feet d) 36 feet Reference: API-653 Appendix B, Paragraph B.2.1 and Figure B-1 2. Regardless of tank size, what is the minimum number of settlement point measurements? a) Four b) Eight c) Twelve d) Based on the formula N =

D 10

Reference: API-653 Appendix B, Paragraph B.2.1 and Figure B-1 3. Internal measurement for tank bottom settlement taken across the diameter of the tank must be taken at what maximum spacing? a) 10 feet b) 24 feet c) 32 feet d) 4 feet Reference: API-653 Appendix B, Paragraph B.2.1 and Figure B-2 4. Which of the following is not listed as settlement component? a) Uniform settlement b) Rigid body tilting of a tank (planar tilt) c) Out-of-plane settlement (differential settlement) d) Soil undermining (total tank sinking) Reference: API-653 Appendix B, Paragraph B.2.2 5. What type of settlement is depicted here? a) Bottom settlement near tank shell b) Edge settlement c) Localized bottom remote from tank shell d) Planar settlement Reference: API-653 Appendix B & Fig. B-5

Original bottom position

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6. Using the formula in B-3.2, determine the maximum permissible deflection (out of plane distortion) for a tank with the following data reported. Diameter Height Material Yield strength Arc length between measurements a) b) c) d) S = .09 feet S = .9 feet S = 9 feet S = .009 feet 110 feet 60 feet Carbon Steel (Young's modulus = 29,000,000 psi) 30,000psi 31.4 feet

Reference: API-653 Appendix B Paragraph B.3.2 7. What is the maximum depth of a local depression in a tank bottom if the radius of an inscribed circle is equal to 7.5 feet? a) BB = .2775 inches b) BB = 2.775 inches c) BB = 27.75 inches d) BB = .02775 inches Reference: API-653 Appendix B Paragraph B.3.3 Answers to API-653 Appendix B, Tank Bottom Settlement Question Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Answer C B A D B A B

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