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Introduction to Aspen Plus

Unit Operation Models

Unit Operation Models


Introduction to Aspen Plus

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Lesson Objectives
Review major types of unit operation models

Aspen Plus References: User Guide , Chapter 10, Unit Operation Models Unit Operation Models Reference Manual
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Introduction to Aspen Plus

Unit Operation Models

Unit Operation Model Types


Mixers/Splitters Separators Heat Exchangers Columns Reactors Pressure Changers Manipulators Solids User Models
Reference: The use of specific models is best described by online Help and the documentation. Aspen Plus Unit Operation Models Reference Manual
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Mixers/Splitters
Model
Mixer

Description
Stream mixer

Purpose
Combine multiple streams into one stream Split stream flows

Use
Mixing tees, stream mixing operations, adding heat streams, adding work streams Stream splitters, bleed valves Solid stream splitters, bleed valves

FSplit SSplit

Stream splitter

Substream splitter Split substream flows

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Introduction to Aspen Plus

Unit Operation Models

Separators
Model
Flash2

Description
Two-outlet flash

Purpose
Determine thermal and phase conditions Determine thermal and phase conditions Determine thermal and phase conditions Separate inlet stream components into any number of outlet streams Separate inlet stream components into two outlet streams

Use
Flashes, evaporators, knockout drums, single stage separators, free water separations Decanters, single stage separators with two liquid phases Decanters, single stage separators with two liquid phases and no vapor phase Component separation operations such as distillation and absorption, when the details of the separation are unknown or unimportant Component separation operations such as distillation and absorption, when the details of the separation are unknown or unimportant

Flash3 Decanter

Three-outlet flash Liquid-liquid decanter Multi-outlet component separator Two-outlet component separator

Sep

Sep2

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Heat Exchangers
Model
Heater

Description
Heater or cooler

Purpose
Determines thermal and phase conditions Exchange heat between two streams Exchange heat between any number of streams Design and simulate shell and tube heat exchangers Design and simulate aircooled heat exchangers Models convective heat transfer between a heat sink and a heat source Design and simulate shell and tube heat exchangers

Use
Heaters, coolers, valves, mixers. Pumps and compressors when work-related results are not needed Two-stream heat exchangers. Rating shell and tube heat exchangers when geometry is known Multiple hot and cold stream heat exchangers. Two-stream heat exchangers. LNG exchangers Shell and tube heat exchangers with a wide variety of configurations Air-cooled heat exchangers with a wide variety of configurations. Model economizers and the convection section of fired heaters Determines the log-mean temperature difference, using either the rigorous or the approximate method Shell and tube heat exchangers with a wide variety of configurations, including kettle boilers

HeatX

Two-stream heat exchanger Multistream heat exchanger Interface to B-JAC Hetran Interface to B-JAC Aerotran Heat transfer calculation model Interface to HTRI IST program

MHeatX

Hetran* Aerotran*

HXFlux

HTRIIST*

* Requires separate license


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Introduction to Aspen Plus

Unit Operation Models

Columns Shortcut
Model
DSTWU

Description
Shortcut distillation design Shortcut distillation rating Shortcut distillation for petroleum fractionation

Purpose
Determine minimum RR, minimum stages, and either actual RR or actual stages by Winn-Underwood-Gilliland method Determine separation based on RR, stages, and D:F ratio using Edmister method Determine product composition and flow, stages per section, duty using fractionation indices

Use
Columns with one feed and two product streams Columns with one feed and two product streams Complex columns, such as crude units and vacuum towers

Distl

SCFrac

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Columns Rigorous
Model
RadFrac

Description Purpose
Rigorous fractionation Rigorous fractionation for complex columns Petroleum refining fractionation Rigorous batch distillation Rate-based distillation Rigorous rating and design for single columns Rigorous rating and design for multiple columns of any complexity Rigorous rating and design for petroleum refining applications Rigorous rating calculations for single batch columns Rigorous rating and design for single and multiple columns; based on nonequilibrium calculations Rigorous rating for liquidliquid extraction columns

Use
Distillation, absorbers, strippers, extractive and azeotropic distillation, reactive distillation Heat integrated columns, air separators, absorber/stripper combinations, ethylene primary fractionator/quench tower combinations, petroleum refining Preflash tower, atmospheric crude unit, vacuum unit, catalytic cracker or coker fractionator, vacuum lube fractionator, ethylene fractionator and quench towers Ordinary azeotropic batch distillation, 3-phase, and reactive batch distillation Distillation columns, absorbers, strippers, reactive systems, heat integrated units, petroleum applications Liquid-liquid extraction

MultiFrac

PetroFrac

BatchFrac* RateFrac*

Extract

Liquid-liquid extraction

* Requires separate license

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Introduction to Aspen Plus

Unit Operation Models

Reactors
Model Description
RStoic Stoichiometric reactor Yield reactor

Purpose
Stoichiometric reactor with specified reaction extent or conversion Reactor with specified yield Chemical and phase equilibrium by stoichiometric calculations Chemical and phase equilibrium by Gibbs energy minimization Continuous stirred tank reactor Plug flow reactor

Use
Reactors where the kinetics are unknown or unimportant but stoichiometry and extent are known Reactors where the stoichiometry and kinetics are unknown or unimportant but yield distribution is known Single- and two-phase chemical equilibrium and simultaneous phase equilibrium Chemical and/or simultaneous phase and chemical equilibrium. Includes solid phase equilibrium. One, two, or three-phase stirred tank reactors with kinetics reactions in the vapor or liquid One, two, or three-phase plug flow reactors with kinetic reactions in any phase. Plug flow reactions with external coolant. Batch and semi-batch reactors where the reaction kinetics are known

RYield

REquil

Equilibrium reactor Equilibrium reactor Continuous stirred tank reactor Plug flow reactor Batch reactor

RGibbs

RCSTR

RPlug

RBatch

Batch or semi-batch reactor

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Pressure Changers
Model
Pump

Description
Pump or hydraulic turbine Compressor or turbine

Purpose
Change stream pressure when the pressure, power requirement or performance curve is known Change stream pressure when the pressure, power requirement or performance curve is known Change stream pressure across multiple stages with intercoolers. Allows for liquid knockout streams from intercoolers Determine pressure drop or valve coefficient (CV) Determine pressure drop and heat transfer in single-segment pipe or annular space Determine pressure drop and heat transfer in multi-segment pipe or annular space

Use
Pumps and hydraulic turbines

Compr

Polytropic compressors, polytropic positive displacement compressors, isentropic compressors, isentropic turbines. Multistage polytropic compressors, polytropic positive compressors, isentropic compressors, isentropic turbines. Multi-phase, adiabatic flow in ball, globe and butterfly valves Multi-phase, one dimensional, steady -state and fully developed pipeline flow with fittings Multi-phase, one dimensional, steady -state and fully developed pipeline flow

MCompr

Multi-stage compressor or turbine Control valve Single-segment pipe Multi-segment pipe

Valve Pipe

Pipeline

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Introduction to Aspen Plus

Unit Operation Models

Manipulators
Model
Mult Dupl

Description
Stream multiplier Stream duplicator Stream property reporter Stream equation creator Stream class changer Stream selector Load stream manipulator Stream predictor

Purpose
Multiply stream flows by a user supplied factor Copy a stream to any number of outlets Calculate stream properties at specified conditions Report flow and composition for feed streams Change stream class Switch between different inlet streams Combine multiple heat streams into a single load stream Compare model predictions of plant performance to plant measurements

Use
Multiply streams for scale-up or scale-down Duplicate streams to look at different scenarios in the same flowsheet Report requested stream properties to be used in EO mode Maintain compatibility with Feedbl blocks in RT-OPT 10.0 in EO mode Link sections or blocks that use different stream classes Test different flowsheet scenarios

Analyzer FeedBl ClChng Selector QtVec

Measurement

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Solids
Model
Crystallizer

Description
Continuous Crystallizer

Purpose/Uses
Mixed suspension, mixed product removal (MSMPR) crystallizeer used for the production of a single solid product Gyratory/jaw crusher, cage mill breaker, and single or multiple roll crushers Solids -solids separation using screens Gas-solids separation using fabric filters Gas-solids separation using cyclones Gas-solids separation using venturi scrubbers Gas-solids separation using dry electrostatic precipitators Liquid-solids separation using hydrocyclones Liquid-solids separation using centrifuge filters Liquid-solids separation using continuous rotary vacuum filters Single-stage solids washer Multistage washer or a counter-current decanter

Crusher Screen FabFl Cyclone VScrub ESP HyCyc CFuge Filter SWash CCD

Crushers Screens Fabric filters Cyclones Venturi scrubbers Dry electrostatic precipitators Hydrocyclones Centrifuge filters Rotary vacuum filters Single-stage solids washer Counter-current decanter

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Introduction to Aspen Plus

Unit Operation Models

User Models
Proprietary models or third party software can be included in an Aspen Plus flowsheet using a User2 unit operation block. Excel Workbooks or Fortran code can be used to define the User2 unit operation model. User-defined names can be associated with variables. Variables can be dimensioned based on other input specifications (for example, number of components). Aspen Plus helper functions eliminate the need to know the internal data structure to retrieve variables.

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ACM Models in Aspen Plus


ACM flowsheets can be used as custom models in Aspen Plus. ACM model must be a steady-state flowsheet with only mixed substreams (solid substreams are not currently supported). Input variables can be modified (not structural parameters). Results variables can be displayed. ACM equations and variables are converted to C++ code that is compiled into a dll that plugs into the User3 block in Aspen Plus. ACM generates a model library (.apm) file that contains input/ output variables information, ports and flash calculation options. Components used in ACM must match the Aspen Plus list. Initialization may be a problem if Aspen Plus inputs differ significantly from the values exported from ACM.

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Introduction to Aspen Plus

Unit Operation Models

CAPE-OPEN Models in Aspen Plus


CAPE-OPEN consortium created a set of standards for unit operation models and physical properties in a simulation (www.global-CAPE-OPEN.org). The goal is to have plug and play unit operation models. Models must be written in VB or C++ (Fortran code can be wrapped). Example unit operation model called MixNSplit is supplied in Engine/CapeOpen Example Models folder. DAIS Trader must be running (must be started manually in Windows 95/98). Refer to the documentation provided in Chapter 26 of the User Models Reference Manual.
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Hierarchy Blocks
Provides containers for simulation objects. Can consist of:
Flowsheet objects: streams, unit operation blocks, other Hierarchy

blocks
Non-flowsheet objects: Design Specs, Calculator blocks,

Convergence blocks

A hierarchy appears as a single block on the flowsheet.

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Introduction to Aspen Plus

Unit Operation Models

Flowsheet Hierarchy View


Process Flowsheet Window Hierarchy Block B-1 Flowsheet Window

Connector Streams
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Flowsheet Hierarchy in Data Browser


In the Data Browser, the directory structure under a hierarchy block is similar to the top level structure.

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Introduction to Aspen Plus

Unit Operation Models

Flowsheet Hierarchy Notes


A simulation can contain up to ten nested hierarchy levels. Inlet and outlet streams do not have to have the same name in the hierarchy and in the main flowsheet. Components need not to be identical in all hierarchies. Each ID (block, stream, design-spec, etc.) in different hierarchy blocks does not have to be unique. Blocks can be moved among hierarchies. The contents of a hierarchy block can be exported to a standalone simulation for independent work. Hierarchy blocks can be integrated together using an import facility.

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Flowsheet Templating
Custom model libraries containing categorized groups of models can be displayed with the Aspen Plus Model Library. Any individual or group of Aspen Plus unit operation models on the flowsheet can be added to the custom model library. Any data entered in the blocks are associated with that model. Supports multiple blocks, streams, properties, flowsheet utilities. Multiple items are added as a Hierarchy block. Templates allow use and distribution of pre-engineered unit operation models and plant sections. Custom icons to better represent the equipment can be created for any model in a custom model library. Custom forms can be created for any item in the model library.

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Introduction to Aspen Plus

Unit Operation Models

Flowsheet Template Creation


1. Create a custom model library, by selecting New from the Library menu. Enter the name of the library and the location of the library file. This object is then added to the Library menu. By default, this library is Writable (confirm by choosing the new library name from the Library menu). 2. From the Library custom library submenu, choose Edit 3. Create categories by selecting New from the Category menu. 4. Add models to the library by selecting a block or group of blocks on the flowsheet, clicking the right mouse button, and selecting Add to model library from the list. 5. Select Save from the Library menu to save the library. It is saved in Aspen Plus Model Library (.apm) as backup file fragments.

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Copying and Pasting Flowsheet Objects (1)


You can copy and paste flowsheet objects while maintaining the integrity of the input data within the input forms for the selected objects.

1. Highlight block(s) and/or stream(s). 2. Choose Edit/Selected Copy from the menu bar to make a copy of the objects within the selection rectangle. You can copy any input data including Components, Properties, Design Specs, Calculators, etc. By default, only the selected blocks and streams are checked.

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Introduction to Aspen Plus

Unit Operation Models

Copying and Pasting Flowsheet Objects (2)


3. Select Edit/Paste to paste the selected objects. The Resolve ID Conflicts dialog box appears when two or more objects share the same name. You must replace, merge, edit the ID, add a prefix or suffix, ignore, or undo the ID conflicts for the duplicate object names before pasting the selected objects on the flowsheet.

You can also copy objects from one simulation into another.

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