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WESTERN MINDANAO STATE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF HOME ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT OF NUTRITION AND DIETETICS

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Nutrition and Dietetics

Case Study: Cerebrovascular Accident

Presented to: Sylvia D. Hachero, RND

Presented by: Diane D. Dedal BSND IV-C

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION....................................................................................... Nature of the Disease Anatomy and Physiology ...................................................................... 3 6 7 7 8 1

Pathophysiology of the Organ ............................................................................... Signs and Symptoms....................................................................................... Possible Complications of the Disease.............................................................. Definition of Terms......................................................................................... CHAPTER II. PATIENTS DATA A. Patients Profile ................................................................................................ B. Patients Status.................................................................................................. CHAPTER III. SOCIAL HISTORY .................................................................................. CHAPTER IV MEDICAL HISTORY................................................................................ CHAPTER V. DIETARY HISTORY ............................................................................... CHAPTER VI. DIAGNOSIS or IMPRESSION ON PRESENT ADMISSION.................. CHAPTER VII. MEDICAL AND NUTRITIONAL INTERVENTION............................ Medical Management with Indications................................................. Diet Prescribe...................................................................................... Dietary Management with Rationale.................................................... Computations.................................................................................... Sample Menu................................................................................... CHAPTER VIII. PROGRESS AND PROGNOSIS CHAPTER XI. DIET INSTRUCTION CHAPTER X. CONCLUSION and RECOMMENDATION.................................... 17 17

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BIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCES ....................................................

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CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION Brain, portion of the central nervous system contained within the skull. The brain is the control center for movement, sleep, hunger, thirst, and virtually every other vital activity necessary to survival. All human emotionsincluding love, hate, fear, anger, elation, and sadnessare controlled by the brain. It also receives and interprets the countless signals that are sent to it from other parts of the body and from the external environment. The brain makes us conscious, emotional, and intelligent. The brain accounts for approximately 2% of the total body weight; in an average young adult, the brain weighs approximately 1400 g, whereas in an average elderly person, , the brain weighs approximately 1200 g. The brain is divided into three major areas: the cerebrum, the brain stem, and the cerebellum. The cerebrum is composed of two hemispheres, the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the basal ganglia. The brain stem includes the midbrain, pons, and medulla. The cerebellum is located under the cerebrum and behind the brain.

Nature of Disease

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE ORGAN

The adult human brain is a 1.3-kg (3-lb) mass of pinkish-gray jellylike tissue made up of approximately 100 billion nerve cells, or neurons; neuroglia (supporting-tissue) cells; and vascular (blood-carrying) and other tissues.

Between the brain and the craniumthe part of the skull that directly covers the brainare three protective membranes, or meninges. The outermost membrane, the dura mater, is the toughest and thickest. Below the dura mater is a middle membrane, called the arachnoid layer. The innermost membrane, the pia mater, consists mainly of small blood vessels and follows the contours of the surface of the brain.

A clear liquid, the cerebrospinal fluid, bathes the entire brain and fills a series of four cavities, called ventricles, near the center of the brain. The cerebrospinal fluid protects the internal portion of the brain from varying pressures and transports chemical substances within the nervous system.

From the outside, the brain appears as three distinct but connected parts: the cerebrum (the Latin word for brain)two large, almost symmetrical hemispheres; the cerebellum (little brain) two smaller hemispheres located at the back of the cerebrum; and the brain stema central core that gradually becomes the spinal cord, exiting the skull through an opening at its base called the foramen magnum. Two other major parts of the brain, the thalamus and the hypothalamus, lie in the midline above the brain stem underneath the cerebellum.

The brain and the spinal cord together make up the central nervous system, which communicates with the rest of the body through the peripheral nervous system. The peripheral nervous system consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves extending from the cerebrum and brain stem; a system of other nerves branching throughout the body from the spinal cord; and the autonomic nervous system, which regulates vital functions not under conscious control, such as the activity of the heart muscle, smooth muscle (involuntary muscle found in the skin, blood vessels, and internal organs), and glands.