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Session 2 Session 2

Materials and Steel Grade Selection Materials and Steel Grade Selection
Materials and Steel Grade Selection 2
Results of Question Paper!
Materials and Steel Grade Selection 2
Agenda
In this session we will cover
> O
2
Corrosion Modelling
> Microbially Induced Corrosion
> H S Cracking Mechanisms > H
2
S Cracking Mechanisms
> Low and High Temperature Issues
> Material and Grade Selection
> Corrosion resistant alloys
> Types, reasons for selection, advantages and disadvantages,
failures
> Low alloy carbon steels
> HSLA materials
> Fatigue > Fatigue
Materials and Grade Selection 2
Oxygen Corrosion
O
2
Corrosion
2
For treated seawater injection pipelines
> Oxygen in injection water will cause corrosion
V Corrosion rate (mm/y)
> Oxygen in injection water will cause corrosion
> Often predicted using Oldfield equation*:
C Oxygen concentration
(ppb)
U Fluid velocity (m/s)
75 . 0 125 . 0
Pr
0565 . 0
R
CU
V =
U Fluid velocity (m/s)
Pr = Prandtl No. = /D
Re Reynolds No Pr
e
R Re Reynold s No.
Fluid viscosity (cm
2
/s)
D Oxygen diffusion
> Measured corrosion rates ~ 1/3 to 1/5 of predicted
rates
D Oxygen diffusion
coefficient (cm
2
/s)
*J.W. Oldfield et al., Corrosion of Metals in Deaerated Seawater, Proc. 2
nd
BSE-NACE Corrosion Conference, Bahrain, 1981
O
2
Corrosion
2
> Recent improvements to the model*
V Corrosion rate (mm/y)
706 . 0 14 . 0
Pr
00226 . 0
R
CU
V =
C Oxygen concentration (ppb)
U Fluid velocity (m/s)
Pr
e
R
Pr = Prandtl No. = /D
Re Reynolds No.
> Generally permits the use of carbon steels with a
reasonable (up to 6mm) corrosion allowance
> Bacteria are the main threat in such systems
Fluid viscosity (cm
2
/s)
D Oxygen diffusion coefficient
(cm
2
/s)
Bacteria are the main threat in such systems
> Problems with ammonium bisulphite oxygen
scavenger also
(cm
2
/s)
*Turgoose and Andijani, Water Science & Technology, V 49, 2, 115-120 2004
Materials and Grade Selection 2
Produced Water Corrosion
Produced Water Corrosion
> Contains CO
2
(and H
2
S?)
> Corrosion from carbonic acid corrosion > Corrosion from carbonic acid corrosion
> But low partial pressure
> Single phase downstream of separation
> May need inhibition > May need inhibition
> Lower sulphate than seawater, but greater organic content
> Comingling seawater and produced water injection is worst of all worlds!
> Can be hot, partially deoxygenated
> A problem for many corrosion resistant alloys p y y
> Bacteria is again a threat
> Needs robust integrity regime and process control
Materials and Grade Selection 2
Microbially Induced Corrosion
Microbially Induced Corrosion (MIC) c ob a y duced Co os o ( C)
> Often a significant threat to equipment and piping
> Many different types of bacteria
> Both aerobic and anaerobic
> Anaerobic bacteria generally give greatest problem in oil & gas > Anaerobic bacteria generally give greatest problem in oil & gas
production
> Most failures are due to sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB)
> SRB reduce sulphates to sulphides, producing H
2
S
> Can lead to sulphide stress cracking & reservoir souring > Can lead to sulphide stress cracking & reservoir souring
> Can result in high localised corrosion rates
> Often introduced via poor injection water quality control
Microbially Induced Corrosion y
Control of MIC
> Use fine filters to reduce debris > Use fine filters to reduce debris
> Pigging where possible
> Biocide treatment (batch or injection) ( j )
> Avoid water & debris traps
> Enumeration as part of integrity regime
> Pl kt i ( bil ) d il ( t ti ) b t i > Planktonic (mobile) and sessile (stationary) bacteria
> Use tight fit polyethylene lined pipelines
> If temperature allows If temperature allows
> Use epoxy lined or corrosion resistant alloy clad vessels
Microbially Induced Corrosion y
Prediction of MIC
> Difficult in summary > Difficult, in summary
> No accurate method to predict corrosion rates over time
Too many variable parameters
> Risk assessment methodology has been developed by Shell*
> Allows a qualitative risk ranking to be developed
> New MICORP model from Ohio University, difficult to interpret! e CO ode o O o U e s ty, d cu t to te p et
http://www.ent.ohiou.edu/~guting/MICORP/
*Improvements on the De Waard Milliams Corrosion Prediction and Applications to Corrosion Management; B Pots et *Improvements on the De Waard-Milliams Corrosion Prediction and Applications to Corrosion Management; B. Pots, et
al; NACE International, Corrosion 2002, Paper No. 02235.
Materials and Grade Selection 2
Material Selection
Material Selection
Once we have taken into account..
> CO Corrosion and/ or O Corrosion > CO
2
Corrosion and/ or O
2
Corrosion
> The likelihood of MIC
Based on the design life we can estimate the total corrosion of carbon steel
> If this is less than typically 6mm to 8mm most Operators will accept > If this is less than typically 6mm to 8mm most Operators will accept
carbon steel is practical
> If greater, it will potentially require corrosion resistant alloys
Th ill b d l t > These will be covered later
Materials Selection
But it is not so straightforward as it first appears
We also have to take into account:
> Operator preferences
> The difficulties of inspection
> Particularly subsea to subsea
> The potential for future tie-ins
> Low temperatures
> High temperatures
Materials and Grade Selection 2
Temperature Issues
Temperature Issues p
There is a trend towards higher pressure and temperature fields
These are often gas condensate reservoirs
They pose particular challenges for pipeline design and flow assurance
> Methane hydrate control
> Cool down and start up performance
> Turn down performance p
> Thermal control
> Operability
Low Temperatures p
During start-up, the pressure drop across the choke can lead to very
low temperature fluids due to Joule-Thompson cooling o te pe atu e u ds due to Jou e o pso coo g
The start up case often drives the minimum design temperature
Poor field layout can exacerbate this problem
>If transient flow assurance is late, or the tree choke is incorrectly sized,
then this can be a significant problem
>Pipe may have already been ordered! >Pipe may have already been ordered!
Low Temperatures p
Potential Problem?
Low Temperatures p
Better Solution
Low Temperatures p
It can drive the need for a warming spool
> To allow seawater to warm the fluids prior to entering a carbon steel
pipeline
> Usually 22% or 25% Cr duplex
> Sometimes can be qualified to -70 C or below (cf. -46 C)
> Would prefer to limit the carbon steel pipe wall temperature to -20 C for p p p p
a reeled pipeline
To give a -30 C Charpy test temperature
Ensure girth weld and HAZ Charpy values are acceptable
High Temperatures g p
High temperatures cause a number of problems
> Higher axial stresses due to greater thermal expansion
> Lower material properties due to de-rating of SMYS
> In design, we have to use DNV OS F101 curve above 50 C
> No other generic public domain data
> May require a cooling spool to ensure the fluids are below the pipeline y q g p p p
design temperature
> Careful design is needed to ensure the one spool performs warming and
cooling functions cooling functions
> Without problems of hydrates
Materials and Grade Selection 2
Grade Selection
Grade Selection
So, let us assume carbon steel is acceptable
> We still have to assess
> The grade
> The pipe production route
Grade Selection
Unlike for onshore pipelines, the wall thickness is often not governed
by hoop pressure containment by hoop pressure containment
It could be:
>Axial stress
>Propagation buckling >Propagation buckling
>Stability
>Hydrostatic collapse
I ll i ( li ) >Installation (reeling)
>Etc.
There may not be a driver for higher grades
Grade Selection
In some cases lower grades than X65 can be preferred
> Easier to overmatch welds
> Particularly for small diameter & manual welds
> If a greater wall thickness is required for stability, reeling etc.
In addition, there is a reluctance to procure higher grades even if practical due
to:
> Difficulties in weld overmatching for plastic strain installation
> Accepted offshore welding practices and consumables
A hi t f i h d li it ( ti l l d i ldi ) > Achievement of sour service hardness limits (particularly during welding)
> The perceived greater probability of hydrogen embrittlement
General guidance considers little threat if SMYS < 550 MPa g
But the fear remains!
Materials and Grade Selection 2
Production Route
Production Route
Carbon steel production route is a function of diameter primarily
Other considerations:
> D/t ratio
> Sour service requirements > Sour service requirements
SSC
HIC
> Minimum design temperature
> Design factors in DNV OS F101
HFI/ ERW linepipe p p
Limited by D/t ratio and diameter
>Mill specific Mill specific
Some Operators do not permit it for sour service applications
>HIC resistance of the long weld primarily
>S ill l i t h f ll l th h >Some mills claim to have full approval though
Charpy testing of the long weld is problematic
>Some mills will not accept testing below -20 C p g
>Alignment of the V-notch with the fusion zone is critical
More often used for the outer pipe of pipe-in-pipe systems
Some plastic strain track record (but D/t ratio can be an issue)
The long seam weld must be demonstrated to be overmatched and meets
ASME IX or other welding code standards ASME IX or other welding code standards
SAW Linepipe p p
Only above 16-inch diameter
SAW has been installed by plastic strain methods
> Limited by installation vessel capacity
The majority installed by S-lay
No low temperature issues
DNV OS F101 Design Factors g
DNV OS F101 applies design factors to pipes depending on their
production route production route
>o
fab
= 1.0 if seamless
>o
fab
= 0.93 if ERW/ HFI
>o = 0 85 if SAW >o
fab
= 0.85 if SAW
This affects the wall thickness required for This affects the wall thickness required for
>Plastic collapse under hydrostatic pressure
>Propagation buckling under bending and hydrostatic pressure
> SAWbeing the worst (highest WT) > SAW being the worst (highest WT)
> Seamless the best (smallest WT)
But unlikely to influence the linepipe production route as this is usually
dominated by other factors
Materials and Grade Selection 2
H
2
S Phenomena
H
2
S Related Phenomena
2
H
2
S can result in catastrophic failures of susceptible materials
Number of related phenomena:
> Sulphide stress cracking (SSC) p g ( )
> Hydrogen induced cracking (HIC)
> Stress-oriented hydrogen induced cracking (SOHIC)
> Soft zone cracking (SZC) > Soft zone cracking (SZC)
> Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC)
Definitions, refer to ISO 15156-1*
*ISO 15156 1/ NACE MR0175 1 P t l d N t l G I d t i M t i l f U i H S C t i i *ISO 15156-1/ NACE MR0175-1. Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries. Materials for Use in H
2
S Containing
Environments in Oil and Gas Production. Part 1: General Principles for Selection of Cracking Resistant Materials
H
2
S Related Phenomena
2
H
2
S (with CO
2
) results in acid corrosion on the metal surface
> Atomic hydrogen produced > Atomic hydrogen produced
> Atomic hydrogen diffuses into the metal, reducing ductility and increases
susceptibility to cracking p y g
For SSC, need:
S ibl i l > Susceptible material
> Tensile stress
> Sufficient H
2
S (material and condition specific)
2
( p )
> Hard zones & high strength materials generally more susceptible
> Some high nickel alloys and titanium immune
Control of SSC
Carbon steels
> No need for action if H
2
S partial
i l th 0 3 kP * t pressure is less than 0.3 kPa* at
design pressure and operating
temperature
> If greater than 0 3 kPa severity > If greater than 0.3 kPa, severity
regime dictated by fluid pH
> Even in most severe region,
SSC prevented by control of p y
hardness in parent and welds to
22 HRC (248 Hv10)
> Generally specify sour service
i ti f diti t irrespective of conditions to
account for future tie-ins
*
X H
2
S partial pressure (kPa)
Y Fluid pH
*ISO 15156-2/ NACE MR0175-2. Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries. Materials for Use in H
2
S Containing Environments in Oil and
Gas Production. Part 2: Carbon Steels and Cast Irons
Control of SSC
Sour service performance of individual materials is ascertained by laboratory
HIC & SSC testing
In Summary:
>ISO 15156 / NACE MR0175
..is only guidance based on experience and testing!
Materials stated are resistant, not immune, to SSC/HIC a e a s s a ed a e es s a , o u e, o SSC/ C
Materials selection is still the responsibility of the user!
H
2
S Partial Pressure
2
Words of caution
> Some fields have very high H
2
S (percent, as opposed to ppm) Some fields have very high H
2
S (percent, as opposed to ppm)
> With increasing pressure, H
2
S becomes liquid and so partial pressure
decreases
> Maximum partial pressure may be at low (operational) pressures > Maximum partial pressure may be at low (operational) pressures
> Simplistic, conservative mol. fraction H
2
S x design pressure may or may
not be conservative
> H
2
S partitions between the oil, gas and water phases
> Partitioning assessments can be performed using HYSYS, but
They must be robust against all potential scenarios They must be robust against all potential scenarios
Beware of operational changes invalidating materials testing
programmes
Hydrogen Induced Cracking Hydrogen Blistering y g g y g g
ISO 15156-2 does not specify measures to mitigate hydrogen induced
cracking (HIC) g ( )
No defined safe level of H
2
S
> Planar cracking in carbon and low alloy steels due to recombination of > Planar cracking in carbon and low alloy steels due to recombination of
atomic hydrogen at trap sites
> Trap sites often MnS stringers in plate steels and other impurities
> Cleaner steels (low P S and C) are less susceptible to HIC > Cleaner steels (low P, S and C) are less susceptible to HIC
> Controlled rolling to reduce centre-line segregation
> Calcium additions spherodise the MnS inclusions
> Most likely to be seen in thick wall vessels from rolled plate > Most likely to be seen in thick wall vessels from rolled plate
> Seamless pipe generally thought to be not susceptible
> Limit on S content in ISO 15156-2
Hydrogen Induced Cracking Hydrogen Blistering y g g y g g
Use HIC resistant steels for wet H
2
S service
Clean chemistry:
>Low S and P content
>Ca treated
>Often very low carbon equivalent values
Confirm acceptability by performing NACE TM0284* tests on each steel p y y p g
heat
Defined acceptable cracking limits Defined acceptable cracking limits
*NACE TM0284 Evaluation of Pipeline and Pressure Vessel Steels for Resistance to Hydrogen-Induced Cracking
Hydrogen Induced Cracking y g g
> Crack thickness ratio
% 100 =
T
b
CTR
> Crack sensitivity ratio
T
% 100
) (


=
t W
b a
CSR
> Crack length ratio
t W
% 100

=
W
a
CLR
W
Hydrogen Induced Cracking - Hydrogen Blistering y g g y g g
Hydrogen Cracking y g g
Hydrogen generated from the cathode from the applied cathodic
protection system protection system
>Not generally a risk for steels up to X80 (550 MPa) SMYS
>Should be considered for higher strength steels
Has been a significant problem for high strength steels offshore Has been a significant problem for high strength steels offshore,
supermartensitic stainless steels and duplex stainless steels
>Refer to later slides
Materials and Grade Selection 2
Alloyed Steels and Corrosion Resistant
Alloys
Corrosion Resistant Alloys y
If the corrosion conditions or the design life require a CRA material,
then options can be limited, as follows: then options can be limited, as follows:
>Weldable 13% Cr materials (supermartensitics)
D l d d l t i l >Duplex and superduplex materials
>CRA clad or lined carbon steel materials
They all have limitations on performance, installation, welding, NDT,
cracking etc.
And cost!
Control of Sulphide Stress Corrosion Cracking p g
Corrosion Resistant Alloys
> Each alloy has its own limits in terms of pH, chlorides, elemental
sulphur and material condition
> Solution annealed, work hardened, precipitation hardened etc.
> Some materials have surprisingly limited resistance e.g.
> 22% Chrome duplex
> 17-4 PH stainless steel
*ISO 15156-3/ NACE MR0175-3. Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries. Materials for Use in H2S Containing Environments
in Oil and Gas Production Part 3 Corrosion Resistant Alloys in Oil and Gas Production. Part 3 Corrosion Resistant Alloys
+NORSOK M001. Materials Selection. www.nts.no/norsok
22% and 25% Cr duplex p
Advantages
> Readily available (seamless up to 8-inch welded in larger sizes) > Readily available (seamless up to 8-inch, welded in larger sizes)
> Widely used
> High strength (450 MPa YS for 22% Cr, 550 MPa YS for 25% Cr)
I t CO i > Immune to CO
2
corrosion
Disadvantages Disadvantages
> Risk of hydrogen induced stress cracking (HISC)
> Temperature de-rating
C ld / l ti it > Cold creep/ plasticity
> Cost (particularly 25% Cr)
> Care required in manufacture and welding q g
> External chloride SCC
Duplex - Important Criteria p p
Phase balance
> 40-50% ferrite
Ferrite too high decreases toughness and pitting resistance
Austenite too high decreases H
2
S resistance
Heat treatment
> Key parameter is to heat treat and quench at appropriate rate to prevent
precipitation of intermetallics p p
> Solution annealing
Heat treatment to dissolve any formed intermetallics
Composition
> 0.14% Nitrogen required in duplex for welding
To avoid excessive ferrite in HAZ and delays formation of sigma To avoid excessive ferrite in HAZ and delays formation of sigma
Duplex Important Criteria p p
> Temperature derating
> Limited sour resistance
> Chloride cracking has
occurred
> Downstream of chokes
> Dripping from salt water
> All due to chloride concentration
From DNV OS F101 Submarine Pipeline Systems From DNV OS F101 Submarine Pipeline Systems
Subsea Failures
Duplex and superduplex stainless
steels
> Widely used in subsea
equipment for many years
> Another potentially hydrogen > Another potentially hydrogen
sensitive material
> A number of failures included in
NORSOK M WA 01 NORSOK M-WA-01
Subsea Failures
Duplex and superduplex stainless steels
> Foinaven 1997 hub failure initiated pragmatic controls for duplex subsea
> Mi i i ti f t t ti > Minimisation of stress concentrations
> No direct connection of anodes to duplex materials
> Garn West manifold failure in 2003 precipitated major failure
investigation investigation
Subsea Failures Subsea Failures
Duplex and superduplex stainless steels
> High stresses at hub
> Cracks propagate through the hydrogen sensitive ferrite phase > Cracks propagate through the hydrogen sensitive ferrite phase
High global stressesno coating Hydrogen induced stress
cracking (HISC)
E ti ll th h 13C ll Essentially the same phenomena as 13Cr alloys
Subsea Failures Subsea Failures
Duplex and superduplex stainless steels
> N bli h d id li f d l f b i t > Now a published guideline for duplex for subsea equipment
> DNV RP F112
> Requires lower stress levels
> To minimise the risk of plasticity from cold creep
> Ideally control over austenite spacing
> Coarse materials are more susceptible
> In reality this is difficult
> Some challenges with design and interpretation
> Work on test methods in progress Work on test methods in progress
Weldable 13% Cr Steels
Have a variable track record for submarine pipelines
Advantages
> Low cost CO
2
resistant pipeline material Low cost CO
2
resistant pipeline material
> High strength (550 MPa)
> Little temperature de-rating (compared to duplex steels)
> Produced in carbon steel seamless mills followed by pickling > Produced in carbon steel seamless mills followed by pickling
Weldable 13% Cr Steels
Disadvantages
> Sensitivity to hydrogen (numerous cracking failures) > Sensitivity to hydrogen (numerous cracking failures)
> Limited H
2
S resistance
> Often need for post welding heat treatment to prevent intergranular
i ki stress corrosion cracking
> Matching weld consumables not successful, welding with 25% Cr
consumables OK but
Care with Post Welding Heat Treatment
Overmatching at temperature can be a problem
> Only two worldwide suppliers in seamless products
> Welded products have not been successful
Subsea Failures
Problems started in 1998
> Fracture of a girth weld during reeling onto vessel g g g
> Hydrogen cracking from gases and filler wire (10-12ppm)
Subsea Failures
Supermartensitic stainless steels
> Summer 1998
Anchor damage incident and leaking of sgard flowline
Due to seawater ingress
Subsea Failures
Supermartensitic stainless steels
> Cracks at doubler pads in same location p
> Due to exceptional load history?
Subsea Failures
Supermartensitic stainless steels
> Summer 2001, Tune flowline installed
> One weld failed during installation, leaks occurred during hydrotest
> Hyperbaric weld repair to be performed
> Hyperbaric repair welds failed during second hydrotest
> Inter-run fusion defects and hydrogen embrittlement caused girth weld
failure
Subsea Failures Subsea a u es
Supermartensitic stainless steels
> Hyperbaric repair welds failed due to high moisture levels in shielding yp p g g
gas
> Equipment used was replicated in the weld procedure qualification
test
All from R. Mollan, Experiences with 13Cr supermartensitic steel in the Tune submarine flowlines, NACE Corrosion
2005, Paper 05092
Subsea Failures
Supermartensitic stainless steels
> 2002
More leaks from doubler pads on sgard flowlines
Cracks initiated at weld toes
Stress concentration from fillet weld and hydrogen embrittlement Stress concentration from fillet weld and hydrogen embrittlement
found to be the cause
Hydrogen from CP system
> 2005 > 2005
Similar leaks in another Norwegian sector pipeline
Subsea Failures
Supermartensitic stainless steels
> So can they still be used?
> Yes, with care
E ldi bl d f f h d > Ensure welding consumables and gases are free from hydrogen
> Minimise hose lengths and ensure no moisture pick up
> Do not connect aluminium anodes directly to the pipeline via doubler
pads pads
Use a CRA clad carbon steel pup
> Use a low polarisation CP system
Potential more positive than 800 mV (AgAgCl seawater) Potential more positive than -800 mV (AgAgCl seawater)
> Use within pipe-in-pipe systems
Clad and Lined Pipe p
The alloys
> Usually austenitic stainless steel or nickel based alloys
316L 2.5% Mo
904L (lined pipe only)
22% Cr Duplex (clad pipe only)
Incoloy 825
Inconel 625
> May need laboratory testing for pitting and SSC resistance > May need laboratory testing for pitting and SSC resistance
CRA Clad and Lined Pipe p
Metallurgically clad pipe
> Advantages
> Can be installed by plastic strain methods
C b t b k d ld d f ll d t dl > Can be cut back and re-welded successfully and repeatedly
> Ultrasonic inspection of girth welds whilst difficult is not
impossible p
> Disadvantages
> Limited suppliers with limited diameters
> D/t ratio also limited particularly when D is small > D/t ratio also limited, particularly when D is small
> Weld overlay may be the only route
> Cost & schedule
CRA Clad and Lined Pipe p
Mechanically lined pipe
> Advantages Advantages
> Usually lower cost option than clad route
> Successfully used for S-lay and bundle fabrication
> Schedule
> Disadvantages
Li it d li > Limited suppliers
> Plastic strain installation possible if pressurised trials only at
this stage, projects underway this stage, projects underway
> Seal weld ends not suitable for ultrasonic examination
> Weld overlay ends more expensive and require high quality
inspection
HSLA Alloys y
Typical alloys
> ASTM A182 F22 AISI 4130 8630 etc > ASTM A182 F22, AISI 4130, 8630 etc.
Not widely used y
> End connectors, hubs, forged Xmas tree components
N ld bl i h P W ldi H T Not weldable without Post Welding Heat Treatment
> Due to high carbon equivalent
Welded systems are usually overlaid and buttered with Inconel 625
> This has lead to problems
HSLA Alloys y
Buttering failures in the HAZ of the HSLA
> sgard hubs > sgard hubs
> Thunder Horse hubs
Caused by hydrogen embrittlement
Various mitigations in EEMUA 194*
Very complex microstructures
Miti ti b ldi / PWHT l i t ibl ** Mitigation by welding/ PWHT alone is not possible**
Failure location
* EEMUA 194. Materials Selection and Corrosion Control for Subsea Oil and Gas Equipment
** Beaugrand, Smith & Gittos, OMAE 2009-80030 & NACE 2009, Paper 09305
Materials and Grade Selection 2
Fatigue
Fatigue g
Not generally an issue for pipelines
> They are constrained axially if buried (and long) They are constrained axially if buried (and long)
> Thermal expansion and hoop stress changes with pressure are not
usually significant
There are exceptions:
> Pipe in pipe systems particularly if reeled > Pipe in pipe systems, particularly if reeled
> Free spanning pipelines on the sea bed
> Risers (between clamps) or steel catenary risers
> During installation (not usually significant) > During installation (not usually significant)
Fatigue g
Reeled pipe-in-pipe systems
> The inner pipe is not straight after installation > The inner pipe is not straight after installation
> Has a sinusoidal profile
> Temperature and pressure cycles result in stress cycles in bending
Risers and free-spanning pipelines
> Can vibrate due to vortex induced vibration > Can vibrate due to vortex induced vibration
> Caused by sea currents flowing across the pipe
> Limited by ensuring span lengths are acceptable
A d S N E i i C iti lit A t f ti lif di ti > And S-N or Engineering Criticality Assessment fatigue life prediction
Fatigue g
First approach is to use an S-N (stress number of cycles) approach
> Number of different codes e.g. DNV RP C203
Assess the stresses
D Accumulated damage
k number of stress blocks
Apply appropriate stress concentration factors
n
i
No. of stress cycles in block
I
N
i
No. of cycles to failure at
Sum the stresses using Miners Rule
i
y
defined Ao
Intercept of S-N curve with
log N axis
m negative inverse slope of S-
N curve
q Usage factor
Apply safety factors
Fatigue g
Assess to see if damage is acceptable through life for weld type
Fatigue g
If this approach is unacceptable, then an approach based on
Engineering Criticality Assessment
Typically based on BS 7910*
>Using a Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD) g g ( )
Requires an assessment of weld properties
>Usually SENB CTOD specimens Usually SENB CTOD specimens
Allows the generation of specific weld defect acceptance criteria for the
design life design life
* BS 7910. Guide on methods for assessing the acceptability of flaws in metallic structures
Fatigue g
Important to assess thoroughly in design
> Whilst the opportunity exists to perform testing
> Need to carefully assess impact on weld defect sizes
> Steel catenary risers can require virtually defect free welds > Steel catenary risers can require virtually defect free welds
> Down to the resolution of the NDT equipment
> Do the pipe flaws then become more significant? > Do the pipe flaws then become more significant?
Materials and Grade Selection 2
Summary
Summaryy
Many threats to pipeline integrity exist
These all need e al ation as part of the design process These all need evaluation as part of the design process
There are key interfaces with There are key interfaces with
>Mechanical Design
>Flow Assurance
Changes in input data can significantly affect the choices of materials
Design process may be influenced by drilling results partner preferences Design process may be influenced by drilling results, partner preferences,
funding etc.
The project schedule may not be followed smoothly! p j y y
Session 2 Session 2
Materials and Steel Grade Selection Materials and Steel Grade Selection