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THE GLOMERULAR APPARATUS: -Bowmans capsule: comprised of simple squamous epithelium -Podocytes: contribute to blood-urine barrier; space between adjacent podocyte foot processes at podocyte-basement membrane junction is referred to as filtration slit (think interlaced fingers), where material is filtered from capillary lumen. Over time, material may accumulate in filtration slits, clogging them. Phagocytic mesangial cells remove this material. -Mesangial cells: phagocytic; give structural support; role in cleaning material that has accumulated on basement membrane, as well as recharging basement membrane **Many kidney disorders involve some alteration/modification of this basement membrane so that it cannot filter properly**

Filtration Slit Mesangial Cell Pedicel Mesangial Cell Basement Membrane Lumen

PM Endothelial Cell Layer

Over time, stuff accumulates in the filtration slit, so phagocytic cells are present to stop this. BASIC COMPONENTS OF THE NEPHRON: 1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) 5.) 6.) 7.) 8.) Distal Convoluted tubule Glomerulus Proximal Convoluted tubule Straight Descending tubule Peritubular capillaries (surround Uriniferous tubules) Straight Ascending tubule Collecting duct Urinary Pole URINIFEROUS TUBULES: -Proximal Convoluted Tubule: o KEY FEATURE: prominent glycocalyx results in a characteristic histological fuzzy appearance along lining of lumen o Proximal tubule is the longest section of the nephron o Convoluted part of the proximal tubule coils close to the glomerulus in the cortex of the kidney o Comprised of simple cuboidal epithelium -Straight portion of the Proximal Tubule: o Merges with the thin segment of the loop of Henle. This straight portion can be distinguished from surrounding capillaries by presence/lack of erythrocytes in lumen o Flattened epithelium forms a thin tubule -Straight portion of the Distal Tubule: o Contacts the glomerulus, forming the macula densa. o Long, low, columnar cells o No RBCs in lumen of distal tubule -Distal Convoluted Tubule: o Merges with collecting ducts of the kidney JUXTAGLOMERULAR APPARATUS: -No distinguishing feature except for its location -macula densa: always in close contact with endothelial cells of efferent/afferent glomerular arterioles -extraglomerular mesangial cells: no way to distinguish these from juxtaglomerular cells; phagocytic -juxtaglomerular cells: modified smooth muscle cells; surround afferent arteriole

COLLECTING DUCTS: -the vast majority in the cortex/medulla are comprised of simple cuboidal epithelium and have a wide lumen in comparison with other ducts/tubules of urinary system -collecting ducts merge around the Area Cribosa to form papillary ducts of Bellini (simple columnar epithelium at this point); these terminate on the tips of the renal papilla and empty into a distended, funnel-shaped part (minor calyx) of ureter, where the conducting portion begins. CONDUCTING PORTION: Minor calyces merge to form major calyces within kidney, which in turn, merge to form renal pelvis. Urine flows through these structures to ureter and is channeled to the bladder. From the bladder, urine flows out through the urethra. The bladder has a very thick muscularis externa. The major calyx has a thicker transitional epithelium. CONDUCTING SYSTEM: -mucosa: o simple columnar epithelium is now replaced by transitional epithelium (KEY FEATURE; also note that it is exclusive to the urinary system) that varies in thickness; **minor calyx thickens to merge with/form the major calyx** o very tight junctions here (KEY FEATURE); epithelium is virtually impenetrable to any components of the urine -lamina propria: o very simple; dense connective tissue with bundles of coarse collagen fibers -muscularis externa: o variably sized; difficult to distinguish between its two layers (inner longitudinal and outer circular layer of smooth muscle) URETER: -mucosa: o transitional epithelium; irregularly sized lumen -lamina propria: o dense, thick -muscularis externa: o smooth muscle layer is very obvious -adventitia: o outer loose connective tissue coat that connects ureter to surrounding structures in body BLADDER: -same typical organization as in ureter

-mucosa: o much thicker transitional epithelium than in ureter -lamina propria: o similar to structure/role to that of ureter -muscularis externa: o very robust (KEY FEATURE) smooth muscle layer present o aka, detrusor muscle -adventitia: o similar structure/role to that of ureter