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Basement construction Overview

Barry Lehane

Singapore Wall collapse

Singapore Wall collapse

Dubai excavation

Dubai excavation

Dubai excavation

Dubai excavation

Maari Gravity Platform


Slope instability
Tension crack


Ship arriving for platform loadout


Sand fill 6m of dredging just completed Very soft clay

Very soft clay 20m

Collapse mechanism

Sand fill 6m of dredging just completed

Very soft clay 20m

Very soft clay



Very soft clay 20m

6m of dredging just completed

Very soft clay

Sheet pile wall collapse


Perth CBD

Sample cracks

Wall types and support systems

Cantilever sheet pile wall, Perth

Cantilever jetty sheet pile

Sheet piles for Esplanade station

Cofferdam construction

Giken wall

Permanent sheet piles

Diaphragm wall construction

Diaphragm wall construction

Cage installation in D-wall, William St.

Diaphragm wall, Raffles

Westralia square

Circular excavation with D-wall

Excavation sequence for circular D-wall

Contiguous wall, West Perth

Contiguous wall (4 anchor levels)

Widely spaced contiguous wall

Kingpost/Soldier pile wall

Top propping to contiguous wall

Typical prop arrangement

Temporary top props, Perth

Propping for wide excavations

Propping at Launch box, The Esplanade

Strut temperature variations, The Esplanade


50 45


Load (kN)

35 30


25 20

Load Temp
500 14/04/05 15/04/05 16/04/05


10 17/04/05


Daily cyclic movements of wall of 10mm

Temperature (degrees)


Multi-level propping

Concrete top props

Multi-level anchors

Temporary & permanent props

Soil nailing/shotcreting, Perth

Anchor installation, Perth

Anchor tensioning

Top-down construction


Steps for wall design

Site stratigraphy and soil stiffness/strength

parameters Groundwater regime Examine potential failure mechanism using factored soil strength parameters (including mechanisms dealt with by STAWAL) Assess most suitable wall type(s)

Determination of water pressures

Examine implications of vertical and lateral permeability variations

Wall design: Read CIRIA C580


Use factored soil strength parameters to determine required wall embedment: for two possible mechanisms

Cantilever Wall

Ho Passive d do


O Base Active Passive

Single propped wall

Wall displacement O Ho Passive O Anchor Active

d Pressure distribution For two (competent) props wall collapse is not possible

STAWAL: Determine wall embedment for ULS

Soil parameters for ULS

Use factored soil strengths ('m c'm sum)

'm= tan-1(g ') sum=gsu su

c'm= gc c

Only use c0 if absolutely certain of cementation in soil Use simple shear undrained strength (su) typically 80% of TX strength

Other external failure mechanisms

FREW/STAWAL not much use !

Internal failure mechanisms

=> structural calculations