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MatS 2001 Fall 2011

Solutions to Problem Set #4


09/ 30/ 11 02: 05: 00 PM Page 1 of 4 FL11

4-1 (a) Aluminum foil used for storing food weighs about 0.3 g per square inch. How many
atoms of aluminum are contained in one square inch of the foil?
23
21
6.02 10 atoms
0.3 6.69 10 atoms
26.98 g
g

=
(b) Using the densities and atomic weights given below, calculate and compare the
number of atoms per cubic centimeter in ( i) lead and ( ii) lithium.
Lead: At Wt = 207.19 density = 11.36 g/cm
3

Lithium: At Wt = 6.94 density = 0.534 g/cm
3

23
22
3 3
11.36 6.02 10 atoms
Lead: 3.30 10
207.19
g atoms
cm g cm
| | | |
=
| |
\ .
\ .

23
22
3 3
0.534 6.02 10 atoms
Lithium: 4.63 10
6.94
g atoms
cm g cm
| | | |
=
| |
\ .
\ .

Although there are more lithium atoms/cc than lead atoms, lead is more dense because
lead atoms are much heavier than lithium atoms.
(c) Calculate the number of iron atoms in one ton ( 2000 pounds) of iron.
( )
23
27
453.59 6.02 10 atoms
2000 9.79 10 atoms
55.85
g
lb
lb g
| | | |
=
| |
\ .
\ .

(d) Calculate the volume in cubic centimeters occupied by one mole of boron.
3 3
10.81 1
4.7
2.3
g cm cm
mol g mol
| |
| |
=
| |
\ .
\ .

4-2 The net potential energy between two adjacent ions, may be represented by the Equation:

Net n
A B
E
r r
= +

Calculate the bonding energy E0 in terms of the parameters A, B, and n using the
following procedure:

(a) Differentiate E
Net
with respect to r, and then set the resulting expression equal to
zero, since the curve of E
Net
versus r is a minimum at E
0
.
(b) Solve for r in terms of A, B, and n, which yields r
0
, the equilibrium inter-ionic spacing.
(c) Determine the expression for E
0
by substitution of r
0
into the Equation above.

(a) Differentiation yields

dE
N
dr
=
A
r
(1 + 1)
-
nB
r
(n + 1)

(b) Solving for r (= r
o
)
= 0
MatS 2001 Fall 2011
Solutions to Problem Set #4
09/ 30/ 11 02: 05: 00 PM Page 2 of 4 FL11

A
r
o
2
=
or

nB
r
o
(n + 1)
r
o
=
\
|
.
|
A
nB


1/(1 - n)

(c) Substituting for r
o
and solving for E (= E
o
)
E
o
= -
A
r
o
+
= -

B
r
o
n
A
\
|
.
|
A
nB
1/(1 - n)
+


B
\
|
.
|
A
nB
n/(1 - n)
4-3 For a K
+
- Cl
-
ion pair, attractive and repulsive energies E
Attraction
and E
Repulsion
, respectively,
depend on the distance between the ions r, according to:

1.436
A
E
r
= and
6
9
5.86 10
R
E
r

=
For these expressions, energies are expressed in electron volts per K
+
- Cl
-
pair, and r is
distance in nanometers. The net energy E
Net
is the sum of the two expressions above.

(a) Superimpose on a single plot E
N
, E
R
, and E
A
versus r up to 1.0 nm.

Curves of E
A
, E
R
, and E
N
are shown on the plot below.

1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0
-7
-6
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
Interatomic Separation (nm)
B
o
n
d
i
n
g

E
n
e
r
g
y

(
e
V
)
E
A
E
R
E
N
r
o
= 0.28 nm
E
o
= -4.6 eV



MatS 2001 Fall 2011
Solutions to Problem Set #4
09/ 30/ 11 02: 05: 00 PM Page 3 of 4 FL11

(b) On the basis of this plot, determine (i) the equilibrium spacing r
0
between the K
+
and
Cl
-
ions, and (ii) the magnitude of the bonding energy E
0
between the two ions.
From this plot
r
o
= 0.28 nm
E
o
= -4.6 eV
(c) Mathematically determine the r
0
and E
0
values the equations derived in Problem (34)
and compare these with the graphical results from part b.

From the equation for E
N

A = 1.436 B = 5.86 x 10
-6
n = 9
Thus,
r
o
=
\
|
.
|
A
nB


1/(1 - n)
=

(
(
1.436
(9)(5.86 x 10
-6
)

and
1/(1 - 9)
= 0.279 nm
E
o
= -
1.436

(
(
1.436
(9)(5.86 x 10
-6
)
1/(1 - 9)
+
= - 4.57 eV

5.86 x 10
-6

(
(
1.436
(9)(5.86 x 10
-6
)
9/(1 - 9)
4-4 Make a plot of bonding energy versus melting temperature for the metals listed in Table
2.3. Using this plot, approximate the bonding energy for copper, which has a melting
temperature of 1084C.

Below is plotted the bonding energy versus melting temperature for these four metals. From this
plot, the bonding energy for copper (melting temperature of 1084C) should be approximately 3.6
eV. The experimental value is 3.5 eV.

MatS 2001 Fall 2011
Solutions to Problem Set #4
09/ 30/ 11 02: 05: 00 PM Page 4 of 4 FL11

4000 3000 2000 1000 0 -1000
0
2
4
6
8
10
B
o
n
d
i
n
g

E
n
e
r
g
y

(
e
V
W
F e
A l
H g
3 . 6 e V
M e l t i n g T e m p e r a t u r e ( C


4-5 An aluminum- alloy bar of length 2 meters at room temperature ( 300 K) is exposed to a
temperature of 100C ( =23x10
-6
K
-1
).

(a) What will be the length of this bar at 100C?

( ) ( ) ( )
6
0 0
23 10
1 1 2 1 373 300 2.0034 l l l T m K m
K


| |
= + = + = + =
|
\ .

a) What stress will be generated in the aluminum-alloy bar heated to 100C if the bar
was constrained between rigid supports and not allowed to expand? Will this stress be
compressive or tensile?

( )( )( )
6 1
70 23 10 373 300 117.53 E GPa K K MPa

= = =


This would be a compressive stress.