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1a: Field Trip Report on Moray Firth-Hopeman Formation

1b: Implication of the Prospectivity and Petroleum Geology Of Moray Firth Using Beatrice Field

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th
24 November, 2008 23th November, 2008 LATE DATE

MATRIC No.0807471

SURNAME: Agulanna

FIRST NAME(S): Edward Emeka

COURSE & STAGE


MSc Petroleum production Engineering
Full Time
MODULE NUMBER & TITLE (ENM 200) SUBSURFACE ENGINEERING

ASSIGNMENT TITLE Field Report


LECTURER ISSUING Dr. Bryan T.CRONIN
COURSEWORK

I confirm: (a) That the work undertaken for this assignment is entirely my own and that I
have not made use of any unauthorised assistance.
(b) That the sources of all reference material have been properly
acknowledged.
[NB: For information on Academic Misconduct, refer to
http://www.rgu.ac.uk/academicaffairs/assessment/page.cfm?pge=7088]

Signed EMEKA EDWARD AGULANNA


Date 22TH NOVEMBER, 2008

Marker’s Comments

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Emeka Edward Agulanna (0807471) Petroleum Production Engineering
1a: Field Trip Report on Moray Firth-Hopeman Formation
1b: Implication of the Prospectivity and Petroleum Geology Of Moray Firth Using Beatrice Field

Marker Grade

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
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Emeka Edward Agulanna (0807471) Petroleum Production Engineering
1a: Field Trip Report on Moray Firth-Hopeman Formation
1b: Implication of the Prospectivity and Petroleum Geology Of Moray Firth Using Beatrice Field
This report has been written based on physical field visit and personal observations made at the
Moray Firth Hopeman formation at three different Localities which include the Hopeman sandstone
Covesea (1A and 1B) locality , Daisy Locality (2A and 2B) and Cove Bay Locality.
The purpose of the Field visit was aimed at:
• The developing of personal abilities in identifying, analyzing and interpretation of petroleum
Geological Characteristics of Geological Structures through observations of the Structures.
• Using Structural Arrangements, Facies and Rock Types to appraise the prospectivity of the
Moray Firth Hopeman Localities.
At various localities, detailed observations of the Rock structures were made and were interpreted
based on the following factors:
• Sedimentary Texture
• Mineralogical Composition of the Rocks
• Permeability of the Rock
• Porosity of the Rock
• Depositional Environment
• Rock Age and Type
• Sedimentary Structure
• Cementation and Cementation agents
• Petroleum Geological Characteristics
From the field observation results at the localities, we were able to establish the fact that Hopeman
Location has a high Possible Petroleum prospectivity based on the following reasons:
• The Hopeman formation sandstone, are good reservoir rocks based on their good properties of
a reservoir such as porosity level, grain sorting, permeability etc.
• The presence of a trap and seal which resulted by the high angle reversed fault at cove bay;
the fault acts as a seal as well as a trap which means that the Hydrocarbons can be stored at
the reservoir if passed through the structure.
It will also be necessary to note that the clay underlying the reservoir rocks at the localities is
kimmerigde clay even though not yet mature enough to be a source rock.
Finally, it is recommended, that further Geological Investigation and exploration should be conducted
at the various localities to discover possible Source Rock, Seal and evidence of Migration.

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Emeka Edward Agulanna (0807471) Petroleum Production Engineering
1a: Field Trip Report on Moray Firth-Hopeman Formation
1b: Implication of the Prospectivity and Petroleum Geology Of Moray Firth Using Beatrice Field
INTRODUCTION

The geology of the Moray Firth cannot be well established without the description of the geology of
the North Sea to which it is located. The North Sea has a vast geological History which includes
different Stratigraphic and structural developments through various tectonic effects and it is located at
the North-West of the European Continental Shelf. Based on the Geological evolutionary history of
the North Sea, the Moray Firth was formed during the rifting and subsidence of the late Permian by
tectonics i.e. 250 million years ago based on the Geological time scale. The basin was basically part
of the Pangaea Continent and was developed by extensional shifts which failed in its attempts to
complete the separation of the Continent.
The Moray Firth has two main firths which are the Inner Moray Firth and the Outer Moray Firth with
two main in flow Rivers which are the River Ness and River Spey. The Sedimentary succession of the
inner Moray Firth is represented onshore by the Aeolian Hopeman and Lossiemouth sandstones.
The Outer Moray Firth includes the Smith Bank and the Beatrice Oilfield. Moray Firth has an
evidence for the westerly increase in the regional uplift. The Devonian has some limited potential as a
source rock in the inner Moray Firth. Moray Firth is also an example of a Preserved Carboniferous
rocks which occurred during deformation time. A third area of the Rotliegend deposition occurs in the
Moray Firth basin of the same approximate age of creation is a series of small half Grabens.

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Emeka Edward Agulanna (0807471) Petroleum Production Engineering
1a: Field Trip Report on Moray Firth-Hopeman Formation
1b: Implication of the Prospectivity and Petroleum Geology Of Moray Firth Using Beatrice Field

OBJECTIVES:
• To present a series of exposures that are similar to those present at the top of the Rotliegend in
many offshore wells.
• How to make Geological descriptions- sedimentology / structural geology
• Recording of Personal Observations from the structural geology.
• The developing of personal abilities in identifying, analyzing and interpretation of petroleum
Geological Characteristics of Geological Structures through observations of the Structures.
• Using Structural Arrangements, Facies and Rock Types to appraise the prospectivity of the
Moray Firth Hopeman Localities.

DISCUSSION
2.0 FIELD OBSERVATION AND INTERPRETATION
At various localities, detailed observations of the structures were made and the structural features of
the Rocks were interpreted based on the following factors for all the locations as a standard for Rock
properties description and the rock localities are presented in this report in chronological order
starting from the oldest to the youngest rock.
 Sedimentary Texture of the rocks which include:
 Size of the Grains that make up the rock structure.
 Geometric form of the rock or curvature of the grain edges or shape. They could either
be defined as Spherical or Roundness when they appear angular spherical or rounded
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1a: Field Trip Report on Moray Firth-Hopeman Formation
1b: Implication of the Prospectivity and Petroleum Geology Of Moray Firth Using Beatrice Field
when viewed with a lens depending on their size. And this are important properties,
because they give information on the provenance (derivation or source) of the
sediments, agent of transportation, sediment maturity and the degree of sorting of the
grains of the rock.
 Mineralogical Composition of the Rocks
 Orientation of the Grains
 Rock Color
 Cementation and Cementation agents
 Sedimentary Structure
 Rock Age and Type
 Depositional Environment
 Net-To-Gross
 Fracture pattern
 Porosity of the Rock
 Permeability of the Rock
 Petroleum Geological Characteristics of the Rock based on the identified properties.

2.1: LOCATION - 1A
GEOLOGICAL NAME: HOPEMAN COVESEA LOCALITY (1A)

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The Hopeman Covesea Locality (1A) has the following properties based on Observations:
• Rock Age: Permian (Rotliegend) of estimated age of 250 years based on geological Timing.
• Depositional Environment: Aeolian
• Structural Type: Cross Trough Bedding
• Rock Type: Sedimentary Sand Stone
• Grain Shape: Rounded Shape
• Grain Size: fine (good uniformity)
• Formation Color: Pale Brown and Red (Showing Presence of Iron (FeO2) in the Formation.
• Sorting: Very Good (Based on the fact that the grains are all the same as a result of the
transportation medium which was wind of the same strength during deposition.)
• Fracture Type: Vertical Fractures
• Cementation: Moderate Strength ( Easy to Break off consolidated grains)
• Wind direction: North (Direction of Sea)
• Mineral composition: Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) , Dolomite (BaSO4)
• Porosity: Good
• Permeability: Good
• Net-To- Gross : High
• Petroleum Geological Characteristics : Reservoir ( Very Good Properties )

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Emeka Edward Agulanna (0807471) Petroleum Production Engineering
1a: Field Trip Report on Moray Firth-Hopeman Formation
1b: Implication of the Prospectivity and Petroleum Geology Of Moray Firth Using Beatrice Field

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Emeka Edward Agulanna (0807471) Petroleum Production Engineering
1a: Field Trip Report on Moray Firth-Hopeman Formation
1b: Implication of the Prospectivity and Petroleum Geology Of Moray Firth Using Beatrice Field
2.2: LOCATION: 1B:
GEOLOGICAL NAME: HOPEMAN COVESEA 1B
The Hopeman Covesea Locality (1B) has the following properties based on Observations:
• Rock Age: Permian (Rotliegend) of estimated age of 250 years based on geological Timing.
• Depositional Environment: Aeolian
• Structural Type: Cross Trough Bedding
• Rock Type: Sedimentary Sand Stone
• Grain Shape: Rounded Shape
• Grain Size: very fine (good uniformity)
• Formation Color: Brown and Red (Showing Presence of Iron (FeO2) in the Formation.
• Sorting: Very Good (Based on the fact that the grains are all the same as a result of the
transportation medium which was wind of the same strength during deposition.)
• Fracture Type: Vertical Fractures (caused by Tectonics rifting)
• Cementation: Hard Strength ( cannot Break off consolidated grains easily)
• Wind direction: North (Direction of Sea)
• Mineral composition: Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3), Dolomite (BaSO4- forms a kind of barrier
to flow during fluid migration which could affect the flow of the hydrocarbons if passed
through the formation.)
• Porosity: low
• Permeability: low
• Net-To- Gross : High
• Petroleum Geological Characteristics : Reservoir ( Very Good Properties )

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Emeka Edward Agulanna (0807471) Petroleum Production Engineering
1a: Field Trip Report on Moray Firth-Hopeman Formation
1b: Implication of the Prospectivity and Petroleum Geology Of Moray Firth Using Beatrice Field

2.3: LOCATION: 2A
GEOLOGICAL NAME: HOPEMAN DAISY

The Hopeman Daisy Locality (2A) has the following properties based on Observations:
• Rock Age: Permian (Rotliegend) of estimated age of 250 years based on geological Timing.
• Depositional Environment: Aeolian
• Structural Type: Cross Trough Bedding (bedding angle of about 10 to 15 degree and North-
West stratification which have disturbed beddings and unusual slump layer folds found in the
Central-North part of the North Sea ).
• Rock Type: Sedimentary Sand Stone
• Grain Shape: Oval Shape
• Grain Size: very fine (good uniformity)
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• Formation Color: Dark Brown and Red (Showing Presence of Iron (FeO2) in the Formation.
• Sorting: Very Good (Based on the fact that the grains are all the same as a result of the
transportation medium which was wind of the same strength during deposition.)
• Fracture Type: Vertical Fractures ( Eroded by Water-sea)
• Cementation: Hard Strength (contains a lot of Quartz and Silica )
• Wind direction: North (Direction of Sea)
• Mineral composition: Quartz and Silica
• Porosity: low (2% - 8%)
• Permeability: low
• Net-To- Gross : High
• Petroleum Geological Characteristics :Reservoir ( Good Properties with traces of good
reservoir stretch)

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Emeka Edward Agulanna (0807471) Petroleum Production Engineering
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LOCATION 3A:
GEOLOGICAL NAME: HOPEMAN COVE LOCATION

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1a: Field Trip Report on Moray Firth-Hopeman Formation
1b: Implication of the Prospectivity and Petroleum Geology Of Moray Firth Using Beatrice Field

The Hopeman Cove Locality (3A) has the following properties based on Observations:
• Rock Age: Permian (Rotliegend) of estimated age of 250 years based on geological Timing.
• Depositional Environment: Aeolian ( deposited at low angles)
• Structural Type: Cross Trough Bedding ( looking almost flat which is due to wind ripple
lamination or ripple movement (Acymetric ripples of 10cm) by sand in the desert )
• Rock Type: Sedimentary Sand Stone (Open sand stone )
• Grain Shape: Rounded Shape
• Grain Size: fine (good uniformity)
• Formation Color: light brown
• Sorting: Very Good (Based on the fact that the grains are all the same as a result of the
transportation medium which was wind of the same strength during deposition.)
• Fault: caused by tectonic processes resulting to an uplift of the formation as a result of low
compression movement on the rock known as Compression fault, then followed by a
Reversed Displacement (fault) caused by high extension movement of the rock which means
the tectonic process reactived the fault for the reversed fault to occur.
• Cementation: low Strength ( Easy to Break off consolidated grains)
• Wind direction: North (Direction of Sea)
• Mineral composition: Silica
• Porosity: Good ( 20% )
• Permeability: Good (excellent vertical and horizontal permeability due to low cementation)
• Net-To- Gross : Very High ( 99%- 100% )

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Emeka Edward Agulanna (0807471) Petroleum Production Engineering
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• Petroleum Geological Characteristics :Best Reservoir (Very Good Properties but will produce
a lot of sand, so sand control will be required if used for a reservoir)
The Cove 2B Locality’s (Foot-Wall) cementation is low even though presence of a lot Iron,
because the fault line has high cementation and impermeable which was identified with the
presence of a veins running through the fault zone. Also very poor porosity prevented the flow of
fluid through the Structure to the open sand stone for circulation which could have resulted in the
precipitation of the Iron and hardening of the rock grains together.

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Emeka Edward Agulanna (0807471) Petroleum Production Engineering
1a: Field Trip Report on Moray Firth-Hopeman Formation
1b: Implication of the Prospectivity and Petroleum Geology Of Moray Firth Using Beatrice Field

LOCATION 2B:
GEOLOGICAL NAME: HOPEMAN DAISY 2B LOCATION

The Hopeman Daisy Locality (2B) has the following properties based on Observations:
• Rock Age: Permian (Rotliegend) of estimated age of 200 years based on geological Timing
(youngest rock in the Hopeman locations visited).
• Depositional Environment: Aeolian
• Structural Type: Dune Trough Bedding (has three different angles of depth which is about 10o
North with a strike of about 118 o)
• Rock Type: Sedimentary Sand Stone
• Grain Shape: Rounded Shape (look spherical even though round because of the cementation
agent in the formation)
• Grain Size: very fine (good uniformity)
• Formation Color: Reddish Brown (Showing Presence of Iron (FeO2) in the Formation).
• Sorting: Very Good (Based on the fact that the grains are all the same as a result of the
transportation medium which was wind of the same strength during deposition.)
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• Fracture Type: Vertical Fractures ( Eroded by Water-sea)
• Cementation: Hard Strength (contains a lot of Quartz and Silicate )
• Wind direction: North (Direction of Sea - The formation shows evidence of movement of the
sand dome has about 30% of its formation content migrated into the sea during the weathering
process.
• Mineral composition: Quartz and Silicate
• Porosity: low (2% - 8%) (Due to cementation agents (Iron (FeO2)).
• Permeability: low
• Net-To- Gross : High
• Petroleum Geological Characteristics: Reservoir (Good Properties)

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CONCLUSION
• At the end of the field trip an Insight of the sedimentary and syn-sedimentary deformational
features within an Aeolian dune was observed.

• Good Geological observation, data interpretation and documentation skills of physical


structural features of a formation were acquired and put in good used during the writing of
this report.

• It was observed that the localities of the Moray Firth Hopeman formation had good properties
that can be used to identify a good reservoir and factors such as traps/ faults acting as a seal
which can be used to make certain assumptions on the prospectivity of commercial production
of hydrocarbons in a locality.

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• Further subsurface exploration is recommended for more discovery of evidence to ascertain
the complete prospectivity of the Hopeman localities for commercial production of
hydrocarbons.

BIBILOGRAPHY
• Andrews, I. J., D. Long, et al. (1990). The geology of the Moray Firth, British Geological
Survey
• CHESTER, J and LAWSON, D. 1983 Geology of the Moray Firth. London. Institute of
Geological Sciences
• CRONIN, B. 2006. The Moray Firth: Overview of Petroleum Systems from Field Geology.
Aberdeen. Unpublished.

• Davies, R.J., Stephen, K.S. & Underhill, J.R. 1996. A re-evaluation of the Middle and Upper
Jurassic Stratigraphy and flooding history of the Moray Firth rift system, North Sea.
In Geology of the Humber Group Central Graben and Moray Firth, UKCS). In: Hurst et al.
(eds) Geological Society Special Publication. 114: 81-108.

• Geological Conservation Review, (2006). Aberdeen. [online] (Available from) :


http://www.jncc.gov.uk/earthheritage/gcrdb/GCRblock.asp?block=70 (Accessed on)
12 November 2008-2350hrs

• GLENNIE, W., 1994. Introduction to petroleum geology of the North Sea. Oxford: Blackwell.

• Johnson, H., P. C. Richards, et al. (1993). United Kingdom Offshore regional report: the
Geology of the Northern North Sea. London, H. M. S. O

• MORAY FIRTH, (2006), Aberdeen. [online] (Available from)


http://xweb.geos.ed.ac.uk/~scotgaz/features/featurefirst6305.html [Accessed 13 November
2008-0620hrs]

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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY AND PROSPECTIVITY OF THE MORAY FIRTH


(USING BEATRICE FIELD)
The North Sea is one of the world’s major oil producing provinces and the episode of the late Jurassic
to upper Cretaceous Crustal extensional tectonics and failed rifting systems dominated the geological
history of the North Sea. These extensions led to the development of the trilete basin system of the
North Sea which includes the Viking Graben, Moray Firth and Central Graben Rift system. The
Rifting Process episodes can be categorized into three main stages which are the Pre-Rifting, Syn-
Rifting and Post-Rifting episodes.
The North Sea has the Organic–rich marine mudstones known as the Kimmerigde clay formation
which was initially formed during Syn-Rift episode and it is practically the source rock for the

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hydrocarbons of the region. This source rock became more matured for hydrocarbon generation along
the Rift axis during the Paleogene times with the help of another rifting process known as the Post-
Rift thermal Subsidence. Even though the extensional rifting ceased during the earliest cretaceous,
subsidence controlled by fault continued in some parts of the Moray Firth Basin which now accounts
for the premature parts of the kimmerigde clay formation.

This Moray Firth is a fault controlled basin which were mainly active during the Ryazan-an (late
Cimmenian movements) and Volgian period, even though it continued till about the mid cretaceous. It
is located at the East of the Northern Scottish highlands and nearly one-off from the central Graben. It
also got connected with the Viking Graben not too long ago through the fisher bank basin and the
witch ground Graben. The Moray Firth location is estimated to have about 0.3 to 1.9 billion barrels of
oil reserves.
The Western area of the Moray firth is approximately about 150km stretch and with its land fall
boundaries roughly along the present day shorelines of the existing faults of the Moray firth. And this
location is known as the Inner Moray Firth. The Inner Moray Firth has its sedimentary progression
which is separated by fluvial sandstone of the Burghead beds, represented onshore by the Aeolian
Hopeman and Lossiemouth sandstones.

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The Inner Moray Firth is a prolific oil producing location on the Moray Firth because of the presence
of formations like the Beatrice. A field known as the Beatrice field which has its main source rock as
the Kimmerigde clay and is located on the Inner Moray firth approximately 22km East of Helmsdale
on the Caithness coast. It is an offshore location 45km to North-East and 13miles offshore of Britain
which makes it the nearest Oil field to Britain. It is located in Block 11/30a of the United Kingdom
Continental Shelf and began Production September 1981 and by July 2005 had produced about 164
million barrels of oil which represents 33% of the estimated Oil Reserves.

The Beatrice field is further off the nearest possible mature upper Jurassic source rock known as the
Kimmerigde clay which makes up virtually the source rock for the entire petroleum system of the
Moray Firth. It has also been established from previous research that the Kimmerigde clay underneath
the Beatrice field is Pre-mature to produce hydrocarbons which implies that it is possible that the
Beatrice field has a different petroleum system.
The Beatrice Field has the Beatrice formation as its main Reservoir and four (4) possible hydrocarbon
source rocks based on the Stratigraphy of the North-East Scotland and the Inner Moray Firth which
are:
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• The Marine Upper Jurassic Kimmerigde clay (pre-mature)
• Middle Jurassic Brora Coal and Marine equivalents
• Lacustrine Devonian Mudstones in the Old Red Sand stone.
• The Middle-Upper Jurassic Heather Formation (Possibility)

. Petroleum system of the Moray Firth with respect to Beatrice Field can be summarized based on the
Following:

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• Source rocks which are the Kimmerigde clay, Upper Permian - Early Jurassic Brora Coal,
Lacustrine Devonian Old Red Sandstone and a possibility of the (Middle Jurassic) Heather
Mudstone as a source rock for Beatrice Formation based on the Stratigraphic analysis of the
Moray Firth in general.
• The Reservoirs are mainly syn-rift and post-rift reservoirs, but the most prominent reservoir
in the Beatrice Field is the Beatrice formation.
• There is also an evidence of hydrocarbon migration based on traces Oil similar to Oil found in
pre-existing wells in the Moray Firth basin.
• Presence of Structural (faults) and Stratigraphic traps which occurred during the rifting
episodes of the Moray Firth.
• Presence of Seals formed by the Kimmerigde clay and mudstones capping the syn-reservoir
formation.
• The presence of the Extensional Plate types which are passive margin and known for their
high Prolific Oil nature.

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The Prospectivity of Moray Firth with respect to Beatrice field is usually analyzed based on the
petroleum play of the location, the structural features, tectonic system and the Possibility of Success
evaluation matrix can also be used for the analysis of the of the formation for commercial production
of hydrocarbons. The table below shows the Possibility of success evaluation matrix (POS):

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POS Assessment (Evaluation) matrix

POSSIBILITY OF
SUCCESS (POS)
EVALUATION MATRIX
S/N PROPERTIES 5 4 3 2 1
1 SOURCE ROCK 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.1
2 RESERVOIR 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.1
3 TRAP 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.1
4 SEAL 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.1
5 MIGRATION 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.1
6 PLATE TYPE 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.1
TECTONIC
7 ENVIRONMENT 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.1

POS - SCALE: EXECELLENT = 5


VERY GOOD = 4
GOOD =3
FAIR =2
BAD =1

A. SOURCE ROCK = ((PREMATURE) UPPER JURASSIC-KIMMERGDE CLAY (0.3) + (UPPER PERMIAN - OLD JURASSIC)
BRORA COAL (0.9) +
(LACUSTRINE DEVONIAN ) OLD RED SAND STONE(0.9) + (MIDDLE JURASSIC) HEATHER
(POSSIBILITIES) (0.9))/(3.6)= 0.83

B. RESERVOIR FORMATION: BEATRICE FORMATION (GOOD POROSITY, PERMEABILITY,NET-


TO-GROWTH)= 0.7
C. TRAP :( STRUCTURAL AND STRATIGRAPHY
FAULTS)= 0.9
D. MIGRATION : (GOOD PERMEABILITY,POROSITY)=
0.7
E. SEAL: (FAULT) = 0.9
F. PLATE TYPE : (EXTENSIONAL (PASSIVE MARGIN-HIGHLY PROLIFIC
OIL) = 0.9
G. TECTONIC ENVIRONMENT = 0.5

EXECELLENT POS = SOURCE ROCK (0.9) + RESEVOIR FORMATION (0.9) + TRAP (0.9) +
SEAL(0.9) +
MIGRATION (0.9) + PLATE TYPE (PLAY)(0.9) + TECTONIC ENVIRONMENT(0.9)=
6.3
BEATRICE POS = (0.83+ 0.7
+0.9+0.7+0.9+0.9+0.5)= 5.43

% POS FOR MORAY FIRTH WITH RESPECT TO


BEATRICE
FINAL POS EVALUATION =(BEATRICE POS)/(EXECELLENT POS ) * 100 =
((5.43/6.3) * 100) = 86.1%

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1a: Field Trip Report on Moray Firth-Hopeman Formation
1b: Implication of the Prospectivity and Petroleum Geology Of Moray Firth Using Beatrice Field
The high percentage of Possibility of success (86.1%) from the matrix analyses certifies that the
Prospectivity of the Moray Firth with respect to the Beatrice field will be commercial for production of
hydrocarbon in time to come.
Finally, the Prospectivity of the Moray Firth with respect to the Beatrice field for the commercial
production of hydrocarbon is very high based on the following reasons:
• The Petroleum system of the Moray Firth with respect to Beatrice meets the five steps to
heaven which are the presence of good Reservoir formation, Source rock, Seal, evidence of
Migration and Trap. These are requirements for the commercial production of hydrocarbon.
• Presence of Stratigraphic and structural traps on the formation.
• It is in the region for Extension Tectonic system with tendency of subsidence occurrence for
rifting and proper burial for the production of hydrocarbon.
• The Possibility Of Success (POS) evaluation matrix shows that the prospectivity of the
Moray Firth with respect to Beatrice field is about 86% which implies that the formation will
be commercially viable in future for Hydrocarbon production.

Reference/ Bibliography

(Online) (Available from)


(https://www.og.berr.gov.uk/UKpromote/offshore_paper/UKCS_prospectivity_2007.pdf)
(Accessed on): 20th November, 2008- 0350hrs)

(Online) (Available from): (http://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/2204/c/pdf/B2204C.pdf), (Accessed on): 20th


November, 2008- 0350hrs)

(Online) (Available from): http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=1499698) (Accessed on):


18th November-2008-0805hrs)

Baillie.P.W. and E.P.Jacobson: Prospectivity and exploration history of the Barrow sub-basin, Western
Australia. (Online)(Available from): Http//:www.doir.wa.gov.au/document/10appea_paper.pdf
(Accessed from): 18th November, 2008

Gautier, Donald L., 2005, Kimmeridgian Shales Total Petroleum System of the North Sea Graben
Province: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2204-C, 24 p.

PETERS K.E. ET AL: (1999), ORGANIC GEOCHEMISTRY 30 PG 237-248

Petroleum Prospectivity of the principal sedimentary Basins on the United Kingdom continental
shelf, (Online) (Available from): http//: www.og.berr.gov.uk/ukpromote/geoscientific

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Emeka Edward Agulanna (0807471) Petroleum Production Engineering
1a: Field Trip Report on Moray Firth-Hopeman Formation
1b: Implication of the Prospectivity and Petroleum Geology Of Moray Firth Using Beatrice Field
/UKCS_prospectivity 2007.pdf (Accessed on): 18th November, 2008

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Emeka Edward Agulanna (0807471) Petroleum Production Engineering