166 tayangan

Diunggah oleh crutili

- Comparing Systems Powerpoints.pdf
- CHAPTER 4
- The Tyranny of Power
- Government Expenditure and Economic Growth Nexus: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria (1970-2012)
- A STUDY OF MATHEMATICAL ACHIEVEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS.
- “a Quality Function Deployment QFD Approach in Determining the Employer’s Selection in KAMCO” 1
- New_Linear Regression Analysis- 2
- Problem Set 8 (Aug2017) (1)
- Seitz Corporation_Group 1
- 09chkenblacksolution-130815163039-phpapp02
- Statistics Notes - Normal distribution, Confidence Interval & Hypothesis Testing
- Sample
- For Chapter 5
- Odds Are It s Wrong - Science News
- R07-tests1.128
- Statistics
- Effects of Supervision on Tax Compliance
- Project Management
- skittles project 5-02
- std 7 evidence final

Anda di halaman 1dari 14

SPSS TUTORIAL

8)

There is a data set posted on the BlackBoard site that you can use to follow along

On DePaul lab computers, go to PROGRAMS, then STATISTICAL SOFTWARE and

click on SPSS

Alternatively, you can open a pre-existing data set (like the one used for this lab) and it

should open up SPSS.

In SPSS, you can enter your data and calculate descriptive and inferential statistics using

fairly simple steps.

ID year) GPA) plans)

Participant 1 3 3.2 0

Participant 2 2 2.5 1

Participant 3 4 2.8 1

descending in the first column.

Each of the following columns represents one of your variables. In SPSS, make sure to

CODE all variables into NUMERIC values. You can use SPSS to compute statistics for

numbers (not written variables). For example, Year (1= Freshmen, 2= Sophomore, 3=

Junior, 4= Senior). You can also DICHOTOMIZE variables (assigning them a score of 0

or 1, depending on presence or absence—good for things like gender, presence/absence

of a behavior [observational research]). For example, Graduate School Plans... 0= no

school, 1= planning on going to grad school.

EXAMINE GENERAL FEATURES OF DATA, LOOK FOR OUTLIERS,

ANOMALIES, IMPOSSIBLE NUMBERS IN YOUR DATA

FREQUENCIES.

Move variables of interest over into the column on the right. Click the box for DISPLAY

FREQUENCY TABLES. Next hit CHARTS. From here you can click whatever chart

type you are comfortable with. I generally recommend choosing HISTOGRAM, and I

would also click on checkbox for WITH NORMAL CURVE. Then hit OK.

You will see a print out like this:

Frequencies

Statistics

IQ

N Valid 88

Missing 0

(the Valid lets you know how many pieces of data were entered for this variable [also see

the N—Sample Size], Missing lets you know how many data points in this variable are

not entered/answered)

IQ

Frequency Percent Valid Cumulative

Percent Percent

Valid 75 1 1.1 1.1 1.1

79 1 1.1 1.1 2.3

81 2 2.3 2.3 4.5

82 3 3.4 3.4 8.0

83 2 2.3 2.3 10.2

84 2 2.3 2.3 12.5

85 3 3.4 3.4 15.9

86 2 2.3 2.3 18.2

88 3 3.4 3.4 21.6

89 2 2.3 2.3 23.9

90 1 1.1 1.1 25.0

91 3 3.4 3.4 28.4

92 2 2.3 2.3 30.7

93 2 2.3 2.3 33.0

94 1 1.1 1.1 34.1

95 6 6.8 6.8 40.9

96 2 2.3 2.3 43.2

97 1 1.1 1.1 44.3

98 2 2.3 2.3 46.6

99 1 1.1 1.1 47.7

100 3 3.4 3.4 51.1

101 2 2.3 2.3 53.4

102 3 3.4 3.4 56.8

103 2 2.3 2.3 59.1

104 1 1.1 1.1 60.2

105 3 3.4 3.4 63.6

106 4 4.5 4.5 68.2

107 3 3.4 3.4 71.6

108 3 3.4 3.4 75.0

109 3 3.4 3.4 78.4

110 1 1.1 1.1 79.5

111 4 4.5 4.5 84.1

112 1 1.1 1.1 85.2

114 1 1.1 1.1 86.4

115 2 2.3 2.3 88.6

118 3 3.4 3.4 92.0

120 2 2.3 2.3 94.3

121 1 1.1 1.1 95.5

127 1 1.1 1.1 96.6

128 1 1.1 1.1 97.7

131 1 1.1 1.1 98.9

137 1 1.1 1.1 100.0

Total 88 100.0 100.0

(this table lets you know how many people scored/responded with a certain score

[Frequency] and the percentage of total participants answered that same way)

IQ

14

12

10

4

y

c

n

e 2 Std. Dev = 12.98

u

q Mean = 100.3

e

rF 0 N = 88.0 0

7 5.0 8 5.0 9 5.0 1 05.0 115.0 1 25.0 1 35.0

8 0.0 9 0.0 1 00.0 1 10.0 1 20.0 1 30.0

IQ

(this is a histogram of the chart—it gives you a visual view of what your data

distribution/variability of the data, as well as the central tendencies, including how

NORMAL the data is—again, NORMAL data will look somewhat like a bell-curve)

OUTLIERS/ANOMALIES/IMPOSSIBLE NUMBERS

So what happens when we find an outlier or “odd” numbers?

What would you do with data that looks like this?

DESCRIBE CENTRAL TENDENCIES AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE DATA

Summarizing the data is similar to the above step (in fact, you can do them both at the

same time!).

Click on ANALYZE, then DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS, and then FREQUENCIES

again. From here click on STATISTICS. Now you can choose any of the statistics listed

here. I would recommend the ones we talked about in class, such as MEAN, MEDIAN,

MODE, RANGE, STANDARD DEVIATON, STANDARD ERROR OF THE MEAN

(S.E. OF THE MEAN). You will get a similar output with the addition of a table that

looks like this:

Statistics

IQ

N Valid 88

Missing 0

Mean 100.26

Std. Error of Mean 1.384

Range 62

To estimate confidence intervals for a single mean, you can click on GRAPHS then

ERROR BAR. Next, click on SIMPLE and SUMMARIES OF SEPARATE

VARIABLES. Then move over the variables of interest into the box to the right (I would

recommend doing this one variable at a time). Then from the BARS REPRESENT

dropdown menu select CONFIDENCE INTERVAL FOR THE MEAN. Make sure you

have selected 95% for the level (you can choose others, but 95% is the norm). Click OK.

You will see a box that looks like this:

1 04

1 03

1 02

1 01

1 00

99

IQ 98

I

C

%

5

9 97

N = 88

IQ

(the dot in the middle represents the SAMPLE MEAN and the bars above and below

represent the UPPER and LOWER CI)

You can also go to ANALYZE, then DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS, and then EXPLORE.

Then move variable of interest into the DEPENDENT LIST to the right. Make sure you

have STATISTICS or BOTH checked for DISPLAY. Then hit OK. You will see a print

out like this:

Descriptives

Statistic Std. Error

IQ Mean 100.26 1.384

95% Confidence Interval for Lower Bound 97.51

Mean

Upper Bound 103.01

5% Trimmed Mean 99.78

Median 100.00

Variance 168.609

Std. Deviation 12.985

Minimum 75

Maximum 137

Range 62

Interquartile Range 18.50

Skewness .394 .257

Kurtosis -.163 .508

(this gives us a numerical summary of the CI versus a visual display, as seen above)

To view CI of difference on a measure (DV) across different groups (IV), take similar

steps as above. Click on GRAPHS then ERROR BARS. Again, click on SIMPLE, but

now click on SUMMARIES FOR GROUPS OF CASES—click DEFINE. Then move

the variable of interest over into the VARIABLE section and whatever you want to group

it by (e.g., year in school, gender, etc.) into the CATEGORY AXIS box. Hit OK. You

will see a box similar to this:

1 10

1 00

90

IQ

I

C

%

5

9 80

N = 78 10

0 1

DROPOUT

(this shows the MEAN and CI for the variable [IQ] across the different groups

[DROPOUT] as well as the CI for each group)

Similar to the example above (CI OF SINGLE MEAN), you can go to ANALYZE, then

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS, and then EXPLORE. Put the variable of interest in the

DEPENDENT LIST and the variable you wish to group it by in the FACTOR LIST. Hit

OK. You should have a print out like this:

Descriptives

DROPOUT Statistic Std. Error

I 0 Mean 101.65 1.467

Q

95% Confidence Interval for MeanLower Bound 98.73

Upper Bound 104.58

5% Trimmed Mean 101.25

Median 102.00

Variance 167.918

Std. Deviation 12.958

Minimum 75

Maximum 137

Range 62

Interquartile Range 17.50

Skewness .281 .272

Kurtosis -.180 .538

1 Mean 89.40 2.130

95% Confidence Interval for MeanLower Bound 84.58

Upper Bound 94.22

5% Trimmed Mean 89.50

Median 89.50

Variance 45.378

Std. Deviation 6.736

Minimum 79

Maximum 98

Range 19

Interquartile Range 13.50

Skewness -.267 .687

Kurtosis -1.377 1.334

(this gives us numeric info on the lower and upper CI for both groups [0 and 1])

PART II: TESTS OF STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE AND THE “ANALYSIS

STORY”

Last time we discussed CI’s and how they can be used to support our hypotheses

This is the most common approach for data analysis

are greater than differences expected simply because of chance (error variation)

First step-- assume that the groups do not differ. This is called the Null Hypothesis (H0)

Assume the independent variable did not have an effect

Step 2-- Probability theory: estimate likelihood of observed outcome, while assuming H0

is true

This is what we mean by “statistically significant”—statistical significance is different

from scientific significance or practical/clinical significance

(Note: you don’t have to necessarily know the differences between these, but just know

that something can be statistically significant without being practically significant)

The outcome has small likelihood (<5% chance= p< .05) of occurring under H0

If this is the case, you reject H0 – conclude there is an effect of IV on the DV!

So, the difference between means is larger than what would be expected if error variation

(random chance) alone caused the outcome

We do not reject the H0 -- no difference, no effect

BUT, we also don’t accept the H0!

We don’t conclude that the IV didn’t produce an effect

We cannot make a conclusion about the effect of an IV

Some factor in experiment may have prevented us from observing an effect of the IV

Most common factor: too few participants!!!!

So, not matter what you find, make an argument as to WHY you could not find support

for your hypothesis-- do not say that your hypothesis is incorrect

Due to the nature of probability testing, it is possible that errors can occur with our

findings!

Types of errors:

Type I error: null hypothesis is rejected when it really is true

We observe statistically significant finding (p < .05)

But in truth, there is no effect of IV

Probability of making Type I error = alpha (α)

Setting level of significance at p < .05 indicates researchers accept probability of Type I

error as 5% for any given experiment

Claim effect of IV is not statistically significant (p > .05)

But in truth, there is an effect of the IV

Experiment missed the effect

Because of the possibility of Type I and Type II errors researchers are always tentative

about their claims

Use words such as “findings support the hypothesis” or “consistent with the hypothesis”

Never say the hypothesis was proven!!!

There is important info about statistical power and sensitivity in the chapter you should

be familiar with, but in interests of getting through material, I am leaving you to cover

and be familiar with that information

If you’re trying to demonstrate that 2 or more groups are different on some

measure/variable

Let’s see an example from our previous data set—

Remember our above example where we examined the CI for IQ across 2 groups—HS

dropout versus no-dropout?

STASTICALLY SIGNIFICANT

Then put the variable of interest in the TEST VARIABLES section and the group variable

in the GROUPING VARIABLE section. Now you have to DEFINE the GROUPING

VARIABLE (you can define it in whatever numbers/terms you want, just make sure it

makes sense to you). Then click on OK. You will get a print out that looks like this.:

Group Statistics

DROPOUT N Mean Std. Std. Error

Deviation Mean

IQ 0 78 101.65 12.958 1.467

1 10 89.40 6.736 2.130

Levene's Test for t-test for Equality of Means

Equality of

Variances

F Sig. t df Sig. (2- Mean Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval

tailed) Difference Difference of the Difference

Lower Upper

IQ Equal variances 3.951 .050 2.929 86 .004 12.25 4.183 3.938 20.569

assumed

not assumed

Note the Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances—this tests whether the variances

(standard deviation/standard error of the mean) for the 2 groups are equal (we want it to

be equal). If this test is NOT SIGNIFICANT (p > .05—which is what we want), then we

look at the top row—EQUAL VARIANCES ASSUMED. If this test IS SIGNIFICANT

(p< .05) we use the lower row—EQUAL VARIANCES NOT ASSUMED. What would

we do in this case?

Next we look at the t value, and whether it’s significant. In this case, the t value is

significant, so we would reject the null hypothesis—we have support that there are

differences between the groups.

Used if we are trying to determine 3 or more groups differ from each other on some

variable/measure

I have created a new variable in the data set called ADDLVL. This is a variable the

groups participants into 3 groups based on how many ADHD-related problems the

participants had (1= lower, 2= middle, 3= higher). I want to see if these 3 groups differ

on their IQ.

Go to ANALYZE, then COMPARE MEANS, and then ONE-WAY ANOVA. Put the

variable of interest in the DEPENDENT LIST (in this case, IQ) and the grouping variable

in the FACTOR section. You don’t have to make any other changes yet (although I

would go to OPTIONS and click on DESCRIPTIVES... it can never hurt).

You should see an output something like this:

Descriptives

IQ

N Mean Std. Std. Error 95% Confidence Minimum Maximum

Deviation Interval for Mean

Lower Upper

Bound Bound

1.00 24 113.71 10.407 2.124 109.31 118.10 90 137

2.00 51 96.29 10.356 1.450 93.38 99.21 75 120

3.00 13 91.00 6.819 1.891 86.88 95.12 79 102

Total 88 100.26 12.985 1.384 97.51 103.01 75 137

ANOVA

IQ

Sum of df Mean F Sig.

Squares Square

Between 6257.442 2 3128.721 31.616 .000

Groups

Within 8411.547 85 98.959

Groups

Total 14668.989 87

Here, we can see that the ANOVA (F-test) is significant (F= 31.616, p= .000). This tells

us that at least 2 of our groups are statistically significant. BUT WHICH ONES?

To figure this out, we need to run POST HOC analyses. This basically means “after

this,” or in this case “after this test.” POST HOC analyses should ONLY be run if the

ANOVA/F-TEST was significant at the first step (like above). If it was not, there is no

point in running POST HOCs.

There are many different types of POST HOCs that use different assumptions and meet

certain requirements. For this course, I will not make you figure out the many different

ways in which POST HOCs are different. The most common POST HOC is Tukey’s- so

feel free to use this POST HOC should you need it for your analysis.

You calculate POST HOCs similar to running a regular ANOVA. Like before, go to

ANALYZE, then COMPARE MEANS, and ONE-WAY ANOVA. Now- click on POST

HOC. From here, click the desired test (Tukey’s in this case). Then hit OK. You should

have a new table that looks like this:

Multiple Comparisons

Dependent Variable: IQ

Tukey HSD

Mean Std. Error Sig. 95%

Difference Confidence

(I-J) Interval

(I) addlvl (J) addlvl Lower Upper

Bound Bound

1.00 2.00 17.41 2.462 .000 11.54 23.29

3.00 22.71 3.426 .000 14.54 30.88

2.00 1.00 -17.41 2.462 .000 -23.29 -11.54

3.00 5.29 3.091 .206 -2.08 12.67

3.00 1.00 -22.71 3.426 .000 -30.88 -14.54

2.00 -5.29 3.091 .206 -12.67 2.08

* The mean difference is significant at the .05 level.

From here, we can see that GROUP 1 is significantly different from GROUP 2 and

GROUP 3. We can also see GROUP 2 and GROUP 3 are NOT significantly different

from each other. Look at the MEAN DIFFERENCE (I-J) as well as the DESCRIPTIVES

(i.e., MEAN) from before to determine HOW they differ. In this case, GROUP 1 had

higher IQ than GROUP 2 and GROUP 3.

CORRELATION

Next we will run a correlation test. Correlations are used to see whether or not 2 or more

variables are related. So, you can use a correlation to determine the relation between

how a person scores on 2 items/variables/measures. By using this procedure, you can

also use the correlation/relation to predict one variable using another. We’ll talk more

about this in class.

BIVARIATE. From here, you would place the variables you are interested in seeing

how/if they are related into the VARIABLES column to the right. For CORRELATION

COEFFECIENTS, click on PEARSON’S (this gives you your r vale—remember this

value from statistics?). On TEST OF SIGNIFICANCE, click on TWO-TAILED (we’ll

talk about the difference between one-tailed and two-tailed later). Make sure FLAG

SIGNIFICANT CORRELATIONS is checked. You can also click on OPTIONS and then

MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS. Hit OK and you should have a print out

that looks like this:

Correlations

IQ GPA

IQ Pearson 1 .497**

Correlation

Sig. (2-tailed) . .000

N 88 88

GPA Pearson .497** 1

Correlation

Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .

N 88 88

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

In a correlation table, what you want to look for is the PEARSON value (r value) and the

SIG row. In the table, you see that the correlation runs the correlation test for how IQ and

GPA are related, but also how IQ is related to IQ and GPA is related to GPA (see above).

When a variable is correlated with itself, the PEARSON value will be 1 (perfect

correlation). You can ignore those scores.

What you’re interested in looking at is how IQ is related to GPA. In this case, the

PEARSON value between these is .497 and the sig (p) is .000. In this case, the

correlation between these 2 variables IS SIGNIFICANT.

The PEARSON/r value tells us the DIRECTION and the STRENGTH of the relationship.

You might remember from Statistics that a correlation can be NEGATIVE or POSITIVE.

A POSITIVE correlation means that both variables move in the SAME DIRECTION—as

one variable INCREASES, the other INCREASES; or as one variables DECREASES,

the other DECREASES. An example of this is as “time spent studying for exam”

INCREASES, “exam score” increases. Alternatively, as “time spent studying for

midterm” DECRASES, “exam score” DECREASES.”

DIRECTIONS-- as one variable INCREASES the other DECREASES. One example of

this might be as “stress” INCREASES, school performance might DECREASE.

On the SPSS print out, you can determine whether the correlation is POSITIVE or

NEGATIVE by looking at the PEARSON value—is it a POSITIVE or NEGATIVE

number? In this case, it is POSITIVE, meaning as IQ increases, GPA increases.

The other thing to look for in correlation is the STRENGTH of the relationship. A

correlation score (this is our PEARSON or r value) can range from anywhere between -1

and +1. Here is an example distribution of possible correlation scores:

The closer the correlation is to 1 or -1, the STRONGER it is—the variables are more

closely related and it will be easier to find a significant relationship. The closer they are

to 0, the WEAKER the relationship is, and it may be harder to find a significant

relationship.

You can also run a correlation between 3 or more variables. You would follow the above

procedures (ANALYZE, CORRELATE, BIVARIATE), but now you would just add

additional variables. Make sure all the same things are clicked as noted above and hit

OK. You will now get a print out that looks like this:

Correlations

IQ GPA ADDSC

IQ Pearson 1 .497** -.632**

Correlation

Sig. (2-tailed) . .000 .000

N 88 88 88

GPA Pearson .497** 1 -.615**

Correlation

Sig. (2-tailed) .000 . .000

N 88 88 88

ADDSC Pearson -.632** -.615** 1

Correlation

Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .

N 88 88 88

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Now you will notice the table has gotten bigger and the test will test the correlation

between each variables separately (e.g., IQ—GPA, IQ—ADDSC, GPA—IQ, GPA—

ADDSC, ADDSC—IQ, ADDSC—GPA). You would read the table the same way as

above, focusing on the PEARSON/r value and the Sig level.

What can we determine from adding the new variable into this correlation?

We’ll now talk a little bit about how to COMPUTE and TRANSFORM data and

variables in SPSS. I will not include this info on BlackBoard-- this material will not be

included on the exam, but might be helpful for the final project.

- Comparing Systems Powerpoints.pdfDiunggah olehLibyaFlower
- CHAPTER 4Diunggah olehAries Christiawan
- The Tyranny of PowerDiunggah olehizeldien5870
- Government Expenditure and Economic Growth Nexus: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria (1970-2012)Diunggah olehInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- A STUDY OF MATHEMATICAL ACHIEVEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS.Diunggah olehIJAR Journal
- “a Quality Function Deployment QFD Approach in Determining the Employer’s Selection in KAMCO” 1Diunggah olehInternational Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
- New_Linear Regression Analysis- 2Diunggah olehkarambirsingh
- Problem Set 8 (Aug2017) (1)Diunggah olehbigpoel
- Seitz Corporation_Group 1Diunggah olehAnonymous h2EnKyDb
- 09chkenblacksolution-130815163039-phpapp02Diunggah olehVinay Kumar
- Statistics Notes - Normal distribution, Confidence Interval & Hypothesis TestingDiunggah olehwxc1252
- SampleDiunggah olehanon_616682089
- For Chapter 5Diunggah olehAdriana Carinan
- Odds Are It s Wrong - Science NewsDiunggah olehashfaqamar
- R07-tests1.128Diunggah olehFimaIei10
- StatisticsDiunggah olehDelphina Gomes
- Effects of Supervision on Tax ComplianceDiunggah olehSyehabudin Zm
- Project ManagementDiunggah olehMax Mbise
- skittles project 5-02Diunggah olehapi-354040698
- std 7 evidence finalDiunggah olehapi-328446016
- Take Home Quiz in ProbabilityDiunggah olehDaniela Davis
- PS3 StataDiunggah olehToulouse18
- SPSS Answers (Chapter 7)Diunggah olehAbhijit Singh
- MAT 540 Statistical Concepts for ResearchDiunggah olehnequwan79
- Int'l 06 a 2016 Analisis Data KategorikDiunggah olehdinda
- Research methodologyDiunggah olehBirna Brynjarsdóttir
- Davis Piger and SedoMacquarie Global Quantitative Researchr 2012Diunggah olehsmysona
- Quantitative TechniquesDiunggah olehKabutu Chuunga
- is.8900.1978Diunggah olehRaviteja Murala
- abst.docDiunggah olehTariq Rahim

- 241_observational_researchDiunggah olehcrutili
- TurboCad TutorialDiunggah olehcrutili
- apa_format___paper_evaluation___rev_iDiunggah olehcrutili
- 241_scientific_methodDiunggah olehcrutili
- psy_241_syllabusDiunggah olehcrutili
- 241_survey_researchDiunggah olehcrutili
- photoglyph animalsDiunggah olehcrutili
- CMN 212 Summer 2010 Class Lecture NotesDiunggah olehcrutili
- 241_ethicsDiunggah olehcrutili
- observational_researchDiunggah olehcrutili
- GPH 259 finalDiunggah olehcrutili
- 241_data_analysis_and_interpretation__part_iDiunggah olehcrutili
- photoglyph specsDiunggah olehcrutili
- apa_format_handout___5th_edition_finalDiunggah olehcrutili
- GPH 259 Design Geometry mid termDiunggah olehcrutili
- bbaldi_ips_chapter07Diunggah olehcrutili
- 241__unobtrusive_researchDiunggah olehcrutili
- 241_apa_styleDiunggah olehcrutili
- manateesDiunggah olehcrutili
- 241__introDiunggah olehcrutili
- it223rev1Diunggah olehcrutili
- bbaldi_ips_chapter07Diunggah olehcrutili
- bbaldi_ips_chapter08Diunggah olehcrutili
- 241__single_case_and_small_nDiunggah olehcrutili
- StatenDiunggah olehjokerxyz2012
- VB NET-Quick-ReferenceDiunggah olehnomaddarcy
- it223syllabusDiunggah olehcrutili
- bbaldi_ips_chapter08Diunggah olehcrutili
- bbaldi_ips_chapter07Diunggah olehcrutili

- A Research on SuperstoreDiunggah olehNasrinAkter
- Diseño Ecologico ExperimentalDiunggah olehchechocedros
- 2 9 21 Shushilkumar M. Parmar BrandsDiunggah olehboon119
- MCQ On Testing of Hypothesis 1111Diunggah olehnns2770
- MeowsDiunggah olehRonaLd Jackson Sinaga
- Further StatisticsDiunggah olehTan Chi Keen
- Mb0050 Slm Unit10Diunggah olehMargabandhu Narasimhan
- Chi-Squared Goodness of Fit TestDiunggah olehKay Zhang
- Research Report v2Diunggah olehCraig S Wright
- I-JOMED.docDiunggah olehSafiqulatif Abdillah
- fdiDiunggah olehManvendraSinghRathore
- QmDiunggah olehtharani1771_32442248
- chapter 17 labDiunggah olehapi-433548251
- Quiz 4Diunggah olehBibliophilioManiac
- Lecture7 HypothesisDiunggah olehchristyashley
- An Intuitive Explanation of Bayes Theorem 1-4-2011Diunggah olehgattoclaudia
- NAVR 611 TheoryDiunggah olehtweetyclarke
- Ken Black QA ch09Diunggah olehRushabh Vora
- violaJones_CVPR2001Diunggah olehKhalifa Bakkar
- Dependent t TestDiunggah olehRatna Monika Sari
- AQA S2 Revision NotesDiunggah olehLscribd15
- Slides of Discovering Statistics using SPSS by Muhammad Yousaf Abid. Iqra University Islamabad.Diunggah olehM Yusuf Slatch
- hypothesis testing.pptDiunggah olehVashishtha Dadhich
- UPDATED Practice Final Exams SolutionsDiunggah olehReza Mohagi
- Nguyên lý thống kê cơ bản trong các nghiên cứu lâm sàng, PGS.TS Lê Hoàng NinhDiunggah olehDạy Kèm Quy Nhơn Official
- MCO-03-EM.pdfDiunggah olehFirdosh Khan
- Listening Skills TypesDiunggah olehDominic dominic
- AnovaDiunggah olehby_elf
- Some Notes AdvertDiunggah olehRamnath Peethambaran
- chapter23 answersDiunggah olehapi-247483889