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THE

CONTROLLER

June 2007

Journal of Air Traffic Control

4 THE A380 IMPACT ON ATC

Also in this issue:

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ISTANBUL Conference

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Working without strips

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Maastricht ATC 2007

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THE

CONTROLLER

THE CONTROLLER Journal of Air Traffic Control June 2007 4 THE A380 IMPACT ON ATC
THE
CONTROLLER
Journal of Air Traffic Control
June 2007
4 THE A380 IMPACT ON ATC
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Also in this issue:
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ISTANBUL Conference
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Working without strips
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Maastricht ATC 2007
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Photo:

The A380 taxing

Photo credit: Airbus/ A.Gousse

Contents

June 2007 2nd quarter 2007 volume 48 ISSN 0010-8073

Contents June 2007 2nd quarter 2007 volume 48 ISSN 0010-8073 In this issue: PUBLISHER IFATCA, International

In this issue:

PUBLISHER IFATCA, International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers’ Associations.

EXECUTIVE BOARD OF IFATCA

Marc Baumgartner President and Chief Executive Officer

Alexis Brathwaite

Deputy President

Cedric Murrell Executive Vice President Americas

Henry Nkondokaya Executive Vice-President Africa/ Middle East

John Wagstaff Executive Vice-President Asia/Pacific

Patrik Peters Executive Vice-President Europe

Dale Wright Executive Vice-President Finance

Doug Churchill Executive Vice-President Professional

Vacant Executive Vice-President Technical

Jack van Delft Secretary/Conference Executive

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

Philippe Domogala

Editorial address:Westerwaldstrasse 9

D 56337 ARZBACH, Germany

Tel: +492603 8682 email: ed@ifatca.org

Residence: 24 Rue Hector Berlioz

F 17100 LES GONDS, France

CORPORATE AFFAIRS Kevin Salter (Germany/UK)

WEB SITE Philip Marien (EGATS)

REGIONAL EDITORS Moetapele D. Matale (Botswana) Al-Kadur Acosta (Dominican Republic) Phil Parker (Hong Kong) Patrik Peters (Europe)

COPY EDITORS Paul Robinson, Helena Sjöström, Stephen Broadbent and Brent Cash

PRINTING-LAYOUT

LITHO ART GmbH & Co. Druckvorlagen KG Friesenheimer Straße 6a

D 68169 MANNHEIM, Germany

Tel: +49 3 22 59 10 email: info@lithoart-ma.de

Foreword by Marc Baumgartner ………………………………………… 4 Editorial by Philippe Domogala ………………………………………… 5

IFATCA 2007 Conference Istanbul, where East meets West by Philippe Domogala and Helena Sjostrom …

IFATCA 2007 Conference Istanbul, where East meets West by Philippe Domogala and Helena Sjostrom …

IFATCA 2007 Conference 2 Interview with Murat Ozdil The Challenge with Turkish Controllers …

6

8

Future Air Transport and the Energy Challenge by Daniel Casanova ….… 10

12

A380 The new Airbus A380 – An Air Traffic Control view by Daniel Casanova … 14 ATC Maastricht ATC Maastricht 2007 by John Levesley ………….…………… 18

Stripless Systems Working without Strips by Yves Le Roux

…………………

ATC Maastricht 2 What is COOPANS? by Philippe Domogala

…………………

………

20

CISM CISM Forum 2007 in Langen, Germany by Philippe Domogala

21

Human Factors Incident Voluntary Reporting System – A success story at Maastricht UAC by Raf Vigorita ….….……… 22

Spotlight by Kevin Salter ………………………………………………

………

24

Focus Focus on Norway ATC by Philippe Domogala .…………

……………

26

Humor Back to the Future by Ayman Mahmoud .……………

…….………

27

Africa News 2 Africa/Middle East Regional in Johannesburg South Africa

News

by Haske Jibrin .……… ………………

….………………………………………

Shannon

…………………………………….……………

28

30

News 2 FATCOA ………………………………………………….….……… 30 Asia News Controller Consultation in New System Integration by Peter Leung .………………………………………………… 31

Philip Marien Feature Landing the most complex Machine ever built… by Philip Marien .……………

Charlie‘s Column ……………………………………………………… 34

32

34 32 DISCLAIMER: The views expressed in this magazine are those

DISCLAIMER: The views expressed in this magazine are those of the International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers’ Associations (IFATCA) only when so indicated. Other views will be those of individual members or contributors concerned and will not necessarily be those of IFATCA, except where indicated. Whilst every effort is made to ensure that the information contained in this publication is correct, IFATCA makes no warranty, express or implied, as to the nature or accuracy of the information. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or used in any form or by any means, without the specific prior written permission of IFATCA.

VISIT THE IFATCA WEB SITES:

www.ifatca.org and www.the-controller.net

Foreword

Foreword from the Executive Board
Foreword from
the Executive Board
Foreword Foreword from the Executive Board ^ by Marc Baumgartner, President and CEO IFATCA national and

^ by Marc Baumgartner, President and CEO IFATCA

Board ^ by Marc Baumgartner, President and CEO IFATCA national and international are being as- sociated
national and international are being as- sociated and involved at the outset through development and
national and international are being as-
sociated and involved at the outset
through development and adoption of
our policies which are then taken into
the creation of new procedures and/or
modifying existing procedures, where we
are developing a better understanding of
our needs, and become sponsors of a
safer and more efficient ATM system.
IFATCA’S Successes

I would like to highlight a few recent ex- amples where IFATCA has been success- ful at the highest level. Our experts have worked on some of the ICAO Assembly 35 decisions (in particular on Human Factors and the Global Concept of Op- erations). The newly endorsed changes of the PANS – ATM where our repre- sentatives contributed in the drafting, and of course in the more trans-national issues in Europe where significant input is being given to the ongoing Single Eu- ropean Sky developments.

Statement on ATM Future

On the 15 th of March IFATCA has pub- lished its global statement on the future of ATM which has received notable pos- itive feedback. The Executive Board is convinced that we have to continue our efforts to con- tribute to the challenges of aviation with our professional and technical voice. But not only at the global or trans-national level can the expertise of IFATCA or of the professionals be of benefit. Involving operational personnel from the outset of developing new systems becomes more and more important as we are slowly ex- periencing the first real steps of automa- tion in ATM. This development will mean that the human will rely more frequently on automation to assist in doing the job. It is therefore paramount that the opera- tors are associated in the work from in- ception, design, simulation and imple- mentation of new systems.

Air traffic controllers our most important asset …!

Last March, Patrick Forrey, the President of our USA Member Association, gave a remarkable testimony in front of the US Transportation and Infrastructure Sub- committee on Aviation, on the FAA safety and operational programs’ review. 1

NATCA Testimony

What I find remarkable in the testimony, are the statements where Pat calls for a greater involvement of air traffic control- lers in the design and creation of the fu- ture ATM system of the USA. He mentions as well, very good examples from the past where this collaboration between man- agement, government, air traffic control- lers and other aviation stakeholders worked for the benefit for the safe and efficient air

transport system. I guess we are again, at a global level, at a crossroads with trying to create a future ATM system which is fit for the future challenges where as in the past we expe- rienced tension between the various ac- tors – in particular the ATM providers and their most important asset (staff). 2 One could actually believe that it is recognised that working together in the aviation sec- tor is the way ahead to improve the ATM system, as initiatives like ATMCP at the global level and NGATS and SESAR at the regional level discuss this.

Communication

Therefore it is important that you the rep- resentatives of the profession of an air traffic controller at the national and/or in- ternational level are able to understand, translate and communicate to non-con- trollers what it is all about. What makes you proud and what makes you so pas- sionate about your profession. IFATCA has always tried to assist aviation with the professional and technical input of our ex- perts and delegates. Lately we are very pleased that the efforts of IFATCA again show some results. Our experts and rep- resentatives at all levels, national, trans-

Workaround Failures

Too many times with new systems (not necessarily new automation) our members have experienced, that due to the failures and flaws within the system they have had to find workarounds to make the system perform in a manner that maintained oper- ability, safety and efficiency. This is frus- trating as on many occasions these worka- rounds could have been avoided had the staff been involved in the development. Instead the staff are left demoralized and frustrated with the inevitable building of tension and resentment of change. Professionals like air traffic controllers can be justifiably proud of their every day ef- forts, however in the current fast-changing environment it is just not enough only to do the basic job. There is a need that all controllers become involved and display their knowledge to influence their future.

Recognition

However there is of course a negative side to this argument where the basic needs of the controller are denied and the staff are de- motivated and lack pride when they are not recognized as the professional which they are. This is the most important fight for them. We see it currently ongoing in Brazil and Ar- gentina or in all the ASECNA member coun- tries. In other countries it is about involving the controllers in fundamental decision mak- ing which will shape the future of aviation in the respective countries. Pat Forrey’s testi- mony to the US Congress says it all. I invite you all to read the IFATCA Statement on the future global of ATM, as it gives a lot of guidance on how as a real stakeholder we as representatives of a highly skilled profes- sion can assist the aviation community with our knowledge, expertise and vision.

In countries where controllers are and were associated in all the changes in the work- ing environment, national ATM and avia- tion policy, the results have shown the ef- forts to have been repaid a million times over in improved procedures, functional ATM equipment and happy customers from a staff perspective, the airlines and the traveling public at large. ^

1 http://www.natca.org/legislationcenter/

HouseTestimony2007.msp

2 Most of the CANSO members in their annual reports 2005 have mentioned that their most important asset is their staff in general and controllers in particular.

THE

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Editorial

Editorial 30 years ago: Tenerife
Editorial
30 years ago: Tenerife
Visit subscribe: Editorial Editorial 30 years ago: Tenerife same time, and the wake turbulence they will
same time, and the wake turbulence they will generate, etc. In reality, everything went fine,
same time, and the wake turbulence they
will generate, etc.
In reality, everything went fine, and the
747 was and still is one of the safest air-
craft. It was involved later in a few acci-
dents, but rarely due to its concept.
Human errors are mostly at the root of
accidents, back then, and still today.
In fact it is amazing (if I may use that
term) that the percentage of human er-
rors in accidents is still steady at around
75-80% in aviation, since the 1960s.

The number of accidents decreased dra- matically, but the human factor ratio ver- sus technical/ mechanical remained the same.

^ by Philippe Domogala, Editor

The world’s worst air disaster occurred 30 years ago, on 27 March 1977, 583 people died, 70 survived. The story is well known; massive diversions due terrorist bomb in destination airport, misunderstandings about take off or airway clearance, misunder- standing about a taxi-way exit, a sudden 300m RVR, haste and a crossed transmis- sion. Many small things ending up in a tragedy. A sad day for us all to remember, and learn from. Tenerife brought some procedural R/T changes and more awareness. It re-en- forced the need for CRM in the cockpits.

Two B747s colliding was a nightmare pre- dicted at the time, as the 747 was intro- duced with its ability to carry 350 passen- gers. The 747 (introduced in 1969) replaced the DC8 and B707, which carried between 150 and 200 passengers. This increase in size was the subject of many discussions at the time. Such as: our runways are not made for this, our airports will not be able to cope, imagine 3 or 4 747s arriving at the

Now in 2007, where the largest airliner of this century, the A380 will enter passenger
Now in 2007, where the largest airliner of
this century, the A380 will enter passenger
service with the possibility to carry up to
850 passengers! And we see the same de-
bate as back in 1969 about size, wake tur-
bulence, parking, runway strength, etc.
There is an article in this issue about this.
Every controller that will soon have a 380 on
his frequency should read it.
Talking about human factors and automa-
tion, you will find also an article about
working without strips. If you still use them,
a
must read, because believe me, those
tiny pieces of paper are going to be history
for everybody very soon.
It
is all about trusting technology, similar
to
Airbus and Boeing pilots (People forget
that the 777 and the coming 787 are using
almost the same advanced automation
technology as Airbus.) So you can dream
about your paper strips and your tele-
phones, like pilots dreamt about their
flight engineers and their cable-driven
control columns, because they will all be
gone for good very soon.
Enjoy reading!
ed@ifatca.org
Curiously the percentage does not differ much between commercial and private pilots, despite the huge
Curiously the percentage does not differ
much between commercial and private
pilots, despite the huge difference in
training.

THE

CONTROLLER

5

4 IFATCA 2007 Conference

Istanbul, Where East meets West IFATCA 2007 Conference in Istanbul
Istanbul, Where East meets West
IFATCA 2007 Conference in Istanbul
^
^

Report by Philippe Domogala and Helena Sjöström

Istanbul

A fascinating city of 18 million people, full of history and the border between Orient and Occi- dent, between Asia and Europe. This was the setting of the 46 th IFATCA annual conference in April, held in the Lutfi Kurdar Congress Hall, a large conference centre in the heart of the city. The Turkish controllers proved to be very dedicated hosts and the de- bates were interesting to follow.

Opening Speech by Minister of Transport

Mr Binali Yildrim, Turkish Minis- ter of Transport, explained the impressive modernization plans for Turkey but also pointed out that in a new system, the human dimension is far more important than the technical. “We should invest more in human beings than in infrastructure. Also in safety, since most accidents in

aviation relate to human factors causes. Social- and training issues are more important than hardware and they need to be improved.” He also said that we should see the forthcoming ICAO level 4 English requirement not as a threat but rather as a chance for improvement. His speech was interesting and surely pleased our Turkish colleagues, but was it a firm poli- cy statement or just a public relations speech? Time will tell of course, but The Controller Magazine intends to be there to verify if things have indeed improved, for example in three years time, when the new Ankara ACC will come into operation.

Technical Discussions

The technical debates in committee B concen- trated on a few hot topics. Converging Runways Operations (CROPS), which includes simultane- ous operations of intersecting and converging runways and the infamous LAHSO (Land And Hold Short Operations), used in the USA. IFAT- CA opposes LAHSO as there are still many problems associated with this procedure. There were also long discussions about ASAS (Airborne Separation Assistance System), on the boundary of responsibilities between pi- lot and controller at any given time.

“We should invest more in human beings than in infrastructure: Mr Binali Yildrim, Turkish Minister of Transport.

4 The MOSAIC stand.
4 The MOSAIC stand.

All photos: DP

6

ADS (Automatic Dependant Surveillance) was the subject of a very intense debate and re- sulted in a long series of recommendations. Finally, CPDLC (Controller Pilot Data Link Communications) was discussed extensively and a clear policy was passed: Implementa- tion of CPDLC must be in full compliance with ICAO ATN. Non-compliant aircraft (e.g. FANS) can be accommodated in remote or oceanic airspace. In high-density airspace, FANS aircraft shall be handled via voice R/T for safety reasons.

Professional and Legal Discussions

Committees B and C had one day of combined sessions in which, amongst others, the very hot issues of “Visual observation in a control tower environment” and “Future ATM concepts for the provision of Aerodrome Con- trol Service” were covered. The Visual observation working paper was presented by PLC (Profes- sional and Legal Committee) and the Future ATM concepts by TOC (Technical and Operations Committee). The proposed poli- cy on Visual observation stated

4 Istanbul landmark:

the blue mosquee

THE

CONTROLLER

4 IFATCA 2007 Conference

that “watch shall be maintained by visual ob- servation, augmented by radar or other ap- proved control systems”. The proposed Future ATM concepts policy said that the controller “shall be provided with at least the same level of surveillance as currently provided by visual observation”. Although these two policies may appear to be conflicting, the delegates passed the proposed policy on both issues. This can be seen as wanting to ensure and maintain a high level of safety in the present but at the same time not closing the door to the future. Committee C, expertly chaired by Bert Ruiten- berg, had good and productive discussions and finished its work on schedule every day. Among the many topics was the IFATCA Infor- mation Handbook. The handbook contains in- formation about work conditions, salary, pen- sion etc. of all member associations and is very useful. However, it is difficult to get the MAs to fill out the questionnaire and thus the hand- book is currently outdated. If the information is not given by the MAs, the handbook will be discontinued, which would be a pity. Stress management was another topic. New policy was passed stating that “professional critical incident support services should be made avail- able to controllers involved in ATC incidents/ accidents and any other occurrences that have potential to create critical stress reactions influ- encing the controllers performance”. Other working papers related to: new IFATCA train- ing policy (only editorial changes); IFATCA pol- icy on accident and incident investigation; legal issues on paperless/stripless environment and policy on hours of work.

Brazil

Marc Baumgartner, President of IFATCA, made a poignant presentation on the situa- tion of the controllers in Brazil, especially af- ter the accident last September (collision be- tween a Boeing 737 and an Embraer Legacy jet over the Amazon, extensively covered in the last issue of the Controller).

China

RVSM implementation in Chinese airspace next November is expected to cause major difficulties, as it will be a unique metric FL sys- tem. This is likely to have a have a vast impact on at least ten surrounding countries’ FIRs.

sues. The two organizations will from now on endeavour to co- ordinate their statements, es- pecially regarding positions taken in ICAO and other inter- national organizations.

Workshop on ICAO Language Requirements

In the optional workshop on English language requirements, Adrian Enright, project leader of ELPAC at Eurocontrol, con- firmed the date March 5 th 2008 as being the only valid date for the implementation of the Eng- lish language requirements. There seems to be a misunder- standing regarding the date and beliefs that the EU has published another, later date, which is not the case. Adrian Enright reported that the EL- PAC test, produced by Euro- control, is delayed but will be ready in July. Several member associations said that their ANSP has not started or has not gotten very far with prepa- rations for the language re- quirements. There is great con- cern that many controllers are presently not qualified for the level 4 requirements and many MAs were asking IFATCA for help.

Nepal

Controllers in Kathmandu that have continu- ously reported R/T communications difficul- ties after a system break down of ATC equip- ments in August 2004.This issue is causing them enormous stress and despite many re- ports the situation is still not resolved today.

Europe

IMPACT of FABs (Functional Airspace Blocks):

There are too many FAB-initiatives, which are not coordinated. Some states find themselves in two, even three different FABs, while some others could declare their own state an FAB (e.g. Norway). Turkey is also not part of any FAB but said that since large parts of the Mediterranean and the Black sea are high seas (i.e. not belonging to one particular state) ICAO should be involved and any change in FIR delineation should be subject to ICAO agreements. Many member associations see the institutional problems with regard to mili- tary airspace as a major problem.

Memorandum of Understand- ing between ITF and IFATCA

The presidents of IFATCA and ITF (Interna- tional Transport Workers’ Federation) have signed an agreement, with the intent of hav- ing a larger and stronger united voice when dealing with international bodies on control- lers’ issues. Both organizations will endeav- our to work together and produce common positions on issues of mutual concern. While ITF recognizes IFATCA’s expertise in profes- sional and technical matters, IFATCA also recognizes ITF on social and trade union is-

4 Turkish flag. 7
4 Turkish flag.
7

STAFF SHORTAGES IN EUROPE

Dominating subjects at the informal European Regional Meeting held during Conference were the increase in traffic, the introduction of new technologies and equipment and the lack of air traffic controllers. Whilst few countries are sufficiently staffed, the majority of our members declare shortages between 10% and 30%, resulting in a lack of ca. 1000 controllers in the region (32 of 45 associations participated in this survey). Salary and employment contract negotiations keep several associations busy. Other topics discussed were the lack of information about legal repercussions in case of incident/accidents and the ongoing privatization of ANSPs. The diversity of uncoordinated Functional Airspace Block initiatives is striking but at the same time worrying, as benefits appear unclear. The suspicion that economical interests of the states rather than improved handling of air traffic are the drivers of these undertakings is prevailing amongst the member associations. Several states have experienced difficulties with the compliance of EC laws, such as the required separation of service provision from regulation.

THE

CONTROLLER

Photo: DP

4 IFATCA 2007 Conference

[some] ANSP has not started or has not gotten very far with preparations for the language requirements.

However, the Federation cannot do much more than continue its efforts to urge the ANSPs to comply with the ICAO standards, and support the MAs in their further attempts to make the ANSPs and the regulators realize that time is running out.

4 Opening ceremony.

Closing Speech by Director General of Eurocontrol

Mr Victor Aguado, Director General of Euro- control, closed the conference with a keynote speech in which he painted a rather impressive and good picture of European ATM perform- ance in the last years. He said four years ago, airlines where presenting an apocalyptic view of the future but last year, delays were reduced by 75 % to one minute per flight (an economi- cally acceptable figure). Route charges fell by 13 % over three years and this despite an actu- al traffic increase of 4 to 5 % per annum. On the safety side, the number of ATM-related inci- dents is steadily falling and there has been no ATM-related accident in the last four years. To not be resting on our laurels but making sure we can improve or maintain our safety levels, is the true challenge, he closed.

Next Conference

The 2008 IFATCA Conference will be in Arusha, Tanzania on March 10 – 14 2008 The 2009 IFATCA Conference will be in Dubrovnik, Croatia on April 20 – 24 2009 ^

Interview Murat Ozdil, President Organising Committee from the Turkish Air Traffic Controllers Association The Challenge
Interview
Murat Ozdil, President Organising Committee from the Turkish Air Traffic Controllers Association
The Challenge for Turkish Controllers

We are currently short of staff by 25-30% and traffic raised last year by 25%.

satisfied

with the conference? Murat: We had 520 delegates, and while we expected between 600 and 700, they were from 89 different countries and 80 dif- ferent Controllers associations were represented. This was higher than in previous confer- ences, so we are happy. It was also an opportunity for us to show the world our hospitality and our culture. It was an honor to carry the Flag of Turkey. Ph: will this conference change something for the Turkish controllers? M: It is too early to tell. But on the political side, we had the presence of the Minister of Transport and Communications

Philippe:

Are

you

the first day, and he was impressed, so I guess there will be a positive attitude in the future re- garding the status of controllers in Turkey. Ph: 2 years ago con- trollers got a new stat- ute in Turkey, Are you pleased with it and are salaries and working conditions OK? M: The new statute was a huge improve- ment, Our salaries are good compared to the general population in Turkey, but we are still far below compared to our neighbors. Ph: You will also shortly receive a brand new ATS system. M: Yes, build by SELEX (Italy) It should be op- erational in 3 years. It is part of a complete change, as we will unite our country into a sin- gle FIR and a single ACC that will be in Ankara. Istanbul will only remain as an Approach unit.

be in Ankara. Istanbul will only remain as an Approach unit. Ph: were you involved in

Ph: were you involved in the development of this new system? M: Not directly but indirectly, as former Associa- tion EB Members are working on the project and we have feedback from involved colleagues. Ph: What is today the biggest challenge for Turkish Air traffic controllers? M: The number of controllers versus the traffic increase: We are currently short of staff by 25- 30% and traffic raised last year by 25% do- mestically and 9% in overflights. A few years ago some traffic forecast estimates were made, but in 2006 were already reached the same figures that were predicted for 2015…

We also will get shortly a separation of the ANSP from the Airport Authority to create an autonomous body. A draft law on this separa- tion is expected to be approved by our Parlia- ment soon. That issue is important as it will af- fect our future professional life. ^

Turkey Statistics as published by the Ministry of transport:

Civil aviation growth: +30% in 2006. Between 2002 and 2006 (4 years) number of pas- sengers increased 239% domestically and 31% internationally. Traffic movements over the same period +185% domestic, +31% international, overflights +42%, making an total average traffic increase of 72% .

THE

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4 Future

Air Transport and the Energy Challenge ^ by Daniel Casanova The «Académie Nationale de l’Air
Air Transport and
the Energy Challenge
^ by Daniel Casanova
The «Académie Nationale de
l’Air et de l’Espace» was host in
Toulouse, from November 30 th
to December 1 st , to an interna-
tional colloquium on this issue.
The Problem
The problem facing air transport in the 21 st
century is, more than anywhere else :
• Energy density is the key economic concept.
• Consequently, hydrogen should never be
able to replace liquid hydrocarbon for au-
tomotive transportation (estimations in liq-
uefied H2 usage).
• However, hydrogen could replace jet fuel,
whether ex-refinery or synthetic, for avia-
tion (possibility to use liquefied H2).
Nuclear propulsion
has no future for
air transport, except
maybe if a “new”
fission concept can
be developed
• This possibility would become more proba-
ble if carbon emission costs became higher
than anticipated today, say above 100$/ton
of CO2 in the present $ terms.
For the aviation industry, the choice between
liquid H2 and/or synthetic kerosene should
occur between 2020 and 2030 in order to
define the new generation of airplanes to be
constructed from 2040-2050.
(IP spool) generator, and power transfer
technology)
• Radical Options: Advanced cycles to allevi-
ate thermal efficiency constraints (Inter-
cooled cycle to enable ultra-high overall
pressure ratio, up to 5% sfc improvement,
NOx reduction through reduced compres-
sor discharge temperature) and Novel LP
system architectures to alleviate propulsive
efficiency constraints (Open rotor 10-15%
sfc improvement)
• Revolutionary options: Change to propul-
sion system most likely to be driven by radi-
cal change to energy source and/or aircraft
architecture
Improving Existing
Fuel Efficiency
Which Propulsion System
and Aircraft for the MID-21st
Century?
For Rolls Royce there are three ways:
• Evolutionary option on actual engine (inno-
vative powerplant noise, drag, weight; More-
electric technology, including embedded
Airbus vision is to improve operational fuel
efficiency. Airbus gives two examples; 5 min-
utes saving of one engine use with an A320
operating 5 missions per day offers a poten-
tial saving of 50 t fuel per year and up to
300 000 t. fuel saving yearly are planned in
EU Domestic airspace thanks to implementa-
tion of RVSM above 29000 ft.
Photo: NASA T.Landis
4 X48B research model.
The avoidance of the contrails/cirrus forma-
tion areas may be envisaged: Flying lower
(However negative impact on fuel burn, thus
CO2 emissions) or Adapting Flight Path
to weather (Significant impact on ATC).
The potential solution is Bio fuels.
But they have to face critical issues:
• Compatibility and efficiency of various
bio fuels
• Affordability (Currently around
130/150 $/barrel)
• Availability (à15% of cultivable lands
for aviation needs in 2025)
They could be used as complement to oil ker-
osene either as additives or partial substitute.
Boeing
Boeing vision is first an aggressive tech-
nology investment to accelerate efficiency
improvements like engines, aerody-
namic, materials, system, airframe
integration and of course air traffic
THE

10

like engines, aerody- namic, materials, system, airframe integration and of course air traffic THE 10 CONTROLLER

CONTROLLER

like engines, aerody- namic, materials, system, airframe integration and of course air traffic THE 10 CONTROLLER

management. On this point, Boeing hopes for accurate paths to improve airspace ca- pacity and efficiency, like options to se- quencing, reducing inter-arrival spacing, im- proved reliability in poor weather and more efficient routing via path of specified width. Continuous descent approach procedure is a solution for the noise.

Do alternative Energies Exist?

• Nuclear energy is characterized by a very high power density, Nuclear propulsion does not produce greenhouse gases di- rectly and the reserves of fissile materi- als are more important than those of the chemical fossil resources; the estimation of reserves is dependent on the selected nuclear technology. But there are societal drawbacks: Nuclear energy is weakly ac- cepted by a large number of countries.

• The bio-fuels are currently in vogue, the priority application is the road transport, the specificity of air transport being poorly taken into account however air transport is increasing faster than road transport and air transport activity follows longer cycles. Specifications of a biofuel for transport avi- ation have been deduced from those of the military kerosene and from the ICAO stand- ards. The objective was to evaluate if a bio- fuel can be used on existing aircraft/en- gines or on those in development, without any impact on their performance. Only the synthetic fuel produced by the Fischer- Tropsch process from vegetal biomass ap- pears to meet the specifications, with a possible advantage regarding the pollutant emissions (sulphur compounds, soot). The cost of such a synthetic fuel is not accurate- ly known but, as for all the emerging tech- nologies, is probably high.

• The fuel cell is an efficient way for directly converting the chemical energy to electri- cal energy ; electrical power can feed mo- tors which drive fans. In this concept, the “energy conversion” function is decoupled from the “thrust production“ function.

• Application of fuel cells to aerial vehicles is currently limited to demonstrations on small aircraft or UAV‘s and to APU‘s. The main advantage of a fuel cell is its potential of efficiency which cannot be achieved by conventional engines. Fuel cells are consid- ered in connection with the use of hydro- gen as fuel, for future emissionless aircraft (NASA‘s Alternate Energy Revolution pro- gramme); reforming of an on-board hydro- carbon has no advantage for the emissions and is very heavy. The fuel cell system per-

THE

4 Future

formance is potentially interesting for its ef- ficiency but with its current characteristics, especially for
formance is potentially interesting for its ef-
ficiency but with its current characteristics,
especially for the specific power and the re-
liability, it cannot compete with the conven-
tional aero-engines. If an improvement of
factor 10 is achieved on stack specific pow-
er, then the issue could be revisited. The
fuel cell aircraft is a type of cryoplane and
therefore it depends on the availability of
massive amounts of hydrogen. A hybrid
concept could be proposed for a long
range aircraft: a fuel cell working at its max-
imum efficiency and sized for cruise and
conventional aero-engines for take-off,
working at idle at cruise.
✈ Fuselage LH2 Tanks, Blend-
ed Wing Body, Continuous
Moldline Flaps, Distributed LH2
Propulsion, and Forward and
Aft Noise Shielding
Air Traffic Control
In conclusion, Nuclear propulsion has no fu-
ture for air transport, except maybe if a
“new“ fission concept can be developed.
The synthetic biofuel produced from biomass
is technically attractive in the medium term.
Fuel cell propulsion technology must be im-
proved to be considered for a long term
vision.
About ATM, Eurocontrol pre-
sented the SESAR program to
improve flight efficiency. If we
could remove delays in Europe,
the problem will not be that
acute. (15 million minutes not
necessary, 1,5 B$ of wasted op-
erational costs, fuel and more
than 1 Mt of CO2 emitted)
The Research Today.
If we try a synthesis, the main ob-
jectives for next twenty years are
reducing weight and drag for
new aircraft, use bio-fuel or liquid
hydrogen and improve the ATC
system. This last objective will
stay very difficult in Europe with-
out a common government with
a common ATC system. It’s not
✈ Over wing engines, liquid hydrogen tanks,
ultra high bypass ratio H2 turbofan. Scarf in-
let and Strut-Braced Wing.
only a question of technologies,
but a human factors question! Eu-
ropean ATC system has to ad-
vance with the controllers. ^
Photo: EUROCONTROL

4 Stripless Systems

Working without Strips Automating ATM in the controller‘s best interests
Working without Strips
Automating ATM in the controller‘s best interests
4 Detecting a conflict without strips.
4 Detecting a conflict without strips.
best interests 4 Detecting a conflict without strips. 4 Example of a received coordination. 4 Example

4 Example of a received coordination.

4
4

Example of an accepted coordination.

coordination. 4 Example of an accepted coordination. ^ by Yves Le Roux Programme Manager, Skyguide The

^ by Yves Le Roux Programme Manager, Skyguide

The increasing automation of air traffic man- agement systems may be an essential re- sponse to the further growth predicted in air traffic volumes. But whatever form and extent such automation takes, it must re- main firmly in the interests of the air traffic controller, by meeting their needs as effec- tively as possible. This, at least, is the philos- ophy adopted by Skyguide for its “stripless“ air traffic management system, which has been in use for the western area of its UAC since the end of 2005. The new system has been developed by and for the company‘s controllers – which may explain their satis- faction with this new worktool, as well as the ease with which they have adapted to this change in their working processes.

Far from being just an electronic version of the traditional paper strips, Skyguide‘s new system has brought important innovations to the controllers‘ planning, scanning and con- flict detection activities. And if all these changes have been welcomed by the 80-odd Geneva-based controllers who have been providing fully-digitised management of the traffic in Skyguide‘s UAC West since Decem- ber 2005, such acceptance is due in no small part to a project approach that has given them a large say in the system‘s development.

Active participation in a step-by-step approach

With its clear aim of not merely producing a screen display of “electronic“ paper strips, Skyguide‘s stripless project reappraised how flight data can best be handled and present- ed in line with the controller‘s working logic. This meant taking a close look at how con- trollers used the paper strip details, asking questions such as: What mental processes do they employ? What functions do they use? What new tools may they need? And how can all this be presented on the screen with the safety, efficiency and user-friendliness required?

Consideration also had to be given to how best to put the new system into practice. Ex- perience has shown that a “Big Bang“ ap-

proach to technological inno- vations often produces

far-from-favourable results. If some such transitions do succeed, that suc- cess is often only achieved with major invest- ment or generous lead times, or with the less-than-total acceptance of the users con- cerned. In view of this, it was decided to adopt the new stripless system gradually, in a series of subprojects or functional “batches“. This progressive and dynamic approach not only helped raise user acceptance; it also greatly facilitated the requisite training of the operations staff involved.

None of these processes would have been possible, however, without the active in- volvement of working controllers throughout the project‘s development, from the first preliminary analyses through to the new sys- tem‘s implementation. Similarly, the project‘s success could not have been achieved with- out controllers‘ tolerance and acceptance of the sometimes substantial inconveniences at certain transition points along the way.

New functions for the controller‘s benefit

The stripless system has not changed the controller‘s basic working principles, their overall role or the responsibilities they bear. Traditional air traffic management tasks – such as telephone coordination, traffic plan- ning and integration, strip scanning and strip marking – have only been simplified by intro- ducing tools to permit electronic coordina- tion, determine exit parameters, detect con- flicts, filter flights for greater visual clarity and plan and acquire information (see the examples below). But all these tools have been developed solely to assist the control- lers, who retain their central role. The issue of whether to offer the new aids as support tools or control tools was one that generated extensive discussion, however – as it is sure to do in the future, too.

Beating the blank screen

The question of what would happen if the sys- tem malfunctioned or failed is one that has occupied the stripless project throughout its evolution. Procedures and system elements have been adapted to cover the many forms

THE

4 Geneva centre

4 Geneva centre 4 Assistance in determining exit parameters The new system‘s Exit Condition Automation Tool
4 Assistance in determining exit parameters The new system‘s Exit Condition Automation Tool (ECAT) alerts
4 Assistance in determining
exit parameters
The new system‘s Exit Condition Automation
Tool (ECAT) alerts the planning controllers for
each sector to any potential conflicts that are
detected by the system at the points where
the traffic being handled will leave the con-
trol centre‘s airspace. In this example, ECAT
is flagging an exit conflict for flights EZS1094
and RYR973G, which both have an XFL of 280
at the Dijon exit point (“DJL“), and is sugges-
ting resolving the conflict by assigning Flight
Level 260 to one of these flights.
that a technical malfunction might take. One
particular innovation has been the develop-
ment of a new Emergency Display (EMDIS)
screen, which would compensate for the lack
of paper strips in the event of a major failure
of the principal system.
Job satisfaction
Results with the new system to date have been
convincingly positive. This is confirmed by the
controllers, who appreciate the convenience
that the new tools provide, and the flexibility
with which they can be adapted to any traffic
situation and any controller‘s needs. Above all,
the new tools have greatly reduced workload
4 Conflict detection The new system‘s conflict detection tools – the Horizontal Scanning Tool (HST)

4

Conflict detection

The new system‘s conflict detection tools – the Horizontal Scanning Tool (HST) and the Dy- namic Scanning Tool (DST) – help controllers in the scanning they conduct for their medi- um-term traffic planning. In the HST display below, a conflict has been detected for flights AZA9F7 and HLF807, which have both been cleared to fly at Flight Level 370. In 6 minutes and 19 seconds, these flights will cross paths with a minimum separation of 8.9 NM.

per movement – partly by enabling the control- ler to focus solely on the screen,
per movement – partly by enabling the control-
ler to focus solely on the screen, but also thanks
to the efficiency of the system‘s human-ma-
chine interface. This working comfort has itself
translated not only into a tangible increase in
performance, but into enhanced safety, too.
Leading the way
The new stripless approach has prompted
Skyguide to be named as a “pioneer“ by Eu-
rocontrol‘s First ATC Support Tools Imple-
mentation (FASTI) programme – not only for
its tools, but also for the way the whole sys-
tem has been introduced and assimilated by
its controller corps. ^
been introduced and assimilated by its controller corps. ^ THE 4 Stripless Systems 4 Electronic coordination

THE

4 Stripless Systems

by its controller corps. ^ THE 4 Stripless Systems 4 Electronic coordination As it is now

4 Electronic coordination As it is now performed electro- nically, the coordination between planning controllers and execu- tive controllers within each sec- tor and between sectors can now be effected silently and in real time via the radar screens. All such actions are based on proactive traffic monitoring and suggesting flight levels using a downstream-upstream approach, rather than via upstream-down- stream requests. In other words, it is the next or “downstream“ sector in the sequence that will suggest a flight level (possibly with conditions) to the “up- stream“ sector, which is cur- rently in contact with the flight or is about to begin managing it.

All photos: Skyguide

Photo: Airbus

4 A380

The new Airbus A380 An Air Traffic Control view
The new Airbus A380
An Air Traffic Control view

^ by Daniel Casanova (Controller in Toulouse Blagnac TWR)

The CER controllers integrates these test flights into French airspace with coordination from the SNA (French ATC provider) controllers.

Experience

With over 3300 flight hours of A380 flying to date, the controllers unit of Toulouse-Blagnac has gained extensive experience on the new aircraft. From the point of view of perform- ance the A380 is very easy to integrate in a ra- dar vectoring approach. The speed range of the A380 provides good opportunity to the controllers to accommodate it with other air- craft, regardless of their size or speed. Ac- cording to airline crew who have flown the A380, it is as manoeuvrable as an A319! Even at maximum takeoff weight, the A380 can directly reach the initial cruising al- titude of FL350 in 28 minutes and 204 nauti- cal miles, and cruise at 0.85 Mach. Runway performance and occupancy times are also very good. During the recent A380 route proving flights to the United States, the A380 landed at JFK at very close to maximum land- ing weight, yet spent less than one minute on the runway after touchdown. On the ground, the Blagnac taxiways in- tersecting at 90° are no problem for the A380, and following certification by the EASA, there are no operating restriction on the 45-meter wide runways. A useful aid for A380 crews is an on-board taxi camera that provides an external view of the position of both the nose and the main gear wheels.

The A380 is the largest airliner ever built. The A380 is certifi- cated to carry as many as 853 passengers; however most A380 customers have chosen a three-class configuration with a typical capacity of 500 seats.

The Aircraft Size

Using a new generation of en- gines that can lift the plane‘s 560 Tonnes maximum take-off weight into the air, the aircraft has an excellent runway and climb performance. As amazing as it is for the largest aircraft in the world to take to the air, the A380 faced significant challenges on the ground as well. However airport compatibility was a design re- quirement from the earliest stage of the programme, keeping changes required at airports to accommodate the A380 to a min- imum. To integrate into existing airports, the A380 had to fit the standard airport-docking plan. The plane‘s nearly 80m wingspan meets this requirement by about

40 cm. Its outer-most engines, however, would

hang just beyond the standard 45m runway width, requiring minor upgrades, i.e. shoulder extensions at many airports. The plane‘s weight will be distributed over 20 landing gear wheels, actually producing less weight per wheel than the 777. The cockpit location, between the main and upper decks, is designed to give pilots a view of the runway and taxiways at the similar height as the A330/340 aircraft and therefore improves manoeuvrability.

Flight Testing

During the flight test for certification, the five A 380 flight test aircraft (4 Trent 900 powered and 1 GP7200 powered) have flown a large part of the test program in the Toulouse-Blag- nac TMA. The Toulouse Approach Centre provides the ATC services in this TMA. Around

70 civilian controllers plus 10 test and accept-

ance traffic controllers serve in the centre. For civilian IFR traffic, controllers provides normal ATC services. They also provide tower servic- es and radar control during controller training. Part of the IFR approach room is reserved for CER (a French test and acceptance navigation control center). Blagnac is also a flight test centre with air traffic control officers specialis- ing in CER. These controllers are trained for this specific role under the authority of DGA (French Defense Procurement Agency). The CER is used by the French flight test center to conduct flight tests for aircraft and navi- gation system tests as well as acceptance flights.

 

Weights

Performance

Dimensions

Powerplants

Capacity

A380-

ZFW:

Max cruising speed M 0.88 Long range cruising speed: 0.85 Mach

Wing span 79.8m Length 72.7m Height 24.1 m

Four 311kN (70,000lb) thrust class Rolls-Royce Trent 900 or Engine Alliance (General Elec- tric-Pratt & Whitney) GP-7200 turbofans

Standard seating for 555 passengers on two decks in a three-class arrangement. Qantas plans to fit its aircraft with 501 seats (in three classes). A380 has 50% more floor area but only 35% more seats (in 555 seat configuration) than the 747-400, allowing room for passenger amenities such as bars, gymnasiums and duty free shops

800 Basic

361,000kg

MTOW:

Range: 8,000nmTake off field length at MTOW:

560,000kg

2,970 m, Sea level, ISA+15°C conditions

 

MLW:

Landing field length at MLW: 2,010 m at seal level

386,000kg

Can reach FL350 in 28 min as an initial cruise altitude.

 

Max cruise altitude FL430

Approach speed at MLW: 138 kts, same as the A320

 

THE

Wake Turbulence

There have been many questions about A380 wake turbulence. Airbus has accordingly per- formed an unprecedented amount of wind tunnel and flight tests. In November 2005, with the first interna- tional flights of the A380 imminent as part of the flight test programme, ICAO issued highly conservative interim guidance on wake vortex separations based on the very limited data available at that time. For approach, the guid- ance stated that any aircraft following the A380 should maintain a 10nm separation. In order to replace the very restrictive November 2005 Interim Guidance before the start of A380 Technical Route Proving, ICAO agreed to issue a new State Letter. This new set of rules was based on the rec- ommendations coming from the A380 Wake Vortex Steering group, a group consisting of the FAA, Eurocontrol, JAA-Ops and Airbus, with ICAO as an observer. Several flight tests and simulation were conducted to produce these recommendations. This letter was issued on 9th October 2006. In the new State Letter ICAO classified the A380 as a member of the Heavy aircraft category, but with additional separation be- tween it and following aircraft for the arrival and departure phases of flight. In all other respects the A380 would be treated like any other Heavy aircraft. The Toulouse Blagnac controllers currently uses the following set of separation rules which reflect the October 2006 State Letter.

Departure

(interim values, currently under review)

 

Follower

A380-

Heavy

Medium

Light

800

 

A380-

No res-

120 sec

180

sec

180

sec

800

triction

   

Heavy

No res-

60 sec *

120

sec

120

sec

triction

   

Medi-

No res-

No res-

No res-

No res-

Leading

um

triction

triction

triction

triction

Light

No res-

No res-

No res-

No res-

triction

triction

triction

triction

* Current IFR minimum non-radar separation

THE

Radar separation minima

 

Follower

 

A380-

Heavy

Medium

Light

800

 

A380-

4

nm

6

nm

8

nm

10

nm

800

     

Heavy

4

nm

4

nm

5

nm

6

nm

Leading

Medi-

MRS

MRS

MRS

5

nm

um

 

Light

MRS

MRS

MRS

MRS

Where MRS is the Minimum Radar Separa- tion applicable at the airport. Horizontal and vertical spacing (cruise) Same rules as for other aircraft.

Approach and Landing

(may be reduced in the near future)

Radar separation minima

 

Follower

 

A380-

Heavy

Medium

Light

800

 

A380-

4

nm

6

nm

8

nm

10

nm

800

     

Heavy

4

nm

4

nm

5

nm

6

nm

Leading

Medi-

MRS

MRS

MRS

5

nm

um

 

Light

MRS

MRS

MRS

MRS

4 A380

um   Light MRS MRS MRS MRS 4 A380 Photo: Airbus S. Ognier Photo: Airbus P.

Photo: Airbus S. Ognier

MRS MRS MRS MRS 4 A380 Photo: Airbus S. Ognier Photo: Airbus P. Masclet Where MRS

Photo: Airbus P. Masclet

Where MRS is the Minimum Radar Separa- tion applicable at the airport.

Time separation minima:

 

Follower

A380-

Heavy

Medium

Light

800

 

A380-

No res-

120 sec

180

sec

240

sec

800

triction

   

Heavy

No res-

No res-

120

sec

180

sec

triction

triction

   

Medi-

No res-

No res-

No res-

No res-

Leading

um

triction

triction

triction

triction

Light

No res-

No res-

No res-

No res-

triction

triction

triction

triction

ICAO classified the A380 as a member of the Heavy aircraft category, but with additional separation between it and fol- lowing aircraft for the arrival and departure phases of flight.

Photo: Airbus P.Masclet

4 A380

The A380 is certificated to carry as many as 853 passengers

Of course there is sometimes a problem of perception. A pilot might suffer some turbulence (due to wind or temperature).

If he notices an A380 30 nm

ahead, he will immediately think that it was produced by the

double-decker! So we think it is

a good idea to keep other pi-

lots informed on the location of the A380 in order to avoid such perception problems.

The question that many in the industry are now asking is:

what about the future? Follow- ing the unique testing that re- sulted in the current A380 sep- aration standards, it has been acknowledged by the ICAO and the A380 wake vortex steering

group that further flight testing and early in- service experience may assist in justifying fur- ther reductions in separation times and dis- tances for aircraft following an A380. Airbus

already has further flight testing on the A380 agenda to support the development of re- vised entry into service separation standards. So the answer to the question is: watch this

space.

First Flight

The author has flown on the A380, and it was an exciting experience. The cockpit is very spacious and uses the same cockpit philoso- phy and operating procedures as the A320 and A330/A340 families, while also benefiting from advances in technology for displays, flight management systems and navigation. The growing numbers of pilots already quali- fied on Airbus fly-by-wire aircraft will feel right at home on the A380 flight deck. The new Airbus airliner uses the same cockpit phi- losophy and op- erating proce- dures as the A320 and A330/A340 Families, while also benefiting from advances in technology for displays, flight management sys- tems and naviga- tion. The A380 cockpit will have eight large identi- cal, interactive displays on the

Photo: Airbus H.Gousse
Photo: Airbus H.Gousse

Photo: Airbus

main instrument panel, with cursor control provided through a track-ball. The displays provide a much larger screen area with clearer presentations. An optional dual HUD (head- up display) installation can further increase pi- lot situational awareness, particularly during the approach and landing phases. Feedback from passengers who have flown on the A380 is that the aircraft rede- fines the meaning of comfort for everyone onboard, whether they are premium custom- ers in first and business class, or leisure trav- ellers in the economy cabin. Both passenger cabins are wider than the largest airliner in service today, offering the possibility for wid- er seats and aisles, along with more open spaces and access to optional passenger amenities such as business centers and rest areas. The A380’s cabin arrangement is flexible and is intended to allow airlines to differenti- ate their products and develop solutions for all potential market mixes. Some operators might, for example, choose to seat their first and business class passengers on the upper deck providing a corporate jet-like environ- ment for these clients while configuring the A380’s main deck for an all-Economy layout. Regardless of the parameter by which it is measured, it is sure that with the A380, Air- bus has embraced the future. From a control- ler’s perspective, it is an aircraft that is very easy to guide under radar control despite its size. Regarding wake turbulence, Airbus has chosen to test in flight, with real wake en- counters, to answer the question with real facts and data. This approach is already bringing dividends, not only for the A380, and is a commendable approach that any other commercial aircraft manufacturer should adopt. ^

THE

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17

4 ATC Maastricht

4 ATC Maastricht ATC Maastricht 2007 ^ by John Levesley (President GATCO, UK) In recent years
ATC Maastricht 2007 ^ by John Levesley (President GATCO, UK) In recent years ATC Maastricht
ATC Maastricht 2007
^ by John Levesley
(President GATCO, UK)
In recent years ATC Maastricht has become
one of the major international events in the
ATC year. It has three aspects; a Conference,
an Exhibition and a social opportunity for
friends, peers, colleagues and even competi-
tors to meet.
The Exhibition
The Exhibition hall had a real buzz to it: lights,
action and even music! What particularly
caught my eye (and ear) amongst the stands?
• The superb quality of the natural warmth,
colour and detail of the new Imagine graph-
ics on the Micro Nav airfield simulator.
• The “eavesdropping” speech recognition
system designed to drive Frequentis’ inte-
grated tower tools and EFPS system.
• ADS B displays of London terminal and en-
route traffic by both Qinetic and FRA.
• An intriguing system called “The Intelligent
Airport” an integrated approach to provid-
ing an Advanced Surface Movement Guid-
ance and Control Systems by Transtech
Airport Solutions.

4 SENSIS stand

Photo: JL

The Mosaic stand [was] promoting a public service view of Euro- pean ATC. Controllers might find their view quite fascinating.

Most Welcome Development?

For me it was the sheer numbers of compa- nies now offering Human Factor and Ergo- nomic design services and consultancy to the ATS industry.

I mentioned the social side of the event. Well the most welcoming ATC stands acting as a focus for meeting and greeting were from the opposite sides of the ATM universe. The NATS stand was always very welcoming, as was the Mosaic stand promoting a public service view of European ATC. Controllers might find their view quite fascinating, so why not visit http://www.project-mosaic.eu/.

Next year the conference moves to a new location, (the RAI Conference centre in Am- sterdam), has a new name “ATC Global” and a later date - March 11th to 13th. With the number of cheap flights from UK airports to Amsterdam, and the fact that the RAI is served by a frequent direct train service from Schiphol it will never be easier or cheaper to attend the trade exhibition just for the day.

THE

Drawback: the dates are almost exactly the same as the 2008 IFATCA Conference!

The Conference

The Conference lasts for two days and this year was looking very much at the future of ATM. There was a truly international range of speakers and some useful question and answer sessions each day. The scope of the Conference, taken from their web site was

• The key political challenges to developing trans-national ATM services.

• The key technologies, ground-based and airborne, which will be required.

• How appropriate safety management sys- tems will be integrated.

• Views of developing new ATM solutions from dynamic aviation growth areas such as the Far East.

• How aircraft operators view the current plans – how they want to see the next generation of ATM service provision improved.

• The implications for mitigating the impact of aviation on the environment for ATM service providers.

• The evolving role of controllers.

• The current state of ATM research.

• The changing relationship between manu- facturers and ANS service providers.

How airports will work to improve their air- craft throughput rates.

• The impact of emerging new aircraft on the developing ATM infrastructure.

IFATCA Presentation

Controllers’ views were presented by IFAT- CA. One criticism was that there was no day or part day registration for Conference, which perhaps limited the size of the available audi-

4 RAYTHEON stand

THE

Photo: JL

ence for the sessions. Registration and Entry to the Exhibition was however free.

European ATM at a Cross Roads?

All is not rosy in the European Air Traffic Management garden at the moment. In the balance of European affairs there is a very definite trend of the States and Eurocon- trol “fighting back” or at least being less subservient to a European Commission and Industry perspective. As a result the ATC Maastricht Conference reflected a degree of uncertainty, even frustration, about the Single European Sky Programme (SES) and about SESAR.

Single European Sky (SES)

The recent critical Eurocontrol Performance Review of the SES programme has obvious- ly worried quite a lot of organisations. The European Commission and commercial pro- ponents of SES (especially the airlines) were strident and indeed almost frantic in their insistence that SES was going well and it was all the fault of nation states that current progress in many areas was slow. State and other representatives were quite robust in refuting this view and were unapologetic in their view that SES had to be for all airspace users, not just commercial airlines and com- mercial ANSPs. States had duties in terms of not compromising defence, security, envi- ronmental measures and effective regulation. On Functional Airspace Blocks there was ob- vious frustration amongst some states at the lack of progress so far. It was even suggested that if a bottom up approach to designing FABs was proving difficult then states should

4 ATC Maastricht

consider intervening before the European Commission chose to impose FABs from the top.

There was also a lot of frustra- tion that so far SESAR output lacked detail and was rather un-ambitious. There was an ex- pectation, (almost a demand),

in some quarters that the forth-

coming SESAR Operational Concept be much more de- tailed and ambitious.

There was quite a lot of in- formation on the new Next- Generation Air Transportation (NGATS) System project from US sources, but again the im- pression was that it was very

much top down and lacked de- tail. There was also frustration expressed that the US/SESAR liaison was ineffective, more

a political gesture than a real process. ^

There was also a lot of frustration that so far SESAR output lacked detail and was rather un-ambitious.

4 ATC Maastricht

4 ATC Maastricht What is COOPANS? 4 THALES stand Photo: JL ^ by Philippe Domogala, Editor
What is COOPANS? 4 THALES stand Photo: JL ^ by Philippe Domogala, Editor During the
What is COOPANS?
4 THALES stand
Photo: JL
^ by Philippe Domogala,
Editor
During the Maastricht ATC 2007 exhibition 3
ANSPs CEOs, together with the manufacturer
Thales, gave a press conference on their alli-
ance, called COOPANS (For Cooperation be-
tween ANSPs). The CEOs from Denmark, Swe-
den, Ireland explained that as they bought the
same system (Thales Eurocat) they decided to
co-operate on the customisation in order to
save costs. In Denmark, for instance they say
they saved between 30 and 50% of develop-
ment costs because of this common standardi-
zation. They agreed to make updates every 18
months only. They said “We have to resist the
urge to develop, or even build our own sys-
tems just on the argument that we have a com-
plex and unique airspace or problems.
Thales said: “We are not developing stand-
ards outside ICAO. It seems that ICAO wants
to stay away in the future from setting stand-
ards, but wants to concentrate on applying
those that already exists. The aim is to be
compatible and inter-operable .The aim is to
implement identical systems in the 3 coun-
tries by 2009.“ ^
4 The 4 COOPANS CEOs:
M.Dambaek (Denmark)
E.Brennan (Ireland)
Th.Allard ( Sweden),
and A. De Juniac (Thales)
Photo: Thales

THE

4 CISM

CISM Forum 2007 in Langen, Germany
CISM Forum 2007
in Langen, Germany
4 CISM CISM Forum 2007 in Langen, Germany ^ by Philippe Domogala, Editor Joerg Leonhardt, the

^ by Philippe Domogala, Editor

Joerg Leonhardt, the CISM expert within the German DFS is organizing an annual a coor- dination meeting among all the major play- ers dealing with CISM in Europe, called the CISM FORUM.

There, players exchange their experiences and

review their counseling techniques, in the light of those events. I was invited to participate in this Forum for

a day, where many cases were discussed and

analyzed. When one considers CISM one think it applies only to work related (i.e. Aviation) accidents or incidents. But requests for CISM can also

be made following other traumatic events.

Suicide

Germany CISM peers had to deal with such an event in the form of a suicide of a col- league. In a close environment such as a Control team in an ACC, this can have devas- tating effects. It was also a traumatic experi- ence for the CISM peers involved with this event in February 2006 in Frankfurt ACC. The biggest question that came out of this ex- perience is: how to inform other colleagues. Most of these colleagues felt both guilty (why have they not been able to foresee this?) and Anger (Why this?). Some of the CISM Peers themselves knew personally the person, and that added to the difficulty.

Lessons Learned

The lessons learned from that experience were:

In order to get rid of those guilt feelings, Psy- chiatrists will tell you that when someone has decided, or planned to commit suicide, there

is almost nothing anyone can do verbally (i.e.

with small talks ) to reverse his decision. Peers should try not to be alone when talking to staff, should prepare well beforehand, should deal only with the facts (not rumors), should not overdo it, should offer help, and should ask for full cooperation of management.

Providing CISM in Brazil

The next major presentation was that done by Isabel Cambraia of Portugal, on her expe- riences with providing CISM to the Brazilian

THE

4 The PORTUGUESE Team with Isabel Cambraia. Photo: DP

THE 4 The PORTUGUESE Team with Isabel Cambraia. Photo: DP controllers involved in the Collision last

controllers involved in the Collision last Sep- tember (covered extensively in the last The Controller).This was a very emotional presen- tation that revealed many issues. Isabel had to forget everything she had learned and improvise from day one. She was so overwhelmed by the requests that she said she worked on “auto-pilot” for the whole du- ration of her visit, only sleeping 3 to 4 hours a night. (Brazil controllers involved were all mili- tary, and all in desperate need of help).

The lessons learned from her experience: “It was unique, very challenging but emotionally very demanding“ she said. “a Team should provide CISM, not only one person and there is a need for a coordinator” To maintain confi- dentiality is important, and one has to be care- ful about the level of personal involvement. And she concluded by saying: “After such a CISM intervention, there is a need for your own debriefing and for a period of rebuilding yourself“ If one does not take care, one can become also a person in need of CISM!

Multicultural Differences

The rest of the Forum consisted of many small presentations in which each country’s representative had to present their own cul- tural strong and weak points, and how other

perceive that culture. As Avia- tion is already a multi cultural environment, it is essential for everyone to recognize the dif- ferences, especially when deal- ing with CISM.

The forum was followed by a traditional dinner where every- one brings a specialty from its own region, and that also was definitively another good intra- cultural experience! ^

To maintain confidentiality is important, and one has to be careful about le level of personal

involvement (I. Cambraia)

4 Human Factors

Incident Voluntary Reporting System – A success story at Maastricht UAC
Incident Voluntary
Reporting System –
A success story at Maastricht UAC

Photo: RV

System – A success story at Maastricht UAC Photo: RV 4 INREP bulletin in the ops

4 INREP bulletin in the ops room.

Maastricht UAC Photo: RV 4 INREP bulletin in the ops room. ^ by Raf Vigorita, Eurocontrol

^ by Raf Vigorita, Eurocontrol Guild (EGATS)

It was only a couple of years ago when our Controller Association EGATS with the ef- fort and knowledge of Philippe (yes, the Edi- tor, but back then a center supervisor at Maastricht UAC and EGATS valuable asset) started seriously thinking about reporting voluntarily and in total confidentiality inci- dents that did not qualify for mandatory reporting.

Non Punitive

The ever increasing traffic and complexity at the center, along with the experience of oth- er associations, showed the need of this project to be developed and implemented in order to maintain a certain level of safety. It was about giving a voice to controllers in a direct and non-punitive way on every aspect of our profession, with special attention to safety related matters. We felt that listening actively to the end users of our system were the primary ways to prevent mishaps from happening rather than tackling problems af- ter they had happened.

Implementation Difficulties

The road towards implementation hasn’t been always as easy as we all hoped for, with few setbacks and delays along the way. Meetings were held with management, the center’s Safety Manager and Eurocontrol’s legal services to find a satisfactory common legal agreement on which we could base the foundations for this important project. A piv- otal point was the protection of the identities of the reporting controllers. This proved to be a tough point to agree upon, as the legal systems of the 4 countries were are provid- ing ATS for, had to be taken into considera- tion together with the special European sta- tus of the Eurocontrol agency. But in all fairness, even if all the parties involved in the discussions were after different goals, the commitment shown by everyone played a key role to unblock this complicated situa- tion and agree on a common set of rules. When everything was set and done, other is-

sues came into play, not least an organiza- tional and logistical problem. This process obviously took up some time, as it was not only a matter of finding a proper place for the Reports incoming box where controllers could drop their forms or where to find those forms and make sure there is always a proper availability, but also who was responsible for taking out the forms. For this we created a small group of 3 controllers Peers, known as trustees.

Finding Trustees

They are the only ones to know the identity of the reporting persons. They then de-iden- tify the reports (by removing the top part of the report containing the identity and return- ing that part to the controller, as proof of confidentiality and receipt). They then pass the de-identified report to an Occurrence manager who then distribute them to the right management person. An answer is ex- pected within the following six weeks, a length of time necessary to give a compre- hensive answer and eventually find solutions to a reported problem. Unfortunately not every problem has a clear and possible solu- tion. Both management and the controllers welcomed the idea of having three EGATS board members acting as trustees, and a very professional and qualified colleague was identified and chosen as Occurrences Man- ager. The project is known in Maastricht UAC as INREP …

Convincing Staff

Then the whole procedure had to be pre- pared and explained clearly to both manage- ment and controllers, in order to win every- one’s trust and make the result a success. For this, a series of briefings were set up, with all controllers and other personnel including management invited to attend. Although the very first briefings didn’t see a high level of attendance, word spread quickly within the operational staff and the following briefings saw a very active and interested attendance.

THE

So, finally, in June 2006 the INREP project was up and running, with the blessing of all personnel who saw a valuable way to have an impact on safety in a more direct, personal way. It was felt (expecially within the control- ler community) that too often in the past their opinions and concerns were bypassed or simply put on hold. Now, they would be able to express their concerns on a series of issues and they would get an answer within a limited time frame.

Management Approval

Furthermore, INREP enjoyed the approval from both management and operational per- sonnel, which is more rare than a seeing a DC8, nowadays. Getting the input from our controllers or engineers, and having the com- mitment of management to follow up the im- portant issues is gold. At much the same time, the TRM (team re- source management) was introduced into Maastricht UAC, along with a brief introduc- tion on INREP to their attendees and thus even more exposure to the project. For my- self, being both an INREP trustee and a TRM facilitator, it’s been a great satisfaction to see the INREP project taking shape and en- joy a high level of professional input by our colleagues.

Importance of Feed Back

But how to get back to our colleagues and reply and address their concerns? That is simply done with the INREP bulletin. Every three months, a new edition is prepared jointly by Philippe (still now, the project man- ager) and the Occurrence Manager. It con- tains all the reported issues, available solu- tions and answers, in order to address the controllers’ reported concerns and keep eve- ryone informed. This is a rewarding, yet not

easy task. The difficult part consists in giving a comprehensive answer to a report by both not giving away the identity of the reporting person by remaining as general as possible with the wording, but at the same time trying to clearly explain what was reported in order for the answer to make sense to everyone. The last bulletin, especially, drew some criti- cisms from all parties precisely for not being as clear as all hoped. It’s obviously a learning process, and all the feedback is welcome to improve communications between parties. The last bulletin, has already addressed this problem and will surely be more satisfactory for everyone. But, nevertheless, the criticism shows that INREP is taken seriously by every- one, and how people are waiting for the problems to be addressed and answered.

A Success

All considered, and taking into account the high number of INREP forms received in nearly a year since implementation, (more than 80) this project continues to be a suc- cess. It was hard work to shape it and bring it to life, but now the important thing is to keep the momentum. The feed back bulletin is to be as clear and professional as possible in or- der to keep our colleagues interested and in- volved. Some reported issues have been al- ready addressed and corrective measures taken, and the satisfaction amongst our per- sonnel was rather clear.

Issues now can be addressed and prevented rather than be fixed only after a serious prob- lem has occurred.

Most importantly, finally everyone involved feels responsible for safety in any form and shape, and this is the culture we always hoped for at our center. ^

THE

4 Raf Vigorita with the feed back bulletin. Photo: RV

4 Human Factors

Share experiences, [….] to prevent mishaps to happen rather than tackle problems after they had happen.

People are waiting for the problems to be addressed and answered.

SPOTLIGHT

Spotlight on Corporate Members
Spotlight
on Corporate Members
^
^

by Kevin Slater Contributing Editor, Corporate Business

ture Spotlight. the addition of the visual tools and Micro Nav see extensive demands in
ture Spotlight.
the addition of the visual tools and Micro
Nav see extensive demands in the airport
and ATC design market.
BEST has one software base so that all the
different implementations run fully togeth-
er. Multiple airspaces, exercises and sectors
can be run simultaneously and independ-
ently. All the runs are recorded and can be
replayed and resumed into live working for
debriefing and teaching. The BEST audio
communications system simulates radio, in-
tercom and telephone calls with a digital re-
cording that can be replayed in synchroniza-
tion with the exercises.
Let’s catch up with their progress and
their innovative product developments.
NATS Heathrow Airport,
London, UK

NATS ordered an advanced BEST 3D tower simulator in May 2005 costing some £1.5M. It was installed by the end of the year and en- tered service in January 2006. Micro Nav are the prime contractor and provide all the ATC simulation and training software. BARCO de- signed and supplied the visual display sys- tem. It has a 10m diameter cylindrical screen with ten Sim-6 Ultra projectors. Their digital control facility gives full edge-matching and blending with colour and brightness balanc- ing. Rockwell Collins supplied their EP-10 3D visual image generator. They also created the 3D visual models of Heathrow airport, the aircraft, vehicles and special effects. The simulator is used for training and for testing new concepts and equipment. It covers the changes scheduled for Heath- row including: the new tower; terminal 5; the facilities for the A380 and the new ATC equipment and procedures. Micro Nav have added stimulation interfac-

es and customised emulations to BEST so that the new systems being introduced at Heathrow are included in the training with high fidelity. These include: the electronic flight strip system; the lighting control panel; the ground movement display and approach monitoring system. Simulator ground traffic automation and pseudo-pilot facilities have also been enhanced to meet the operational needs of the new Heathrow airport. The simulation covers: day; night and dusk; reduced visibility; a wide range of weather conditions with rain, fog and snow; emer- gencies and unusual situations. The eye point can be jumped into different work- ing locations as well as into aircraft and ground vehicles. Integrated area, ap- proach, tower and ground operations can be trained and evaluated. Powerful data preparation tools allow NATS to cover dif- ferent aircraft performance capabilities, traffic levels and operating conditions with full recording and replay capabilities. The new tower at Heathrow went opera- tional in April. Meanwhile, the BEST tower simulator continues to work hard support- ing the next phase of the airport develop- ment programme.

^ BEST 3D tower simulator with operational lighting control panel

r e t a l S n i v e K
r
e
t
a
l
S
n
i
v
e
K

Welcome to our popular Corporate Members fea-

In this issue I have cho- sen to revisit a dynam- ic company based in the south of England who are at the fore- front of ATM simulation for training, design and evaluation tasks. Since we first turned the spotlight on them two years ago, they have won major international projects and have launched a suite of revolutionary visualisation tools. Because I feel the infor- mation Micro Nav has provided will be of great interest to you, our readers, I have de- cided to make this the first of a two-part feature on

de- cided to make this the first of a two-part feature on About MICRO NAV: Micro

About MICRO NAV:

Micro Nav have a track record going back to 1988 of developing, delivering and sup- porting ATC simulators around the world. They are a specialist company with a repu- tation for innovation, customer support and understanding what users need. Their family of simulators is called BEST. The name stands for “Beginning to End for Simulation and Training” and it has proved that it delivers all of that. BEST covers all types of training including approach, area, radar, non-radar, tower, ground and military operations. It covers all levels of training from ab initio through rat- ing and validation to conversion, refresher, TRUCE and ECT training. It is configured to meet different training applications from classroom, part task and skills trainers to full-scope, high-fidelity simulations of radar operations rooms and tower cabs. The power and scope of BEST allow it to be used for design, testing and evaluation work as well as training. New designs and procedures are tested and refined before being trained using the same system. This capability has been extended recently with

^ BEST 3D tower simulator with- operational electronic flight strip system
^ BEST 3D tower simulator with-
operational electronic flight
strip system

THE

SPOTLIGHT

SPOTLIGHT Irish Aviation Authority, Ireland The IAA placed a major order with Micro Nav for BEST

Irish Aviation Authority, Ireland

The IAA placed a major order with Micro Nav for BEST ATC simulators in 2005. A ten sector radar simulator and two 3D tower simulators were commissioned in August 2005. They are being used for a range of in house and third party com- mercial training. Micro Nav are emulating the Thales Cairde radar displays to give the IAA the operational look and feel that they need for their training. (see below).

and feel that they need for their training. (see below). ^ BEST 3D tower simulator Skyguide,

^ BEST 3D tower simulator

Skyguide, Switzerland

Skyguide, the joint civil and military ATC au- thority of Switzerland, is a long term user of Micro Nav simulators. Their new training and operations centre at Dübendorf, near Zurich uses BEST extensively for their train- ing. They will have two 360-degree tower simulators, six combined 3D-2D tower sim- ulators and large radar simulators all driven by BEST. Further 3D-2D simulators are housed in two vehicles delivering mobile simulation across Switzerland. BEST is also being widely used by Sky- guide as a stimulator in their training and development systems for their operation- al radar workstations. Micro Nav have de- veloped interfaces so that BEST stimu- lates the Skyguide systems with radar data, flight information, AFTN and OLDI messages that match the operational standards and formats.

NATS London Area Control Centre, UK

NATS use BEST to support their training for the LACC at Swanwick in Hampshire. Micro Nav delivered special software to speed-up the creation and testing of large exercises for the conversion training of controllers at the centre. Real traffic samples can be im- ported and edited as needed. The BEST Sector Loading Information Monitor dis- plays and records traffic data at selected

THE

^ Combined 2D-3D BEST Trainers sectors and boundaries so that exercises can be tuned and
^ Combined
2D-3D
BEST
Trainers
sectors and boundaries so that exercises
can be tuned and tests can be carried out.
Typical exercises last up to 8 hours and in-
clude 2000 flights with peak loadings of 500
active aircraft and cover up to 16 sectors.
The BEST Scripting Tool allows many sec-
tors to operate automatically according to
their co-ordination procedures so that con-
trollers can run the key sectors without
needing expensive support staff.
ASTAC International,
UK and elsewhere

ASTAC use BEST radar and tower simula- tors in their aviation colleges at Glouces- tershire Airport and Shoreham Airport in the UK, and overseas in Almaty, Kaza- khstan and Tbilisi, Georgia. ASTAC provides a wide range of aviation training courses that have been approved by ICAO and the Safety Regulation Group of the UK Civil Aviation Authority. They take advantage of the annual licensing options offered for BEST so that they can adjust their simulation costs to their fluctuat- ing contract demands. Their simulators are used for tower, ground, radar, approach and area ATC training as well as self-teach- ing, data preparation and debriefing.

^ Artists impression of 360 degree 3D tower simulator been expanded adding further 2D Tower
^ Artists impression of 360
degree 3D tower simulator
been expanded adding further 2D Tower
and radar capacity for low visibility proce-
dures and other training.
Sharjah Airport, UAE

The Air Traffic Control Unit at Sharjah Air- port commissioned their BEST airport training simulator in 2006. Their package is tailored for airport use and gives an eco- nomic solution to local requirements for on-the-job support, validation and refresh- er training as well as emergency and con- tingency training. It covers 2D tower, ground, radar and non-radar operations and has data preparation and system man- agement tools. Sharjah will be able to cre- ate their own and other airport databases with ATC environments and exercises. They will be able to trial new layouts and procedures. Initially they are focusing on supporting their tower controllers and on emergency and contingency training.

This completes Part 1 of our Spotlight on Micro Nav. I would like to thank Tom Howard-Jones at Micro Nav for his sup- port with this article.

To our corporate membership readers, re- member if you would like your company to be the focus of `Spotlight´, and likewise to any reader who would like further informa- tion on any topic that was covered, please do not hesitate to contact me using the following address:

Kevin Salter IFATCA Contributing Editor Corporate Business Flugsicherungsakademie Am DFS-Campus 4 D-63225 Langen Tel: + 49 (0)6103 707 5202 Fax: + 49 (0)6103 707 5177 E-Mail: kevin-john.salter@dfs.de or E-Mail: kevinsalter@t-online.de

NAVIAIR, Denmark Naviair are using BEST to drive their train- ing and development system as
NAVIAIR, Denmark
Naviair are using BEST to drive their train-
ing and development system as part of the
DATMAS programme. BEST inputs a range
of radar, flight plan and information data
including Asterix, OLDI, AFTN and CPDLC.
An “adjacent sector” workstation has also
been developed to support OLDI transac-
tions and associated controller training.
DCA, UAE Dubai

BEST was selected by the Dubai DCA to provide both stand-alone and on-console simulation radar training. Interfaces have been developed so that BEST stimulates the Flight Refuelling RDS 1600 radar work- stations to give full fidelity training. It was originally installed in 2003. This year it has

All photos: Miconav

4 Focus

Focus on Norway ATC
Focus on Norway ATC
^ by Philippe Domogala, Editor Norway is one of the Scandinavian Countries that normally sit
^ by Philippe Domogala,
Editor
Norway is one of the Scandinavian Countries
that normally sit quiet and maintain a low
profile. If was not such a thing some 1000
years ago, as Vikings ruled, and, as some
said: “discovered America, but did not tell
anybody about it…“
Norwegian Controllers have always been
good support for IFATCA, and their associa-
tion was one of the 12 founding members of
IFATCA, back in 1961.
4 Oslo airport
Photo: DP
glass elevator running on the side. (not good
if
you are afraid of height) It is equipped with
latest technology, bright displays, no strips,
no paper. The working positions are variable
Periods of Unrest
But Norwegian ATC has been in the news for
some time, especially after the decision to
in height, so that controllers can choose to
work sitting or standing up, and adjust the
height of the table according their prefer-
ences and own height. The large displays can
also electrically be tilted to avoid sun glare .
close down some facilities and airports, but
especially after the sudden announcement of
the closure of Royken the main ACC in the
country, south of Oslo.
It
is a pleasant atmosphere and controllers
A
few years back, the closure of Fornebu air-
working there are happy. Working with elec-
tronic displays (and strips) poses no prob-
lems to the controllers I spoke to, and the er-
gonomics looks very good as well.
4 Inside TWR (displays)
Photo: DP
port, close to Oslo in favor of Gardermoen,
some 65 Km away caused some waves, it was
followed by the closure of Trondheim ACC, in
the middle of the country. This combined with
an acute controller shortage and a few unfor-
tunate management decisions by a newly ap-
pointed Director, who was a lady with a vi-
sion, but a vision that was not shared by the
controllers, and confrontation followed. This
led to a period of unrest that made the head-
lines. The controllers remained united behind
their Association President, Rolf Skrede, who
became a television and media star in the
Country, as a result.
One has to realize that Air transport in Nor-
way is essential. The country is very large
(over 2000Km long) with mountainous areas,
cut by fjords, making ground transportation
difficult and lengthy. Also the country loca-
tion at the far North of Europe means that
business connections and holiday travel is
mostly done by plane. Therefore any serious
ATC disruption is particularly felt by every-
one inside the country.
Finally the old management resigned and a
new director was appointed, who immediately
Traffic in Norway is booming thanks to a
strong economy driven by oil, and when we
know the price of petrol today, we under-
stand why.
Safety Issues
The new Management and the controllers
have decided to concentrate their efforts in
the future on safety related issues, especially
when introducing changes. Basically how
changes affect safety, how to discover latent
failures (those which are buried inside the
system for years waiting to pop up one day)
and how to interpret incidents and act upon
them.
A
long term study has been initiated, and eve-
ryone is interested in the results. Eric Lofquist,
a former US navy pilot, married to a Norwegian
restored peace (as well as a substantial increase
Photo: DP
of
salaries for controllers) and today the work-
ing relations are once again harmonious. Smiles
are back on faces of staff going to work.
Gardermoen Tower
Visiting Gardermoen Tower is impressive.
The Tower is 92m above ground, and has a
controller, is current-
ly preparing a PhD
on this subject and
explains part of his
work as “the art of
measuring nothing“
meaning how to
measure safety in an
already ultra safe en-
vironment, and how
to draw meaningful
conclusions when
you have an accident
is the challenge in
safety monitoring. ^
4 Rolf Skrede
THE
4 Gardermoen TWR (outside)
CONTROLLER
26
Photo: Terje Eide

4 Humor

Back to the Future
Back to the Future

^ by Ayman Mahmoud (Egypt)

It was afternoon when I back home after long

day of hard work, I was taking my lunch while watching TV it was the film “Back to the Fu- ture”, I like this film although I have seen it several times.

The Dream

I fell asleep and had a very strange dream, I

was inside the events of the film, yes, inside the film of back to the future, I met Marty driving his time machine. I introduce myself and asked him to enter date of 2050 into the keypad to see the air traffic control in the future, and after few seconds I found my self in the year 2050.

I went to my ACC, I was surprised, there were

a lot of screens, a lot of traffic in each one but very few controllers, “what is going on?“ I asked my self and went to see the radar screen,

I saw the map of many FIRs, yes it was the map

of Africa FIR, It was a map of entire continent

so I decided to check what is going on.

I went to the library, I didn’t find anybody but

I heard an electronic voice: “can I help you” I said “yes”, “I want to read the current ATC

manual, the electronic voice said “please take

a seat” I take a seat and suddenly a screen ap-

pears on front of me, then a map of the world appeared in the screen with only six (6) ACCs, yes only one (1) ACC for each continent.

The Airspace

The airways are straight lines from any aero- drome to another one inside the continent, no restricted, prohibited or dangerous areas, few conflicts points and all the flights seem to be above flight level 450, and with just 200 feet vertical separation. Then I saw the map below flight level 450, totally different and another type of separation, it was separation between

flying cars from the ground till flight level 300 with vertical separation of 1000 feet because

it was a new technology and it will be 500 feet

in 2055. The gap between flight level 300 and flight level 450 was reserved to military flights. Suddenly I remembered some thing, there

Photo: AH

flights. Suddenly I remembered some thing, there Photo: AH guage is not English language fired most

guage is not English language fired most of the controllers who didn’t pass level 4. Now the controllers of this fed- eration are working in private companies which offer separa- tion services for a cheap price but below flight level 100.

was no voices at the ACC when I was there so I decided to back again to the ACC.

The ACC

When I went to ACC I saw every one working through keyboard, yes it was data link communica- tions between aircraft and flying cars and air traffic controllers, but there was some thing strange, how could this few number of controllers manage this huge quantity of traffic, so I went to the supervisor screen to see it.

I

covered that a lot of controllers were work- ing at home, yes believe it or not they are separating at home through data link com- munications by their personal computers and the few numbers of controllers in ACC was only to coordinate between the controllers

found a big surprised waiting for me, I dis-

at their home and for emergency cases.

IFATCA in 2050

But, what about IFATCA in 2050, so I decid- ed to go back to the library again, I told the electronic voice that I wanted to read some thing about IFATCA “ I take a seat again and on the screen I saw the web site of IFATCA. The home page was the same as 2007 “IFAT- CA has been representing Air Traffic Con- trollers for more than 83 years, and has more than 50,000 members in over 200 countries”.

I asked my self how could the number of the

controllers be the same as 2007, it is sup- posed to be more than that number with this density of traffic of flights and flying cars, and

I discovered the bad news: it was the exist-

ence of a new federation, it called “IFFATCA” International Federation of Fired Air Traffic Controllers Association, it was established in 2010 after applying level 4 of English lan- guage in March 2008. The civil aviation au-

thorities in the countries whose native lan-

When I read about the new federation IFFATCA I decided to return to the Future, so I left the library and asked Marty to enter date of 2007 into the keypad.

When I came back I heard a hu- man voice say “wake up dad it’s 8 o’clock “it was my little child Rahma waking me up. It was just dream. ^

Now the controllers of this federation are working in private companies which offer separation services for a cheap price but below flight level 100.

THE

4 Africa News

Africa/Middle East Meeting in Johannesburg South Africa
Africa/Middle East Meeting
in Johannesburg South Africa
Africa/Middle East Meeting in Johannesburg South Africa ^ by Haske Jibrin The 17 t h IFATCA

^ by Haske Jibrin

The 17 th IFATCA AFM Regional Meeting was held in Johannes- burg last November. It was one of the best organized regional meetings witnessed in recent years and this should not be sur- prising considering the econom- ic and technological standing of hosts, South Africa. The theme, “The Challenge of Air Traffic Management Provision”, provid- ed the participants with an excel- lent forum for the acquisition and exchange of professional and technical knowledge while keeping participants abreast of the latest thinking and develop- ments in our esteemed and pres- tigious profession. It was also an opportunity for old friends and professional colleagues passion- ately concerned with the devel- opment of the Air Traffic control profession to once again come together to discuss their passion ,review the progress or lack of it, since the last meeting.

The urgent need for African countries to make the financial investments required to bring up to interna- tional standards the 500 national airports and 117 international airports.

Photo: GATCSA
Photo: GATCSA

Attendance

The meeting was graced by eminent personali- ties, top government officials , the military, pi- lots, air navigation equipment manufactures, training institutions, university dons, researchers as well as delegates from 25 IFATCA member associations. Zimbabwe and Morocco were also in attendance as observers. Equally impressive was the presence and robust participation of reputable corporate organisations mainly con- cerned with the growth and development of the aviation industry in the region as well as globally. Some of these organisations were involved in the Meeting as sponsors or exhibitors while oth- ers yet participated fully in the deliberations that took place during the meeting. Some of these organisations included ICAO, IATA, CANSO, SWEDAVIA, ATNS, South Africa Weather Serv- ice and ASECNA. Others were Flight Craft Avia- tion, Thales, SAAB Grintek, Denel Aviation, SACAA and AlPA-SA.

Opening Ceremony

The meeting was declared open by the Hon- ourable Minster of Transport, South Africa, Mr Jeff Radebe signifying the importance the South African Government attached to the meeting. In his opening comments, Mr Radebe identified with IFTACA position on the applica- tion of Human factors Knowledge being of high priority. He stressed that the goal of the

being of high priority. He stressed that the goal of the Government was to minimize the

Government was to minimize the risks asso- ciated with aircraft nav- igation through inter- nationally recognized training and adherence to international standards in the operations of air traffic navigation systems. He equally said that that South Africa has embraced the prop- osition of IFATCA that sufficient resources should be committed to the establishment of robust and independent safety regulations at national, regional and global levels in order to cover human and equipment management in air traffic navigation. He also expressed the ur- gent need for African countries to make the fi- nancial investments required to bring up to in- ternational standards the 500 national airports and 117 international airports as a measure of reducing the relatively high air traffic accidents in the region. The Honourable Minister also old the meeting that the South African Govern- ment has approved a five-year strategy for the regulation of air transport in support of the Ac- celerated Shared Growth Initiative of South Af- rica (ASGISA) which is expected to enhance the prospects of South Africa as a favourable air travel destination.

In his welcome address earlier, the President of Guild of Air Traffic Controllers of South of Africa (GATCSA), Mr. Peter Van Rooyen said that his association has grown from a trade union to a professional group through a close collabora- tion with ATNS under the exemplary leadership of the Chief Executive Mrs. Wrenelle Strander. He applauded the Flight Safety Foundation (FSF), the Civil Air Navigation Services Organisa- tion (CANSO), the Royal Aeronautical Society in England (RAeS) and the Academie Nationale de L’Air et de L’Espace (ANAE) for their unprece- dented joint resolution decrying the increasing tendency of law enforcement and judicial au- thorities to attempt to criminalize aviation acci- dents, to the detriment of aviation safety. He expressed the hope that the meeting would in- form and educate all participants to their overall benefit and enrichment. Also making his last opening address at an AFM regional meeting, the EVP Africa/Middle East, Mr Albert Taylor, reiterated the main ob- jectives of IFATCA as including; the promotion of safety, efficiency and regularity in interna- tional air navigation, offering advice in the de-

THE

velopment of a safe and orderly system of air traffic control and upholding a high standard of knowledge and professional efficiency among air traffic controllers. In achieving this, IFATCA cooperates closely with national and interna- tional authorities and institutions concerned with air navigation. Mr. Taylor also said that the region offers vast and untapped business op- portunities for visionary leaders who could see that the region ,with the saturation in the West- ern trading block, represented the next phase of explosive economic growth after Asia.

Co-Operation

The meeting therefore was aimed at sensitiz- ing all the stakeholders in the region to the challenge and to stimulate cooperation in the development of strategies and the sourcing of the resources required for the enthrone- ment of aviation safety upon which the ex- pected economic growth and development will be based. He told the meeting that a cream of aviation experts and reputable or- ganisations were at hand to provide partici- pants with latest ideas in their areas of exper- tise and therefore urged delegates to fully take advantage of the occasion for their pro- fessional development by not being passive observers but rather active contributors. He commended the excellent relationship ex- isting between ATNS and GATCSA while urg- ing similar arrangements in other countries of the region. He also commended the manage- ment of ATNS for providing a full scholarship for one of the Ugandan controller who was re- cently pardoned by the Government of Ugan- da following the intervention of IFATCA. The President and Chief Executive of IFAT- CA, Mr. Marc Baumgartner who joined the opening ceremony shortly after arrival ex- pressed pleasure for the impressive gather- ing at the Meeting. He commended GATCSA for accepting the challenge of hosting the meeting and expressed the hope and confi- dence that it would be worth the while. The guests and delegates at the opening cere- mony were thrilled with the impressive per- formances of the cultural troupe at the occa- sion .Participants were exposed to the rich cultural heritage of the people of South Africa.

Presentations

The meeting was blessed with the presence of top brass experts and resource persons who freely availed the delegates their expertise and specialties. These The speakers: IFATCA President/CEO Mr. Marc Baumgartner,Mr. Apollo Kharuga (ICAO), Prof Sidney Dekker (University of Lund, Sweden), Mr. Sture Erics- son (Swedavia), Mr. Zephaniah Baliddawa (Uganda CAA), Mr. Alexander ter Kulie (CANSO),Mr. Arthur James Bradshaw (ATM System) and Capt. Mohammed Kheir Hassoun

THE

4 Africa News

(IFALPA). Others were Koumassou Coulibaly (ASECNA), Patrik Peters (IFATCA EVP Eu- rope), Dr. Glen McDougall, Peter Marais, Colonel E.Zimmer and Dave Gleaves. Some of the topics that were addressed at the meeting by these experts were as follows:

• State Sovereignty/Airspace Re-organisation

• Military Coordination

• ATC Commercialization Policy:

Has it Been Effective?

• Human Resources

• Safety and regulation

• Risk and Hazard and Analysis

• Incident Reporting Systems

• Business Cases for Africa – ATNS, IATA, CANSO

Resolutions

At the end of the robust and incisive discus- sions at the meeting a number of resolutions were made with a view to improving some of the situations that were found to be of concern to the delegates as they militated against the positive development of ATM in the region. The meeting encouraged national aviation au- thorities in the region to embrace regional in- tegration of ATM systems. The meeting, while upholding the endeavors of CANSO member nations in the commercialization of air naviga- tion services, cautioned that the process should ensure viability of the concerned organisations through a clear economic and legal regime and that a transition period for the commercializa- tion processes be instituted.

Tribute to Albert Taylor

By all parameters the 17 th IFATCA Africa/Mid- dle East regional meeting was a resounding success and was quite historic. The efficiency and promptness with which activities were marshaled were indeed commendable. Fur- thermore, The EVP AFM, Mr.Albert Taylor ex- pressed his decision to retire from active IFATCA service having served for nearly two decades in several capacities. In his closing re- marks at an emotional closing ceremony, he thanked IFATCA Board, GCAA, ATNS, Re- gional Support Group and Member Associa-

Photo: DP

ATNS, Re- gional Support Group and Member Associa- Photo: DP 4 Albert Taylor in discussion with

4 Albert Taylor in discussion with Senegal

tions for their monumental sup- port and cooperation. He told the meeting that he had really enjoyed, all these long years, working with all the people and organisations with whom he had interacted and expressed the confidence that others would continue where he stopped. The meeting in response unani- mously acknowledged and ex- pressed its appreciation for the uncommon dedication and commitment with which Mr. Taylor served IFATCA especial- ly in his capacity as the EVP Af- rica Middle East in the last eight years. The meeting also ex- pressed gratitude to the Gov- ernment and People of South Africa for the warm hospitality during the meeting. It is only our hope that Algiers 2007 which is the venue for the 18th AFM Regional Meeting will also be as interesting and rewarding as the Johannesburg meeting. ^

as interesting and rewarding as the Johannesburg meeting. ^ 4 Inside Johannesburg Control Tower A transition

4 Inside Johannesburg Control Tower

A transition period for the commercialization processes be instituted.

Photo: ATNS

4 News

Shannon
Shannon

On 22 nd , 23 rd and 24 th January 2007, the Technical and Opera- tions Committee (TOC) and the Professional and Legal Commit- tee (PLC) met in Shannon, Ire- land. Both Committees were welcomed by Mr. Pat Ryan, Di- rector of Operations for the Irish Aviation Authority. Mr Ryan highlighted the need for an ac- tive voice representing the Controller community,

and welcomed the IFATCA Committees and wished them a fruitful meeting. After these kind words, the committees went to work and had three long meeting days in prepara- tion for the Istanbul conference. Both com- mittees also had a combined session on the second morning, extensively dis- cussing working papers on new ATM Tower concepts.” ^

Photo: IAA

FATCOA A brand new professional association for French air traffic controllers
FATCOA A brand new professional
association for French air traffic controllers

T he 1998 annual conference held in Toulouse was somehow the beginning

of the end. The association was torn apart by the clan of those who had the power and those working effectively for the association, namely Patrick, Jerome and myself. As it was more and more obvious that both clans were heading towards opposite directions, I de- cided along with Patrick and Jerome to cre- ate a new association, able to challenge APCA not only vis-à-vis the French Civil Avia- tion Authority but also IFATCA.

C onsequently, our executive board has taken the strong requirement of a to-

tal transparency of its actions. We have based the organization of the FATCOA on the very same architecture of IFATCA, thus enabling a rapid and efficient way to put in place op- erational cells or commissions to stick to im- portant topics.

O ur association is growing fast. The ex- ecutive committee is now made of a

solid and efficient team actively working into

the technical, professional and legal commis- sions. We are seeking representatives from

and legal commis- sions. We are seeking representatives from French overseas territories to get involved into

French overseas territories to get involved into the four regions of IFATCA, not in the prospect to be more powerful but with the willingness to provide our members with more information that could be useful to im- prove their working conditions on the techni- cal, professional and legal levels. This could be as well a good opportunity to share their experiences with other people (neighbors sometimes) from the same area.

A ctions for the future involvement are quite simple:

• To improve our membership

• To increase our influence upon the French CAA

• To help as much as possible weakest coun- tries to voice out their problems and concerns

• To stick to IFATCA actuality and be more involved in the increasing challenges IFATCA will have to face in the coming years

We are really happy to be back. We look forward to working with all of you. FATCOA Team ^

We are really happy to be back.

F irst

you. FATCOA Team ^ We are really happy to be back. F irst of all, the

of all,

the associa-

tion has been cre-

ated about two

years ago, by Patrick Gristi (its secretary and ILO), Jérôme Louchet (our fi- nancial tyrant) and myself, Cédric Robin, current president of the FATCOA.

A PCA, formerly represent- ing French controllers in

IFATCA, has done a very good work during all these years of activity for IFATCA. APCA was at the very beginning of IFATCA and its contribution to the ATC world is tremendous. Famous characters like J-P Lesueur are still vivid in the memories as the pillars of IFATCA.

THE

Chinese aviation
4

4 Asia News

Controller Consultation in New System Integration
Controller Consultation
in New System Integration
^
^

by Peter Leung (Hong Kong)

Technological advancement during the turn of the century has improved by leaps and bounds and modern ATC equipment has been developed to a stage with many func- tionalities and is able to achieve multiple tasks of high complexity.

Information Overflow

A great deal of information can now be dis- played to the controller. Is all this information useful? Is it assisting the controllers or causing false alarms? Is there too much information presented to the controllers? Professor Sid- ney Dekker, in his article “Human Factor: Con- flict Detection and Human-machine Coordi- nation”, has pointed out in the conflict detection scenario about what should have been the correct information possibly turning out to be something that may cause mis-inter- pretation, ending up with a wrong conclusion and the associated human factor issues relat- ing to conflict detection. Therefore, to design a good ATC system, apart from the hardware reliability, one of the most important elements that should be considered is the selection of those functionalities available suitable to the controllers and their operational environment. Who are the best people to do this? Nobody other than the controllers themselves.

Good or Bad System?

How do you consider a system to be a good system? A good system should be capable of providing the necessary support to the con- troller to perform their tasks under the oper- ational environment. ATC systems with de- signs that do not involve the user will not be

THE

a user-friendly system. It is not unusual to see

that service providers on occasions may have to adjust the procedures a bit to suit the sys- tem. This is of course, not the right approach but in reality it happens often. A system should be there to assist the controller and not the other way round.

The last time I was involved in a system instal- lation was in 1997 with the ATC system at Hong Kong Chek Lap Kok Airport. Although the system is still running with high reliability, it lacks modern day functionalities and ac- tions are in hand by the Civil Aviation De- partment to replace the existing system with

a new one. I was fortunate enough to be part

of this new project team as well and it is a good opportunity for me to make use of what I have learnt last time to contribute to- wards the replacement system.

Controllers Involvment

With the replacement system, apart from en- suring that there will be good reliability from the engineering side, it is intended there will be wide spread consultation with the opera- tional controllers relating HMI issues, func- tionalities and ergonomics of ATCC design, etc. Apart from conducting consultation ses- sions during the various stages of the project stage, an ATC forum has been set up on the intranet to collect frontline inputs and sugges- tions from the operational controllers.

Hong Kong still has a mixture of expatriate and local controllers in the operational force

and it is quite logical that in de- termining the HMI and ergo- nomics, we have to include cul- tural considerations as well in the design. It is with this in mind that the project team members have been selected, apart from the technical skill and experi- ence level, with different cul- tural background.

It is gratifying to see the re- sponse from controllers at this stage, especially from the younger generation, who have shown enthusiasm and eager- ness to participate in their project. Initial work is at hand for the preparation of the new system concept design and the operational requirements. Vis- its to other renowned ATCCs and participation in the ATC Maastricht 2007 was arranged to keep us abreast of the latest technology.

It is going to be a huge project and a great deal of effort has to be put in to guarantee success. With the consolidated effort from every division within the department and good direc- tives and understanding from senior management, I am confi- dent that we should be able to deliver the final product in 2012 to serve both the industry and the working controllers. ^

Photos: Phil Parker

to serve both the industry and the working controllers. ^ Photos: Phil Parker 4 A Chinese

4 A Chinese business jet

4 Philip Marien Feature

Landing the most complex Machine ever built …
Landing the most complex
Machine ever built …
Feature Landing the most complex Machine ever built … ^ by Philip Marien Everyone has heard

^ by Philip Marien

Everyone has heard of the Space Shuttle: after it launches into space, it returns to earth landing seemingly as a normal aircraft to be re-used a couple of months later. But describing return to earth a normal flight is a bit too simple…

Selecting the Runway

Before the actual return, the landing site needs to be cho- sen. NASA aims at getting the Shuttle back to the Kennedy Space Centre in Florida, as the preparation and launches take place there. The two alternates are Edwards AFB in California and White Sands AFB in New Mexico. NASA tries to avoid the alternates because ship- ping the Shuttle back to Florida (piggy backed on a modified B747) costs over 1 million dol- lars and adds days or weeks to the turn around time

The overriding factor in picking the landing site is the weather:

less than 12-15 knots crosswind (depending on day/night/weight), less than 50% cloud cover 8000ft or higher and visibility should be more than 8 km. No thunder- storms or rain should be fore-

The Shuttle lands at 350 km/h, consider- ably faster than a commercial airliner.

32

cast within 30NM of the landing site, which can be tricky for Florida during certain sea- sons. NASA can change a landing site up to 90 minutes before the landing takes place.

The Runway

The runway 15/33 at Kennedy Space Centre (KSC) is longer than the average runway, about 4,5 km and nearly twice as wide, 91 meters. The Shuttle doesn‘t need such a long runway, but with only one shot (a go-around is not an option as it has no propulsion when it lands), some extra space is needed just in case. In principle, the Shuttle will land at some 700 meters past the runway threshold. Several different navigation systems help the Orbiter and crew to find their way. First off there‘s a TACAN that provides guidance from about 145,000 ft altitude. As the Shut- tle gets closer (about 18 to 20,000 ft), a Mi- crowave Scanning Beam Landing System (MSBLS) updates the Shuttle‘s navigation systems. The Shuttle‘s crew also use a Preci- sion Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) and a Ball-Bar Light System to fly the correct glide- path. In addition to the traditional runway edge and approach light system, the Shuttle Landing Facility has 16 xenon lights that pro- duce 1 billion candlepower with an effective range of about 10 km. These are located at before the threshold and light up the whole runway when needed.

Birds

Birds are of special concern at KSC because most of the Center is a national wildlife ref- uge that provides a home to more than 330 native and migratory species of birds. Special pyrotechnic and noise-making devices, as well as selective grass cutting, are used to discourage birds around the runway. The runway is checked for ‘foreign objects’ which could damage the landing Shuttle up to 15 minutes before landing.

4 Touchdown of STS-116. Notice the xenon lights in the back that light the runway.

The Procedure

With the landing site chosen, the orbiter is rotated tail-first into the direction of travel. The two orbital manoeuvring system engines (in pods on both sides of the tail) are fired for 3 to 4 minutes depending on the path to- wards the landing site. This not only flips the shuttle to the correct angle for re-entry into the atmosphere, but also slows it down so gravity can start pulling it back towards the ground. This firing is called the de-orbit burn. This typically happens an hour before land- ing and on the opposite side of the planet to where the landing is foreseen.

Re-Entry into Athmosphere

Roughly half an hour after the de-orbit burn, the orbiter will begin to encounter the effects of the atmosphere. Called Entry Interface, the Shuttle is some 122 km (400,000 ft) above the earths‘ surface, more than 8,000 kilometres from the landing site and travelling close to 26,000 km/h. Initially the orbiter is controlled by firing the aft steering jets to keep it in a 40 degree nose-up attitude. This angle is the best compromise to minimize heat build-up while also gradually slowing down the craft. As the atmosphere gets denser, the aero sur- faces (wing flaps and rudder) gradually be- come more effective and the steering jets switch off automatically. Contrary to popular belief, since the late 1980’s, there is no longer a communication blackout (which was caused by a sheath of ionized air enveloping a space- craft friction heated up the air around it) dur- ing the re-entry into the atmosphere. Using

around it) dur- ing the re-entry into the atmosphere. Using 4 Close-range ground track for STS-116

4 Close-range ground track for STS-116 (December 2006): The Shuttle navigates around the left Heading Alignment Cone to land on RWY15 at Kennedy Space Centre.

THE

CONTROLLER

4 RWY33 as Kennedy Space Centre as seen from a Shuttle Training Aircraft.

4 Philip Marien Feature

from a Shuttle Training Aircraft. 4 Philip Marien Feature 4 At the midpoint of the runway,

4 At the midpoint of the runway, the tower offers air traffic controllers a magnificent 360-degree view of Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It manages all landings and depar- tures from the Shuttle Landing Facility, including air traffic within the Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral restricted airspace.

relay satellites, telemetry data and voice communications continue throughout the re- entry. At the end of Entry Interface, the Shut- tle is still travelling some 13,300 km/h at some 885 Km from the landing site and 55 km (180,000 ft) high. Time to touchdown is only 12 minutes!

Approach Speed

To slow down further, the orbiter performs a series of four steep banks, rolling over as much as 80 degrees to one side or the other. The series of banks gives the shuttle‘s track toward landing an appearance similar to an elongated letter „S.“ In the lower atmosphere the orbiter flies much like a conventional glid- er, except for a much higher descent rate, over 10,000 feet (3 km) per minute. At ap- proximately Mach 3, two air data probes, lo- cated on the left and right sides of the Orbit- ers‘ forward lower fuselage, are deployed to sense air pressure related to vehicle‘s move- ment in the atmosphere. At about 45,000 ft altitude, the Shuttle will start manoeuvres to intercept the approach corridor.

Although it can be flown manually, computers control the craft up to this point – a re-entry has only been flown manually once. Although the landing could be done automatically as well, the Shuttle commander assumes manual control, assisted by a Head Up Display, for the last 1,5 minutes of the flight, steering the ve-

4 Shuttle touchdown with the drag chute deployed. Control tower at Kennedy Space Centre can be seen in the background.

hicle around the nearest of two (imaginary) Heading Alignment Cones on each side of the selected runway. With no go-around possible, it is of course vi- tal that Shuttle pilots get extensive training before landing a multi-billion dollar machine. NASA has a fleet of Shuttle Training Aircraft (STA), which are highly modified Grumman American Aviation-built Gulfstream II execu- tive jets. These simulate an orbiters‘ cockpit, motion and visual cues, and handling quali- ties. In flight, the STA duplicates the orbiters‘ atmospheric descent trajectory from approxi- mately 35,000 feet altitude to landing on a runway. A Shuttle pilot needs at least 1,000 landings in the STA before getting his hands on the real thing.

Final Approach

During the final approach, the vehicle drops toward the runway 20 times faster than a com- mercial airliner as its rate of descent and air- speed increase. Around 32 seconds before landing, at around 2000 ft, the pilot flares to a 1.5 degree glide slope, further reducing the speed. At the end of this manoeuvre, the landing gear is lowered: some 15 seconds be- fore touchdown at about 100 ft, it is locked in position. The Shuttle lands at 350 km/h, con- siderably faster than a commercial airliner. Once the main gear is on the ground, a 12 m drag chute is deployed to help slow down the spaceship. The nose gear touches then touch-

es the ground and the para- chute is jettisoned as the Orbit- er slows through 110 Km/h.

After rolling to a gentle stop, some 20 to 30 vehicles will ap- proach the spacecraft as it cools down and toxic/inflammable gasses dissipate. It’ll take about 45 minutes to 1 hour before the crew can disembark.

Having watched a launch from a nearby beach some years ago, I have to say it is an experience that makes a huge impression. I can only imagine what I’d be like to watch a landing from the tow- er overlooking the runway… ^

In the lower atmosphere it flies much like a conventio- nal glider, except for a much higher descent rate, over 10,000 feet (3 km) per minute

Photos: NASA

THE

Charlie‘s Column

^

Charlie‘s Column
Charlie‘s Column
Charlie‘s Column ^ Charlie‘s Column This is why bull- dozers and helicopters – in that order
This is why bull- dozers and helicopters – in that order – need two. Further,
This is
why bull-
dozers and
helicopters – in
that order – need
two. Further, if heli-
copters are so safe, how
come there are no vintage/
classic helicopter fly-ins?

He also had something to say about fol- lowing the rules:

Toilets with 800 PAX

Recently tests were made to try the toilets of the new Airbus A380. Engineers had to think what can happen with 800 pax stuck in the aircraft for 15 hours and what they can throw in the toilets: so far they found items such as plastic cups, spoons, baby diapers, toothbrushes and even socks!

The problem is that the A380 has over 1000 meters of toilet pipes and the flush- ing speed is in excess of 100Km/h and eve- rything should be done to avoid toilet blockage.

Well in the 1980’s I remember a Dan Air BAC one-eleven who flew very slowly. When asked why, the pilot replied that the had to keep the nose quite up, as the front toilets were unserviceable and the last re- maining one, on the back, had overflow…

Helicopters and Rules

I recently met an old bush pilot that hated helicopters. I asked him why and he said:

To fly real planes you only use a single stick.

The rules are a good place to hide if you don‘t have a better idea and the talent to execute it.

But if you deviate from a rule, it must be a flawless performance. (e.g., if you fly under a bridge, don‘t hit the bridge.)

Automatic Aircraft:

A 1960 old BAC one-eleven airliner was

flown last October over England with no pilot in the cockpit in order to test a tech- nology to control UAVs aircraft. The flight lasted 2 hours, and as the BAC 1-11 did not crash it was deemed a success.

What I found interesting is that under the British civil aviation law, the pilot controlling the jetliner still had to be on board the air- craft. But he sat at the back of the plane us- ing only a remote control to fly the aircraft.

Interesting technology, which was mostly aimed at proving how a fighter pilot can

eventually control an UAV at the same time

as flying his own jet.

4 If you intent to break the rules, better be good at it!

Photo: INT

But then came the showstopper: When asking some questions we found out that

an emergency crew sat in the cockpit of the BAC 1-11 just in case, and also per- formed the take-off and landing phases.

Ah

gers inside is not for tomorrow I guess!

the full automatic airliner with passen-

Overheard on the Frequency in Germany:

Runway ownership:

Pilot: Lubeck TWR, DA ready to taxi, can I have Runway 27? ATC: No, it belongs to the airport, but you can taxi to holding point 27.

Fokker 50 cabriolet:

TWR: KLM1234 clear to land runway 24 Pilot: Ro…ger cle…ar hoo… and TWR: What is this high noise on the background? Pilot: It…is just normal cockpit noise. TWR: You sound like a Fokker 50 cabriolet… Pilot: Fine, it that case I‘ll close the window…

Correct call sign… USAir 1234 do you read/? (after the 5 th attempt):

USair 1234, you are just like my wife, you never listen… USAir 234:

Maybe if you called her by her right name she will!

THE

Check out what‘s in the next issue of

THE

CONTROLLER

Next issue will be published on 1st September 2007

4

European Single Sky (SES) and SESAR – Will it work?

4

Including an exclusive interview with Luc Tytgat, Head of ATM and of SES, as well as a review of the forthcoming High level group conclusions.

Do not miss it!

EVERYBODY READS THE CONTROLLER!

4 Photo taken during the last PLC-TOC meting in Shannon. Photo: AVDP

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