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# The University of Sheffield

## Department of Civil & Structural Engineering

1
3. Shear in RC beams
Shear forces normally act in combination with flexure, axial load and perhaps torsion. It is therefore
quite difficult to isolate the effect of shear forces acting alone. Shear transfer in RC beams relies on the
tensile and compression strength of concrete as well as tensile properties of longitudinal and, when
provided, transverse reinforcement. In most of the cases, failure due to shear is brittle in nature and
usually occurs with little warning.
Based on these considerations, elements are designed so that they fail in flexure before they fail in
shear.
3.1. Elastic behaviour of uncracked beams
In the uncracked state, reinforced concrete can be considered to be a homogeneous, elastic material.
With this assumption in mind, the axial stresses due to bending and the shear stresses can be easily
calculated according to Eqs. (1) and (2).

My
I
= (1)

VS
Ib
= (2)

Where: M = bending moment
V = shear force
I = second moment of area of the section
S = first moment of the hatched area A
v
(see Figure 1) =
v
A y
y = distance from the neutral axis of the point at which the axial stress is calculated
b = width of the section

Once the above stresses at a point P in the beam are known, the principal stresses at this point can be
derived as follows:

2
2
1,2
2 2

= +

(3)

The angle between the horizontal and f
1
can be determined from

2
tan 2

= (4)

As can be seen in Figure 2, the combination of shear stresses and bending stresses causes the principal
stress trajectories to change directions along the depth of the beam. When the tensile stresses,
1
, are
higher than the concrete tensile strength, cracking will occur and reinforcement should be provided.
The magnitude and the direction of
1
is influenced by the shear stress v. Vertical cracks are expected
to form at midspan, in the bottom of the beam. Away from midspan, a crack initiating at the bottom of
the beam will progress upwards and change direction as the magnitude of shear stresses changes with
consequent changes of
1
. At the neutral axis, only shear stresses are active causing the principal
stresses to be inclined at 45. Thus, diagonal cracks initiating at the neutral axis will form at 45 to the
horizontal.

The University of Sheffield
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering

2
Once the concrete has cracked, the assumption of a homogeneous isotropic material does not apply
and a different approach will have to be considered to predict/estimate the development of stress
fields.
P
A
A
Section A-A
V
M
M
V
n.a.
P
Shear force diagram
Bending moment diagram
axial stresses shear stresses

1
stresses at point P

2
section A-A
y
y
A
v

Figure 1: Elastic behaviour of a beam
Compression field
Tension field

Figure 2: Principal stresses in an uncracked beam

The University of Sheffield
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering

3
3.2. Behaviour of cracked beams
Consider the cracked beam shown in Figure 3a. Consider part c and d of figure. The average shear
stress between the cracks of part c of the figure can be calculated as follows.
The tensile forces in the rebar on each side of the crack can be written as

M
T
z
= and
M dM
T dT
z
+
+ = and therefore
dM
dT
z
= (5)

where the lever arm z is assumed to be constant. For moment equilibrium of the element

dM Vdx = and
Vdx
dT
z
= (6)

T+dT T
T+dT
T
dx
C C+dC
V
M+dM M
V
z z

## (a) cracked beam (b) free-body of cracked

concrete below n.a.
(c) equilibrium of a differential
element
(d) average shear stresses

Figure 3: Shear stresses in a cracked concrete section

If the shaded portion in Figure 3c is isolated as shown in part b of the figure, the force dT must be
transferred by horizontal shear stresses on the top of the shaded element. The average value of these
stresses below the top of the crack is

dT
bdx
= or
V
bz
= (7)

The University of Sheffield
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering

4

3.3. Basic element shear transfer mechanisms
The internal shear resistance of a beam can be expressed by the following equation:

( )
dM d dT dz
V Tz z T
dx dx dx dx
= = = + (8)

From this equation it can be seen that shear is resisted by two combined effects:
1) beam action: the internal lever arm remains constant and the magnitude of the tensile force, T,
changes along the length of the beam (first term on the right-hand side of Eq. (8)).
2) arch action: the tensile force, T, remains constant and the value of the internal lever arm
changes along the length of the beam (second term on the right-hand side of Eq. (8)).

The development of beam action and arch actions is affected by various phenomena (e.g. cracking,
bond behaviour) and these simple mechanisms are generally combined in a complex manner.
The internal force flows in regions of a beam where static, geometric or material conditions vary
abruptly, can be represented appropriately by means of strut and tie models. Although such approaches
represent a simplification to the problem, the basic load transfer mechanisms over an element can be
easily determined and analysed.
A strut and tie mechanism (Figure 4) develops when a force is transferred with a strut directly to the
support. In this case, the tensile forces are carried by the flexural reinforcement, whilst the concrete is
supposed to act only in compression. In a strut and tie mechanism, the shear is always carried in the
compression zone, however, there is evidence that this type of mechanism develops only in beams
with a shear ratio of less than 3 and that it becomes significant only for a shear ratio of 2 or less.

strut strut
tie

Figure 4: Strut and Tie mechanism

An arching action (Figure 5) can be developed only when a predominantly distributed load is applied
to a structure. In such cases, external forces cause the compression force to be diverted, while the
tension force in the flexural reinforcement may or may not remain constant. Hence, the concrete
between the compression arc and the tensile tie is substantially redundant. If the tensile strength of the
concrete is mobilised in the region between the compressive arch and the tension tie, however, an
arching action can develop even without the presence of UD loading. In this case the arch mechanism
becomes very similar to the strut and tie mechanism.

The University of Sheffield
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering

5

Figure 5: Arch mechanism

When the force cannot migrate directly to the support, a truss mechanism is activated but a
supplementary force is needed to divert it up and down the beam depth. This diverted force, whether
carried by stirrups or concrete, causes a decrease in the tension force in the flexural reinforcement
close to the support, which is typical for a truss mechanism (Figure 6). In the case that inclined or,
most commonly, vertical reinforcement is provided, tensile stresses can be transmitted across shear
cracks by the reinforcement and a truss-like mechanism is developed along the beam. In such a model,
the shear is carried by the inclined compression struts and the tensile ties.

F
t

Figure 6: Truss mechanism

Strut-and-tie or arch mechanism and some kind of a truss mechanism, however, may occur
simultaneously in a RC beam and the extent to what each mechanism contributes to the total shear
resistance depends on the external loading, geometry of the beam, presence of transverse
reinforcement and material properties of concrete as well as reinforcement. It can be observed that the
contribution of a truss mechanism becomes relevant, in general, for shear-span to depth ratios greater
than 2 while, for shear-span to depth ratios less than 2, a strut-and-tie or arch mechanism can be
considered to be the most relevant shear resisting mechanisms.

3.4. Shear modes of failure
Failure of RC beams due to shear is always preceded by the formation of cracks inclined to the main
axis of the beam. The formation of shear cracks changes the internal behaviour of the element and
failure can subsequently take place either simultaneously with the formation of new or extending shear
cracks or after an increase in the applied load. Kani investigated the variation in the strength of RC
beams without shear reinforcement over a wide range of different shear-span to depth ratios and
generalized the type of expected shear failure according to this ratio. By expressing the beam capacity
as the ratio of the moment in the flexural region at failure, M
c
, to the ultimate flexural capacity, M
f
, the
variation with the ratio a/d describes the so called shear valley (Figure 7).

The University of Sheffield
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering

6
Shear span to depth ratio (a/d)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
B
e
a
m

c
a
p
a
c
i
t
y

(
M
c
/
M
f
)
0.0
0.5
1.0
I
II III
IV

Figure 7: Representation of Kani's shear valley

According to the shear valley concept, failure can occur in four different modes. Type I is a flexural
type of failure and occurs in beams with a long shear span in which flexural capacity can be fully
developed. Type II is a brittle failure caused by the propagation of a diagonal crack toward the point of
loading, which initiates from the tip of a flexural crack, close to the support. In this case, the flexural
capacity of the element reduces with the ratio a/d. Type III also describes a brittle mode of failure,
which is characterized by a diagonal crack, normally initiating in the web, that forms independently of
the flexural cracks. When this type of failure occurs, the flexural capacity of the member increases
with the reduction in the ratio a/d. Type IV is characterized by the development of a diagonal crack
that propagates from the support toward the point-load. This type of situation is typically encountered
in deep beams and allows the flexural capacity to be fully developed. Typical shear failure
mechanisms are described in detail in the following paragraphs.

Type I
Type II
Type III
Type IV

Figure 8: Typical types of failure modes

3.4.1. Diagonal tension failure
Diagonal tension failure occurs typically in beams with a shear-span to depth ratio (a/d) greater than 2,
but could occur also for lower values of a/d. When this mechanism takes place a diagonal crack forms
as a continuation of an earlier flexural crack (1) and turns gradually into a crack more and more
inclined under the shear load (Figure 9). Such a crack does not proceed immediately to failure but
usually encounters resistance as it moves into the compression zone and stops (1). With a further
increase in the applied load, the tension crack extends gradually at a very flat slope until sudden
failure occurs when the shear crack breaks through the compressive zone. Shortly before reaching the

The University of Sheffield
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering

7
critical failure point (2), the tension crack extends backward beyond and below the head of the original
flexural crack (3). Usually, additional cracks develop at the level of the longitudinal reinforcement (4),
and the concrete cover subsequently splits.

3
1
1
2
4

Figure 9: Development of diagonal tension crack

3.4.2. Shear compression failure
The development of a diagonal crack such as that described in the previous section is often contained
by the presence of an externally applied load that induces compressive stresses in the nearby region
thus reducing the possibility of further tension cracking (Figure 10). In addition, the compressive
stresses over the reaction support reduce the chance of bond splitting and diagonal cracking along the
reinforcement. In such a case, failure of the structure will take place due to crushing of the concrete in
the region adjacent to the load. This type of failure has been designated as a shear-compression failure
because the failure zone carries most of the shear forces and the failure is caused by the combination
of shear and compressive stresses. Such a failure can be expected to occur for values of the shear-span
to depth ratio less than four, and for small shear-span to depth ratios (typically less than 2), the
increase in the shear strength may be significant.

Compression failure
Compression stress

Figure 10: Shear-compression failure

3.4.3. Anchorage failure
Occasionally, if the main reinforcement is not adequately anchored beyond the crack, small diagonal
cracks will cause the concrete to split along the reinforcing bars before compression failure can occur.
The beam here acts like a simple tie arch mechanism in which the external load is resisted by a
concrete arch passing above the crack and with a thrust line from the load towards the support. The
mechanism fails if the full anchorage of the longitudinal bars is not provided beyond the crack.

The University of Sheffield
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering

8

3.4.4. Splitting or true shear failure
Splitting failure can only occur in beams with a shear-span to depth ratio (a/d) less than one in which a
direct transfer of the load to the support takes place (Figure 11). Alternatively to splitting failure,
failure in compression of the region adjacent the support may take place. In such members, usually
referred to as deep beams, shear strength is much higher than in ordinary flexural beams.

Figure 11: Shear failure in beams with shear-span to depth ratio less than one

3.5. Local shear carrying mechanisms
When external loads act on a RC beam, a combination of internal mechanisms is mobilized in order to
transfer the applied load to the support (Figure 12). These local mechanisms are: shear transfer in the
compression zone, V
c
; aggregate interlock, V
a
; dowel action, V
d
, and, when provided, shear transfer via
vertical or inclined shear reinforcement, V
s
.

V
d
V
c
V
a
T
C

F
v
T
C
V
V
s

Figure 12: Shear resistance mechanisms in beams without shear reinforcement (left) and shear strength
contribution of vertical stirrups (right)

3.5.1. Shear transfer in the compression zone
Shear stresses can develop in the concrete compression zone as a result of the variation of the axial
force along the beam (Figure 13) as well as the variation of the compressive-force-path depth (Figure
14).
The presence of a shear force acting on the compression zone along with the axial force induces a
complex biaxial stress distribution through the compression zone and, as a consequence, the strain-
capacity of the concrete is affected. Studies revealed that the presence of a transverse tensile stress
affects the strain-capacity of the concrete which reduces as the tensile stress increases. As a
consequence, when a shear force develops within the compression zone, the strain capacity of the

The University of Sheffield
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering
SMR: Professor K. Pilakoutas

9
concrete in this region reduces and, hence, sections in the shear-span are more likely to fail before
those subjected to pure flexure.

c
+

c
neutral axis

c

Figure 13: Shear stresses due to the variation of axial forces along the beam

c
axial force
shear force
com
pressive force

Figure 14: Shear stresses distribution due to variation of the compressive-force-path depth

3.5.2. Aggregate interlock
In the tensile zone, shear transfer across a crack by mechanical interlock is developed when a shear
displacement parallel to the direction of the crack occurs (Figure 15).

Figure 15: Transmission of shear stresses across cracks due to aggregate interlock

3.5.3. Dowel action of reinforcement
The term dowel action refers to the combination of the tensile resistance of the concrete along the
splitting plane and the bending resistance of the reinforcement bar. Dowel strength across a shear
plane can be developed by three mechanisms: the flexure of the reinforcing bars, the shear strength
across the bars and kinking of the reinforcement (Figure 16). As studies have shown, dowel action is a
shear carrying action that is of relatively minor importance in comparison to other shear transfer
mechanisms.

The University of Sheffield
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering

10
V
M
M
V
V
V
V
V
flexure of the bar shear strength of the bar kinking of the bar

Figure 16: The mechanism of dowel action across a shear interface

3.5.4. Contribution of shear reinforcement
Tensile stresses are carried across shear cracks by inclined or, most commonly, by vertical
reinforcement in the form of closed links, bent up bars or spiral reinforcement. Prior to cracking,
however, stirrups carry essentially no stress, possibly only a little compression due to vertical
shrinkage of the concrete. When cracking occurs, the transverse reinforcement goes into tension as it is
crossed by the diagonal crack and this tension controls and limits the progress of the crack, delaying
the failure of the beam until higher loads are imposed.

3.6. Truss analogy
This theory idealises a RC beam as a truss comprising parallel longitudinal chords and a web
composed of diagonal concrete struts and transverse steel ties. When shear is applied to this truss,
compression forces are resisted by the concrete struts, while tension is resisted in the transverse ties
and in the longitudinal chords (Figure 17). In members without transverse reinforcement, shear can
only be resisted by the concrete across the ties and consequently, shear resistance is lost when the first
cracks in the concrete start to appear. If transverse reinforcement is provided, the member reaches its
ultimate shear capacity when the links start to yield. The forces developed in each element can be
easily determined by static analysis.

Beam cross-section
L
C V
b
d

Figure 17: Truss analogy
3.6.1. Shear reinforcement contribution
Figure 18b shows a free body cut by section A-A parallel to the diagonal compressive struts. In this
section the shear force that is resisted by tension in the stirrups (V
s
) is given by Eq. (9).

s s sw yw
V n A f = (9)

Where: n
s
= numbers of shear links intersected by A-A
A
sw
= cross-section area of shear links
f
yw
= yield strength of shear reinforcement

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Department of Civil & Structural Engineering

11
The numbers of bars intersected by A-A can be easily calculated from the analysis of Figure 18c and is
given in Eq.(10).

1
cot
= =
s
v v
s z
n
s s
(10)

Substituting Eq. (10) into Eq. (9)

cot
s sw yw
v
z
V A f
s

= (11)
Considering the case of = 45 and assuming that z d, the equation can be written as

s sw yw
v
d
V A f
s
= (12)

Beam cross-section
V
s
A
A
V
A
A
T
C
A

s
v
s
v
A
z

s
1
b
d
(b)
(a)
(c)

Figure 18: Truss analogy: shear reinforcement contribution

3.6.2. Stress in the concrete
Considering now the vertical section B-B in Figure 19, the force V acting on the section is resisted by
an inclined compressive force D, where

sin
=
V
D (13)

The width of the diagonal concrete strut is zcos and the average compressive stress f
cd
is equal to

1
tan
sin cos tan

= = +

cd
V V
f
bz bz
(14)

The University of Sheffield
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering

12

A limit for this stress should be imposed to avoid crushing of the concrete struts. A reasonable limit
depends on the angle but will range between 0.25f
cu
and 0.45f
cu
.

Beam cross-section
V
B
B
V
D

s
v

b
d
(b)
(a)
(c)
B
B
z cos
D
f
cd
N
N/2
N/2

Figure 19: Truss analogy: stress in the concrete

In order to improve the accuracy of this model, especially when dealing with beams without web
reinforcement, it became accepted design practice to introduce an empirical term, commonly referred
to as the concrete contribution, along with the shear resistance calculated according to the truss
equation. This concrete contribution, which formulation may differ in the various codes of practice,
takes into account, in an empirical way, the contribution to the total shear resistance provided by other
shear carrying action such as in compression, aggregate interlock and dowel of the flexural
reinforcement. In addition, in order to prevent the concrete struts from crushing, limits have to be
imposed to the maximum value that the design concrete shear stress can assume and are usually
expressed as a function of the design concrete strength.
The simplicity of the model and its ability to yield an adequate level of safety has meant that the truss
analogy still forms the basis of particular aspects of design codes in practice today, such as the
equations that are used to derive the required amount of transverse reinforcement.
CIV 6235 - Advanced Concrete Design
Department of Civil and Structural
Engineering 1
CIV 6235
Shear Design of RC Beams
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 1
CIV 6235
Aim:
To examine shear in RC beams and learn how to design RC beams
to sustain shear forces
Overview of the lecture
Shear Design of RC Beams
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 2
Introduction
Shear behaviour of RC beams
Uncracked and cracked beams
Shear resisting mechanisms & shear carrying mechanisms
Shear Failures
Shear: Theory and Design
Truss analogy & Design codes
CIV 6235
Bending Moment and Shear Force
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 3
Shear force is the force in an element acting perpendicular to
its longitudinal axis.
CIV 6235 - Advanced Concrete Design
Department of Civil and Structural
Engineering 2
CIV 6235
Flexural or Shear Failure?
We design beams to fail
How come? Dont we want beams not to fail?
Any beam will fail under increasing load. However, we
want beams to fail exactly under the design load in a
fully controlled manner by achieving the most
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 4
fully controlled manner by achieving the most
wanted failure mode.
CIV 6235
Is Shear Failure
t d?
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 8
wanted?
CIV 6235
1
3
Rd,c
200
.(6.2) : V 0.12 1 100
sl
ck w
w
A
Eq f b d
d b d
(
| || |
(
= +
| |
|
(
\ . \ .

1) Members not requiring shear
reinforcement
Shear Code Equations: EC2
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 9
( )
,
.(6.8) : cot cot sin
sw
Rd s ywd
A
Eq V zf
s
= +
2) Members requiring shear reinforcement
CIV 6235 - Advanced Concrete Design
Department of Civil and Structural
Engineering 3
CIV 6235
Un-cracked RC Beams
In regions uncracked in bending the shear stress distribution is
derived as follows:
V S
I b
M y

## Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 10

M y
I

=
3
2
V
bh
CIV 6235
Un-cracked RC Beams
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 11
CIV 6235
Un-cracked RC Beams
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 12
CIV 6235 - Advanced Concrete Design
Department of Civil and Structural
Engineering 4
CIV 6235
Cracked RC Beams
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 13
CIV 6235
Basic Shear Transfer Mechanisms
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 14
CIV 6235
Basic Shear Transfer Mechanisms
strut strut
i
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 15
tie
Strut and Tie Mechanism
CIV 6235 - Advanced Concrete Design
Department of Civil and Structural
Engineering 5
CIV 6235
Basic Shear Transfer Mechanisms
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 16
Arch Mechanism
CIV 6235
Basic Shear Transfer Mechanisms
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 17
Truss Mechanism
F
t
CIV 6235
Types of Failures
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 18
CIV 6235 - Advanced Concrete Design
Department of Civil and Structural
Engineering 6
CIV 6235
Shear Failures
1
1
2
4
Diagonal Tension Failure
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 19
3
CIV 6235
Shear Failures
Compression Failure
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 20
CIV 6235
Shear Failures
Splitting / True Shear
Failure
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 21
CIV 6235 - Advanced Concrete Design
Department of Civil and Structural
Engineering 7
CIV 6235
Beams with shear reinforcement
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 22
CIV 6235
Truss analogy
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 23
CIV 6235
Truss analogy
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 24
CIV 6235 - Advanced Concrete Design
Department of Civil and Structural
Engineering 8
CIV 6235
Beams without shear r/ment
V
d
V
c
V
a
T
C
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 25
V
M
M
V
V
V
flexure of the bar shear strength of the bar
V
a
= Aggregate interlock V
d
= Dowel action
V
c
= Concrete in compression
CIV 6235
ULS of shear Design equations
Shear resistance - V
Rd
Beam with no shear reinforcement
Shear reinforcement
EC2 i t l d
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 26
EC2 compares internal and
external shear forces to assess if
shear reinforcement is required
EC2 identifies four basic shear
forces for design purposes:
V
Ed
, V
Rd,c
, V
Rd,s
and V
Rd,max
CIV 6235
What are VEd, VRd,c , VRd,s and VRdmax?
V
Ed
Is the applied shear force i.e. the design shear force resulting from external
V
Rd,c
Is the shear resistance of a member without shear reinforcement
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 27
V
Rd,s
Is the shear resistance of a member governed by the yielding of shear
reinforcement
V
Rd,max
Is the maximum shear resistance of a member limited by the crushing of
compression struts
CIV 6235 - Advanced Concrete Design
Department of Civil and Structural
Engineering 9
CIV 6235
No shear reinforcement
is necessary (minimum)
1) V
Ed
V
Rd,c
w
V
Rd,c
2) V
Rd,c
< V
Ed
< V
Rd,max
V
Rd,max
V
Rd c
BASICS
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 28
Shear reinforcement
should be provided in
order that V
Ed
V
Rd
V
Rd,c
Not allowed
3) V
Ed
> V
Rd,max
V
Rd,max
CIV 6235
1) Members not requiring shear
reinforcement
( )
1
3
Rd,c , 1 1
Rd,c min 1
Eq. (6.2.a): V 100
with a minimum of V ( )
where
200
k 1 2.0, with in mm (size factor)
d
Rd c ck cp w
cp w
C k f k b d
v k b d
d

(
= +
(

= +
= +
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 29
1
, and must not be greater than 2%
, where
is
sl
w
Ed
cp
c
Ed
A
b d
N
A
N

=
=
is the cross-sectional area of concrete
is the smallest width of the cross section in the tensile area (see figure)
is the effe
Ed
c
w
N
A
b
d
>
ctive depth of the cross section
CIV 6235
1
3
Rd,c
3/ 2
1/ 2
200
V 0.12 1 100
with a minimum of
200
V 0 035 1
sl
ck w
w
A
f b d
d b d
b d f b d
(
| || |
(
= +
| |
|
(
\ . \ .

| |
+
|
1) Members not requiring shear
reinforcement
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 30
1/ 2
Rd,c min
V 0.035 1
w ck w
v b d f b d
d
= = +
|
|
\ .
Rd,c
= 0.18/
c
= 0.12
CIV 6235 - Advanced Concrete Design
Department of Civil and Structural
Engineering 10
CIV 6235
2) Members requiring shear reinforcement
Variable angle truss analogy
with strut inclination 1 < cot < 2.5
21.8 < < 45
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 31
The shear resistance, V
Rd
is the smaller of V
Rd,s
and V
Rd,max
CIV 6235
Variable angle truss analogy
with strut inclination 1 < cot < 2.5
21.8 < < 45
2) Members requiring shear reinforcement
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 32
CIV 6235
( ) (6 8) : cot cot sin
sw
A
Eq V zf = +
Variable angle truss analogy
with strut inclination 1 < cot < 2.5
21.8 < < 45
2) Members requiring shear reinforcement
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 33
( )
,
.(6.8) : cot cot sin
where:
is the cross-sectional area of the shear reinforcement
is the spacing of the shear reinforcement
is the design yield strength of the shear rei
Rd s ywd
sw
ywd
Eq V zf
s
A
s
f
= +
nforcement
CIV 6235 - Advanced Concrete Design
Department of Civil and Structural
Engineering 11
CIV 6235
( )
,
.( 6.8 ) : cot cot sin
sw
Rd s ywd
A
Eq V zf
s
V
= +
2) Members requiring shear reinforcement
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 34
( )
( )

cot cot sin
cot cot sin

Ed
sw
ywd
sw ywd
Ed
V
A s
zf
A zf
s
V

+
+

CIV 6235
1
,max
.(6.9) :
t t
cw w cd
Rd
b z f
Eq V

=
+
The upper value of shear force is determined by
web crushing: V
Ed
< V
Rd,max
2) Members requiring shear reinforcement
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 35
,
1
cot tan
where:
is a strength reduction factor for concrete cracked in shear
is a coefficient that accounts for the state of stress in the
compression chor
cw

+
d (=1 for non-prestressed structures)
CIV 6235
i
0.124 1
ck
Rd k
f
V b d f
| |
=
|
The upper value of shear force is determined by
web crushing: V
Ed
< V
Rd,max
= 21 8
2) Members requiring shear reinforcement
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 36
,min
,max
,min ,max
0.124 1
250
0.18 1
250
0.69
Rd w ck
ck
Rd w ck
Rd Rd
V b d f
f
V b d f
V V
|
\ .
| |
=
|
\ .
=
21.8
= 45
CIV 6235 - Advanced Concrete Design
Department of Civil and Structural
Engineering 12
CIV 6235
The angle of the inclined concrete struts can be
determined as follow:
2) Members requiring shear reinforcement
If V
Ed
V
Rd,max(21.8)
= 21.8 , cot = 2.5
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 37
, ( )
If V
Ed
> V
Rd,max(45)
section should be resized
V
Rd,max(21.8)
< V
Ed
V
Rd,max(45)
= 0.5 sin
-1
[(V
Ed
/(0.2b
w
zf
ck
(1-f
ck
/250))]
CIV 6235
a
For loads applied within a distance 0.5d a
v
2d from the
edge of the support the contribution of this load to the shear
force V
Ed
may be derived according to the following:
2) Members requiring shear reinforcement
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 38
Ed
V
2
v
a
V
d
=
Ed
V sin
sw ywd
A f
CIV 6235
Rd
V
w
d
I b
f

=
In regions uncracked in bending the shear resistance should be
limited by the tensile strength of the concrete (f
ctd
)
1) Members not requiring shear
reinforcement
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 39
Rd,c
V
where
is the second moment of area
is the first moment of area about the centroidal axis
ctd
f
S
I
S
CIV 6235 - Advanced Concrete Design
Department of Civil and Structural
Engineering 13
CIV 6235
a
For loads applied within a distance 0.5d a
v
2d from the
edge of the support the contribution of this load to the shear
force V
Ed
may be derived according to the following:
1) Members not requiring shear
reinforcement
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 40
Ed
V
2
v
a
V
d
=
CIV 6235
Detailing: Shear Reinforcement
The ratio of shear reinforcement is given by Eq (9.4):
( )
w w,min
0.08
and
sin
ck
sw
w yk
f
A
s b f

= =

The maximum longitudinal spacing between shear links should
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 41
The maximum longitudinal spacing between shear links should
not exceed:
( )
l,max
0.75 1 cot s d = +
CIV 6235
Detailing: Flexural Reinforcement
The longitudinal tension reinforcement should be able to resist
the additional tension force caused by shear, Eq (6.18):
( )
td
0.5 cot cot
Ed
F V =
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 42
CIV 6235 - Advanced Concrete Design
Department of Civil and Structural
Engineering 14
CIV 6235
Determine V
Ed
- V
Rd,c
V
Rd,max(45)
Required shear resistance should be calculated at a distance d from the face of the support
Is
V
Ed
< V
Rd,max(45)
Redesign Section
Shear Design
NO
YES
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 43
Is
V
Ed
< V
Rd,c
No/minimum
shear r.ment
Is
V
Ed
< V
Rd,max(21.8)
Calculate area of shear r.ment
A
sw
= V
Ed
s/(zf
ywd
cot)
=0.5 sin
-1
[(V
Ed
/(0.2b
w
zf
ck
(1-f
ck
/250))]
Check maximum spacing for shear reinforcement s
max
=0.75d
=21.8 YES
NO NO
YES
CIV 6235
Revision guidelines
Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures Part 1-1: General
rules and rules for buildings (EN 1992-1-1:2004)
Section 6.2 Shear
Section 9.2.2 Shear reinforcement
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Slide No. 44