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APPLICATIONS

MANUAL

AM8:1992

PRIVATE AND STANDBY GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY

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PRIVATE AND STANDBY GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY


AM8:1992

The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers Delta House, 222 Balham High Road, LondonSW129BS

The rights of publication or of translation of this publication may be reproduced,

are reserved. No part stored in a retrieval

system or transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior permission of the institution.

G 1992 THECHARTERED INSTITUTION OF BUILDINGSERVICES ENGINEERS LONDON ISBN0900953551

Printedin Great Britainby UnwinBrothers Ltd,The GreshomPress, ld Woking,Surrey,GU22 9LH O

Foreword
ThkApplicatiotu Manual k intended to give guidance on the design processes and principles which should be followed to provide private or standby generation of electricity. Details of appropriate commissioning and maintenance procedures are ako irmhtded. The intention of this document is to provide engineers with guidance that reflects good current UK practice but it cannot be regarded as a panacea. In view of the changing situation with regard to the former public supply authorities, it is expected that it will become necessary to review and/or amplifi some of the information contained herein. The CIBSE gratefully acknowledges the contributions made by many members and co-opted non-members, particularly the late John Vollborth, in the preparation of this document. R C Gmnings Task Group Chairman

Private and Standby Generation of ElectricityTask Group


R C Cunnings (Chairman) R M Bennett P W Edrnunds F Barrington R B Tremlett B RT Waddell R A Wheadon A R Wilkes B R Walker

Publications Secretary
K J Butcher

Editor
R E Yarham

The Institution gratefully acknowledges the help of the following organisations in the preparation of this document: Alcad Ltd, Andrew Wilkes Management, Association of British Generating Set Manufacturers, Aukett Ltd, Building Design Partnership, Chloride Ltd, Donald Smith Seymour and Rooley, Oscar Faber and PartnersPLC, Haden Young Ltd, Hoare Lea and Partners, James H Pull Partnership, Petbow Ltd, Rex Justham and Associates, Tremlett Consulting Electrical Engineers, Sound Research Laboratories Ltd. Cover photographs: The Institution gratefully acknowledges Puma Power Plant, Ash, Kent, for permission to reproduce photographs of private and standby generator installations.

Contents
Page

1 1.1
1.2 1.3

Use and applications

1 1 1

Reasons for private and standby generation


Uses of private and standby generation Types of prime mover Power output Generator size related to load

4 6 6 8

1.4 1.5 1.6 2 2.1 2.2 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.? 4.10 5 5.1 5,2 5.3 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 7

Choice of high or low voltage systems

Mode of opemtion
Individual generator systems systems

10
10 10

Parallel operating

generator

Specification requirements
Prime movers Starting methods Batteries Battery chargers Alternators Control Operator controls, instrumentation and alarms

11 11
12 12 13 14 16 18

Installation requirements
Space requirements Fuel systems Exhaust systems Air requirements Noise and noise attenuation Flexible connections Earthing Electrical distribution system Power factor correction of generator Fire prevention, loads and room layout

20
20 21 23 24 24 27 28 29 31 31 33 33 33 35 37 37 instructions 37 37 37

detection and extinguishing

Testing and commissioning


Introduction Works testing Site testing and commissioning

Operation and maintenance


User training Operating and maintenance

Special tools Spare parts Maintenance contract

37 38 40

Periodic maintenance

References

Appendices Al
All Al .2 A2 A3 A3.1 A3.2 A3.3 A3.4 A3.5

Availability of wind power


General Bibliography

42 42 42

Acoustics-commonly

used technical terms and units

43 45 45 46 46 46 46

Operation with loads corrected for power factor


Alternator field excitation Limitation due to field heating Maximum power output

Effect of sudden loss of load Parallel operation with authority supply

Private and standby generation of electricity

Use and applications

the former, private generation is employed to meet the base load. Typically, base load generating plant is used to meet all the electrical demands of a particular site continuously. Therefore, some inherent spare plant capacity must be incorporated to allow for breakdowns, routine maintenance and occasional peak loads. In some special circumstances, generating plant is used for peak-lopping to reduce the maximum demand on a site. The primary source of supply maybe either privately generated or provided by the supply authority but, in both cases, sets are operated only when required to meet peak loads. Uninterruptible power supplies (uPs) and no-break sets provide continuity of supply for loads which require an unbroken power supply at all times. A UPSmaintains continuous power by using the energy stored in integral batteries when the normal supply fluctuates or fails. The capacity of the batteries is chosen to suit the time for which interruptions to the normal supply may be tolerated. This time is often referred to as the battery autonomy time. No-break sets employ a motor/alternator powered by the normal supply coupled, via a clutch, to an engine on the same shaft, The rotating mass provides an energy source to cover supply fluctuations and, in the case of failure of the supply, to start the engine. For the temporary provision mobile sets are available.
1.2,1 Standby generation

1.1

Reasons for private and standby generation

There are clear reasons for considering the provision of private or standby generation of electricity: standby generation is required if the particular application demands an alternative source of supply during any failure or disruption of the public supply private generation provides a total independence from the public supply. Computers, communications and similar equipment can require high-grade no-break power supplies, whereas heating and air conditioning or similar equipment will accept relatively coarse supplies and also a break before switching to a standby supply. Unless specifications dictate a high-grade type of standby with very fine voltage and frequency limit control, it is usual to employ standard-build, competitively priced, but nevertheless reliable, types of generation equipment. Private generation may be viable in the situation of a known local load and, if the finance is available, in providing multiple sets with inherent standby. This is preferred in order to allow for breakdowns and essential maintenance. In this situation it may be feasible to use the rejected heat by means of a combined heat and power system (CHP). This may lower the effective unit cost to an attractive level as long as the additional expenditure on plant and equipment has been included. The justification for standby generation may be based upon one or more of the following reasons:
safety: where loss of supply could be a danger to life or

of electricity

generation,

The range of standby generating plant extends from simple sets with manual controls to complex systems with automatic operation in parallel with other sets and/or with the mains supply. Specialist systems are available that allow no-break operation from failure of the primary supply to provision of the standby supply. As part of the design process for standby generating plant, it is necessary to select those loads which should receive standby power. This will enable a proper judgement to be made of the type and size of load to be supported by the proposed set. Normally, the rating of the set should be larger than the connected load for a number of reasons. These are discussed insection 1.5. The following checklist will assist in selecting the loads which need to be supported. These loads should be assessed bearing in mind each of the following questions. 1

health; this could be a critical industrial process, pumping applications, ventilation or life safety systems
.

security: for essential communications, operational requirements

defence or

economy: to maintain commercial communications for airlines~shops, hotels, offices and warehouses etc.

1.2

Uses of private and standby generation

Generating sets may be used to provi& the primary source of electricity at a particular location as an alternative to that provided by the supply authority (i.e. private generation) or, alternatively, as a standby supply in the event of failure of the primary source (i.e. standby generation). Ln the case of

CIBSE APPLICATIONS MANUAL Is the supply required to: (a) allow safe evacuation? (~) enable restricted operation of a service? (c) maintain continued operation of a service? (d) enable continued occupation of the premises? The following checklist is not exhaustive and does not imply an order of priority.
.

security of supply: need for electrical supply to be independent of industrial action and/or failure of public supply voltage and/or frequency deviations: need to maintain supply voltage and/or frequency within strict limits to avoid damage or malfunction of equipment such as computers; supply authority unable to maintain supply voltage and/or frequency within acceptable tolerances idle standby plant: where a high proportion of standby power is required it is usually uneconomic to have this plant idle for most of its life waste heat recoverv: where there is a large electrical demand and a good-load factor, together with a use for waste heat, a combined heat and power system (cHP) may be advantageous.

Fire fighting lifls; fire service pumps; smoke extraction plant; pressurisation fans for smoke lobbies/staircases; generator services (including pumps and lighting) air conditioning for personnel; air conditioning for equipment; heating for personnel; heating for protection of equipment from frost or condensation damage mechanical ventilation for personnel; mechanical ventilation for equipment; toilet ventilation; kitchen ventilation; restaurant ventilation voice communications equipment; data communications equipment; mainframe computers and peripherals; mainframe computer remote terminals; stand-alone and personal computers; control systems for plant; security system internal lighting (with and without daylight); external lighting; passenger lifts; goods lifts; photocopying machines; facsimile machines; cash registers; vending machines; cash dispensers sewage pumps; drainage/sump pumps; water heaters; process equipment; kitchen equipment (including refrigerators and freezers); trafllc lights; trafiic barriers uninterruptible power supplies; halon extraction plant.

1.2.2.2 Combined heat and power (ctIP) systems With abase load generation system the cost of electricity can be somewhat higher than that of a grid supply. However, the extra thermal energy recoverable from the plant can result in large energy and running cost savings related to electricity obtained fkom the grid. The amount of usefitl energy that can be obtained from fhel used on a CHPsystem depends largely on the following, and varies for every project. Power-to-heat/absorption cooling demand ratio type of generator prime mover used i.e. reciprocating engine or turbine suitable local application for the recovered heat stilcient electrical demand to enable plant to operate at its most efficient plant loading. Table 1 shows the approximate thermal efilciencies which may be obtained from a range of generator sets where conditions for heat recovery and the use of the electricity generated and heat recovered are the optimum. From gas turbines the heat recovered is entirely from the exhaust at temperamres around 500 C. From diesel engines the exhaust heat recovered can beat temperatures around 500C, but the heat recovered from water and lubricating oil jackets is at a temperature of only about 80C and that from the intercooler at about 40 C. The temperature of the heat

1.2.2

Base load generation

7.2.2.1 Conditions for base load generation

Base load generation would be considered for one or more of the following reasons: Availability of supply: public supply unavailable locally and too costly to have installed
generation plant

o atoutgoingterminals ndflanges a of Table 1 Grosspercentage f energyrecoverable

Engine
size(MVT)

Grosspercentage f energyrecoverable o fhm stated sywtn (%)


Electrical Exhaust Water Lubriea- Intercwler jacket~ Ting oil jacket

Reeipro- Turbine Recipro- Turbine caring eating

0.5 1.0 2.0 4.0 20.0

37 38 40 40

17 20 24 28 36

19 19 19 19

58 56 54 52

10 10 10 10

3 4 4 4

7 8 8 s

46

~ Reciprocating engines only

PRIVATE ANDSTANDBY ENERATION G OFELECTRICITY from exhausts is suitable for steam production, absorption chillers and hot water systems whilst the temperature of the heat from intercoolers, lubricating oil and water jackets is more suitable for general air heating applications. The percentage recoverable energy from gas and dual fiel engines is similar to that from diesels but the temperature of the recovered heat will vary depending on the type of fuel used. Steam turbine generators are often used for large generation schemes and here the recoverable heat can be made available for district heating schemes and the like at an economical energy cost. 1.2.2.3 Factors influencing provision of base load
generation The

G59(1J,HSE Guidance Note PM 53(2)and supply authority requirements. Short-duration operation in parallel with the supply, allowing a no-break changeover for test purposes, can usually be negotiated with the supply authority. Speeial tariffs are usual in these cases and need careful study to determine the optimum economy ofa service/standby capacity ratio. With the grid supply mnning permanently in parallel with private generation the security of the customers supply is increased considerably and this could perhaps reduce the number of staff required to operate the system, thus reducing costs. Whether the grid supply is used as a standby or is run in parallel with private generation, there is usually an appreciable charge levied by the supply authorities for the use, or possible use, of a large capacity of their supply at some time during their tariff period. 1.2.2.5 Exporting electricity Where capacity sometimes exceeds demand, consideration should be given to exporting surplus electricity either to the grid or direct to other consumers. Similar considerations to those given in section 2.2 for parallel operation are necessary, but added protective devices will be required and different tariff arrangements will apply. Where electricity is exported to other consumers, security of supply is essential and every aspect of both the engineering and economics of such arrangements must be considered very earefidly.
1.2.3 Peak-lopping sets

following factors should be considered when planning a base load genemtion scheme: high capital cost of equipment; however, if energy costs continue to rise at a much greater rate than equipment costs the payback period reduces accordingly; this is especially true for cHP systems additional plant space required for generator sets, heat recovery boilers, switchgear, controls, mechanical services, fuel tanks etc. noise can usually be reduced to acceptable levels but some additional costs must be considered air pollution from generator exhausts: this can be overcome by discharging exhausts above roof level but, if there are taller buildings adjacent, some form of fume cleaning equipment may be required incurring additional costs high standards of maintenance are essential, adding to the running costs although most systems can run automatically, competent staff will be required to monitor the operation of the system; this usually involves additional running costs over those for a grid-fed system base load generation sets should be run at or near to full load capa~ity for maximum efficiency; diesel engines should always be run at SO%load or greater to minimise problems of carbonisation; gas reciprocating engines are erratic and difficult to control when lightly loaded.

Peak-lopping generating plant is often an economical proposition in situations where an abnormally high load occurs at certain known times of the day, or for specific plantlprocess fi.tnctions. Such plant may also be designed to act as standby in the event of mains failure. With supply authority tariffs commonly based on the maximum demand, the charge can be contained by using private peak-lopping generating sets to share this abnormal load. It is usual for standby duty generating plant to be interlocked with the normal mains supply to prevent parallel operation. For peak-lopping applications, however, it is common to have parallel-running and in such cases the control unit must accommodate this facility, in addition to those for a standard standby set. When peak-lopping sets are used in parallel operation with a mains system, their capacity must satis~ continuous duty conditions. In addition, the agreement of the supply authority must be obtained and its requirements observed. Such discussions should take place at an early stage of the design consideration. Peak-lopping generating plant can also be used to run essential plant that cannot tolerate power supply interruptions during certain operations. In these situations the mains supply to such essential plant is commonly retained 3

1.2.2.4 Connections with supply authority With most base load systems it is generally advisable to have grid connections brought into a building ready for connection in the event of either generation failure or industrial action concerning generator fuel supplies or spares, for instance. Usually, supply authorities prefer private generation to run separately from the grid supply rather than run in parallel. However, many cases exist of parallel installations run with the consent of the supply authority and such situations are becoming more widespread with the changing attitudes following privatisation. Careful consideration must be given to the electrical system fault levels and the necessary protective and interlocking devices. Reference should be made to Electricity Council Engineenng Recommendation

CIBSE APPLICATIONS MANUAL as standby, a charge being levied by the supply authority depending upon the capacity of the mains supply being required to remain available. In addition to the above general considerations, it is important that the use ofpeak-lopping sets is not chosen without awareness of other potential problem areas. Such areas include: tariff penal~ies if the generating set fails and supplies must be obtained solely from the supply authority the protection requirements imposed by the supply authority, including earthing and synchronisation the need for competent staff to operate and/or monitor the generating plant for optimum performance . possibility of higher fault levels.
Uninterruptible power supplies

control and protection equipment; this must be separately considered. Larger mobile sets, such as trailer-mounted units, can commonly be obtained with ratings up to 1 MW. Exceptionally high output sets, normally of the gas turbine type, are available with ratings up to 3 MW. These very large sets are often made into mobile units by mounting them on to a separate towing trailer for transportation purposes and are commonly employed on construction sites. Trailers for use on the public highway must comply with the relevant legislation. Starting of mobile sets is usually by hand cranking for ~he smaller units and electric hand start for the larger trailer mounted sets. Large mobile sets are not always assembled with the control and protection equipment fitted as an integral part of the unit. With such separate items, particular care is needed when resiting the mobile set to ensure proper safety requirements are met. Since mobile sets are used in non-permanent locations, often on open sites, it is important to consider noise emission from the unit. Some environments will require more stringent control of noise than others. Refer to section 4.5 for further guidance. See section 4.7 for earthing arrangements for mobile sets.

1.2.4

Rotary or static equipment is available to isolate the critical load from flucmations and failures of the elecuicity supply. The electrical starting and running characteristics of this equipment can be onerous when supplied by generating sets. Particular care is required when specifying the duty for these sets. 1.2.!5
No-break generating sets

No-break sets generally comprise a large flywheel rotating with the elecrnc generator and a clutch isolating the engine. The flywheel is kept rotating by an electric motor when the mains supply is available. On failure of mains supply the engine is automatically started by engagement of the clutch. Only a small transient reduction to frequency results due to the large inertia of the flywheel. Alternatively, an electromagnetic clutch and patented winding/control arrangement can be utilised to maintain frequency during engine starting. It is a more expensive system than a linked UPSand generator arrangement.
1.2.6 Mobile generating sets

1.3
1.3.1

Types of prime mover


GeneraI

The prime mover is the principal source of power or the initial source of motive power which drives the alternator shaft. Prime movers for private and standby generation include:

reciprocating internal combustion engines gas turbines wind generators steam turbines water turbines reciprocating steam engines water wheels.

Mobile generating sets are built on their own chassis and are useful where the sets could be required at various locations, either within buildings or outside, on sites remote from a suitable mains supply and for breakdowns, maintenance, or construction purposes, The type of mounting assembly will depend on the anticipated extent of mobilit y and location. Any of the following maybe suitable, depending on the application: hand-portable units hand trolley units trailer-mounted skid-base units lorry or low-loader transportable units. The hand-portable range of mobile sets usually have ratings of less than 10 kW and, particularly the smaller sets, normally employ single cylinder petrol engines rather than diesel. Such small units are often provided with little, if any, 4 units

The selection of the type of prime mover and the fuel to be used depend on the following:

capital and running costs reliabilityy, ease of maintenance and availability of parts and service storage and availability of fuel size of generating set and associated plant performance (including control, governing, load acceptance and fuel consumption) environmental visual impact). aspects (e.g. fumes, noise, vibration,

PRIVATE ANDSTANDBYGENEMTtON OF ELECTRICITY 1.3.2


Reciprocating internal combustion engines

Reciprocating internal combustion engines are available for use with various fitels: e.g. petrol, diesel and gas. The most commonly used for standby generation is the diesel engine. Gas engines are normally used for base load plant. 1.3.2.1 Diesel engines Where diesel engines are employed as prime movers it is manufacturers normal practice to use engines with turbo-chargers and charge-air coolers to obtain maximum power output from the engines at minimum capital cost. Due to the infrequent running of standby sets, their running hours are usually low and, provided they are checked regularly in accordance with good maintenance procedures, the actual maintenance requirements will be low. This means that units running at 1500 rev/rein are quite satisfactory and commonly used and, for smaller sets, even higher speeds are acceptable. The starting time for diesel generators of up to about 1 MW is approximately 10 seconds from commencement of cranking to rated speed. Typically, a further 5 seconds should be allowed for full load acceptance. It is not normal for a 100% step load to be applied to the generator. The acceptable maximum load step depends upon the type of engine and should be agreed with the manufictttrer. 1.3.3 Gas turbines

The sizes of wind power generation systems which are physically possible, range from an electrical output of a few watts to ihe multi-megawatt generators used for peakloppil,g and supplying large distribution systems. Table 2 gives rotor diameters for given output at various wind speeds. The basis of this table is given in Appendix A 1. Figure 1 shows the approximate wind speeds likely to occur in the UK.

1.3.4.2 Siting of wind generators The output power is proportional to the cube of the windspeed, therefore a much greater output is available for a small increase in windspeed. Thus the siting of the wind generator is very important, both in terms of location and height above ground. Consideration must also be given to its proximity to obstructions and the size of the generating machine if mounted on the same axis as the rotor.
Table 2 Rotor diameterfor given outputatvarious wind speeds (2-bladed rotor) Rotordiameterm) forgivenwindapeed ( (m/s) Estimated output power 10 12 14 (kW) 4 68 0.5 5.9 S.3 18.5 26.2 37.0 S8.6 3.2 4.5 10.1 14.3 20.2 31.9 2.1 2.9 6.5 9.3 13<1 20.7 1.5 2.1 4.7 6.6 9.4 14.8 1.1 1.6 3.6 5.0 7.1 11.3 0.9 1,3 2.8 4.0 5.7 8.9

1.0
5.0 10.0 20.0 50.0

Gasturbine driven generators are not normally considered

for loads of much less than 500 kW. Starting times are longer than for diesel engines, typically 45-60 seconds, but rated full load can normally be applied when the turbine is up to speed with very little frequency deviation. It is normally better to use a single shaft turbine for standby generators which may suffer large load changes as the speed regulation will be very close. On large turbine generators where sudden load applications can be limited to less than 25% of the turbine rating, two-shaft turbines are suitable.
1.3.4 Wind machines 1.3.4.? General

The subject of wind machine design and application is complex, involving aerodynamics, mechanics and geography in addition to electrical engineering. The following notes are intended to provide a brief outline of the factors affecting the choice of wind as a source of power. It is recommended that the design of wind power installations should be undertaken by specialists. As a source of power, wind can be used in most countries in addition to isolated places. It is free, virtually inexhaustible and does not require to be transported to the power plant. However, its main disadvantage is that it cannot be relied upon to provide a constant source of power.
\

65

Figure 1 Annualmeanwind speeds(m/s)over theUK (Note: speeds measuredt10mheight(0.514 a tn/s= 1knot);forexposed locations hlgb sod ground addl&409@forsheltered locations subtract 0-50%) 1

CIBSEAPPLICATIONS MANUAL

Information regarding areas with suitable wind patterns can be obtained from local weather stations, airports or the British Wind Energy Association. For a particular site, the wind speed should be recorded over a period of time, The anemometer should be mounted at the proposed height of the rotor because the wind speed is often 50% higher at a height of only 6 m above ground level. Elevated locations, such as a small hill, are advantageous. Sites close to buildings and other obstructions should be avoided to enable the rotor to react to winds coming from every direction. If the generator is to be mounted on top of a building, consideration must be given to the aerodynamic effects of the supporting building. However, buildings often cause high wind speeds due to the venturi effect and, provided the effect is uniform in all directions, such sites can be beneficial.

whether continuous duty or short time operation load characteristics with particular reference to low order power factors, the extent of transient changes of load, and the harmonic content of the load.

Typical values for the above parameters for a standard set are as follows: maximum ambient temperature 40C maximum altitude 1000 m harmonic content not greater than 10%power factor 0.8 lagging. Detailed information on these parameters is contained in BS 4999@) and BS 50064). Refer also to sections 3.1.2 and 3.5.5 of this Applications Manttal for de-rating factors corresponding to other speeific conditions. The details for the particular alternator are listed on the rating plate which ensures the existence of a permanent record of the operating parameters for the alternator. These details include:

1.4

Power output

The declared power output of a reciprocating engine is that power which is capable of producing continuously between normal maintenance intervals as stated by the manufacturer. It is customary to require an overload of 10% of the continuous power for one hour in any 12-hour period. This overload capability, however, cannot be assumed and must be checked with the generator manufacturer for each application. The term standby rating is not recognised by current British Standards and, if used by a manufacturer, it must be checked to determine exactly what is meant in terms of continuous power and overload power for speeific periods of time. Further information on power output can be found in sections 3.1 and 3.5, dealing with prime movers and alternators respectively. The following British Standards give information on ratings and duties of reciprocating engines, turbines and alternators.

number of British alternator name of manufacturer

Standard

appropriate

to type of

machine reference and serial number class of rating frequency, number of phases, kVA or MVA rating, voltage, current, power factor, speed, excitation voltage and current, primary winding connection class of insulation ambient temperature (if greater than 40 C) permitted overspeed altitude (if greater than 1000 m).

BS 4999(3): Part 101: Specification for rating and petfmmattce ofrotating electricalmachines BS 500iX4):Part 2: Turbiru type machines BS 5UO@4): Part 3: Generawrt to be driven by reciprocating iwernal combustionengines BS 5514(51:Part 1: Refmence conditions for reciprocating internalcombustionengines

1.5

Generator size related to load

1.5.1

General

The rated full load of a generating set will vary according to a number of external influences. It is necessary to establish the environment and operating conditions which will apply for a particular proposed installation before final selection of the generator can be made. These conditions are summarised as follows: ambient temperature humidity altitude

Private and standby generating sets are relatively small when compared to the generating capacity of the public utility system. As a result it must be appreciated that it is necessary to consider the effect on the generating plant of switching on the various proposed load;. Not on[y-can the generator voltage dip disastrously but the engine can also be overloaded causing a drop in speed and therefore frequency. The characteristics of the load must be considered if the final system is to perform correctly. Factors such as the size and method of starting of the largest motor, the number of motors likely to start together, the existence of non-linear loads and those with a high in-rush must be identified. These investigations may result in selection of a generator with a capacity larger than the arithmetic sum of the loads. This section considers the question of sizing the generator to meet the load.

t BritishWind EnergyAssociation,4 Hamilton Place,London WIV OBQ 6

PRIVATE AND STANDBY GENERATIONOF ELECHUCITY

1.5.2

Load characteristics

The different load characteristics likely to be encountered will fill under one or more of the following:

electric motors for normal continuous use such as driving fans and pumps for building services and motor drives in process and industrial plant electric motors for intermittent operation such as lifts, multi-stage refrigeration equipment, cranes and process plant needing high inertia starting non-linear loads including discharge and fluorescent lighting and solid state controlled devices for battery chaxging, uninterruptible power supplies and rectifiers (the latter occur commonly at the front end of computer power supplies) and switch mode power supplies on variable speed motor drives large linear loads including electrode boilers, electric heating systems and tungsten lighting (unless fitted with thyristor-controlled dimmers) industrial welding equipment loads requiring stability of voltage, frequency and waveform withi; specified toleranc~ to ensure correct operation; these include mainframe computers, X-ray, and other medical diagnostic equipment.

occur during motor starting, affecting the motor starting performance and also the operation of other connected loads. The terminal voltage dip can be estimated by referring to scheduled data and nomograms which are provided by the manufacturers. The rated kVA of an alternator is related to the output rated voltage and full load running current. The total apparent power for a three-phase alternator is given by: ~ _ 3VLIL a _ 1000 (1)

where Ss is the rated kVA of the alternator, V= is the rated output line voltage (V), and 1~ is the rated full load line current (A). The starting kVA of the motor is related to the input voltage and starting current at the moment of switch-on of the motor, and should be considered when selecting the size of the alternator. The starting kVA of the motor may be estimated using the following equation: S, = KS. (2)

Commercial buildings normally contain mixtures of the above and ail of these should be considered in the selection of the standby generator. Buildings housing large computer operations require special attention which will depend upon the need for provision of uninterruptible power supplies, the quality of supply needed and presence of disproportionally large single motors (e.g. lifts). Refer to the Electricity Council publication GS/3@J regarding the limits for harmonics. Hospitals tend to reflect the whole range of commercial loads and attention should be given to Department of Health publications HTM 7(7)and HTM 11(8). 1.5.3
Choice of engine and alternator

where S~ is the starting kVA of the motor, K is the constant related to the type of motor and means of starting, and S- is the full load ofrnotor (kVA). Typical values for K are given in Table 3. The tabulated values are given for guidance only. For design purposes, a value appropriate to the particular motor and method of starting should be obtained from the manufacturer.
Table 3 Typicalvalues constant of K Motortype Slipring Squirrel age c Starting method Rotorresiatsnce Star-delta Electronic soft-start Auto-transformer Part-winding Directon-line Constant K 1.5 2.5 1.0 3to4+ 4t05 7

The rating of engine and alternator needed to properly support the load under start and operating conditions should be carefully considered. An oversized system is expensive and this includes the space it takes up and the associated distribution system. Furthermore it will not operate at an efllcient point on its load curve and, in the case of a diesel prime mover at low loads, could fail due to over-oiling. 1.5.4
Loads and characteristics

~ Dependent ntapping o

It should be noted that open transition contactor changeover for star-delta and auto-transformer starting can result in K values approaching 7 if the load has a high inertia. This can occur with large fan and pump loads. Closed transition or off-load starting can assist greatly in achieving a low value of K. Figure 2 is a nomogram consisting of three scales which give values ofi

1.5.4.7 General motor loads Industrial and commercial installations normally include a number of induction motors (e.g. machine drive, fan drives, compressors etc.) which are sufficiently large in size to impose a considerable load on the power supply during starting. Since the source impedance of the alternator is considerably greater than that of the average supply authority mains supply, a substantial alternator terminal voltage dip may

total kVA rating of alternator starting kVA of motor percentage voltage dip.

The nomogram allows the approximate determination of one of these parameters from known values of the other two. The critical parameter is usually the percentage voltage dip. There are conflicting views as to what voltage dip can be tolerated, but for non-critical industrial installations a 7

CIBSEAPPLICATIONS MANUAL
Rated kVA of alternator

1.5.4.3 Linear loads These may be predicted and allowed for relatively easily. Resistive loads, such as those resulting from un-controlled tungsten lighting, water heating and electric storage heating systems, draw a current which (after initial transients) follows the voltage wave without significant distortion. It should be noted that voltage dips (both transient and over longer periods) can cause equipment to fail or overheat. For example, a dip can result in a relay or contactor opening or chattering. More prolonged voltage reductions ean result in motors overheating. The result of voltage transients can be seen as a flicker in fluorescent lighting and an error indication in data-processing equipment. The effect of voltage dips on electrical apparatus is shown in Figure 3. 1.5.4.4 Non-1inear loads Solid state devices, which include discharge and fluorescent lighting, rectifier/invertors and computer power supplies, do not draw sinusoidal currents from the supply. The effect can be a distorted current wave which may contain a high percentage of third harmonic (150 Hz) current (up to 80?? of the total current). The result is a flow of third harmonic current within the generator windings which could cause overheating of the windings and connecting cables. The line conductors are protected by the conventional over-current devices; however the neutral is not so proteeted. For sensibly balanced 50 Hz loads the neutral current will be insignificant. Where triple n harmonics exist (third harmonic plus multiples), the possibility of overloading the neutral conductor must be carefully considered in consultation with the equipment manufacturer.

1000
Starting kVA of motor Percentage

500

voltage dip
1000 Individual

30 25
1$

500 200 !+

motorloads

20

+T

20 10
Speciol Ioods including voltage critical elements H

10

1o-1-

Figure 2 Nomogramrelatingpercentagevoltagedip to motorstarting kVAand rated kVAof alternator; an exampleis demonstratedby the to brokenlint whichshowa 100kVAmotorstartingloadeormected a 100 a
kVA ahemator, ivingavoltagedipof approximately 7% g 1

figure of 20 to 25% is found to be reasonable. The acceptability of this level should be checked with the manufacturers and suppliers of equipment. A dip of this magnitude would also have a noticeable effect on the lighting installation. Modern electronic equipment often requires the voltage to remain within+ 10A(see also section 3.6.4). The seleetion of alternator size based on permitted voltage dip is usually critical only when one or two large motors constitute the main load. If the installation comprises a large number of individual load units the probability of very high peak starting currents is reduced due to the natural diversity associated with the random operation of the units. However, it maybe necessary to consider the introduction of a routine and controlled start-up of motors to avoid any coincidental peaks, particularly on start-up following mains supply fhilure. In applying the estimated starting kVA to the nomogram the existing load on the alternator at that time must also be included as any starting kVA will be superimposed on this load.
7.5.4.2 Large motor loads

1.6

Choice of high or low voltage systems


Cost implications

1.6.1

The choice between high voltage and low voltage generation is generally made on the basis of cost and/or the degree of security of supply required related to the distribution system configuration. The justification for high voltage generation may be made using assessments similar to those used for high voltage distribution, which relate directly to the power to be delivered. In practical terms, generation at low voltage in the UK means generation at 415/240 V three-phase, four-wire at 50 Hz. In Europe, the equivalent is generally 380/220 V. Typically, generation at high voltage in the UK wiU be at 11 kV. The generation voltage will normally be at one of the distribution voltages already in use on the site. As a result, high voltage generation is more likely to be considered on sites which already receive power at high voltage from the supply authority with metering at high voltage.

Where motor drives employing dynamic or regenerative braking (e.g. cranes and lifts) are used, the load is fed back to the supply source when braking. If this supp!y is derived from a generating set, the set must be capable of absorbing the regenerated power and suitable reverse power protection should be applied to prevent motoring of the alternator which can result in damage to the generator set. Special motor starters are available to prevent regeneration feedback. One system employs resistors switched into circuit at the appropriate moment. 8

PRIVATE AND STANDBYGENERATIONOF ELECTRICITY


niticsl teady state voltage > s
HYects on apparatus:

-1%

apparenteed
-5% \

-15%

-20%
4G

%. ~b-25%

r
04 *@e q~ \

severe flick an fluorescent lightinglimit for correct motor storting

-30% - .

likelihood \, \\ aperatlan

..

of ot

,
hips

undervaltage

Figure3

Effect of voltage dIp on

electrical pparatus a

It should be noted that high voltage cables, connections and switchgear are more expensive than the low voltage equivalents. It maybe necessary to consult a specialist to advise on the options available for a particular situation. 1.6.2
Operational and other implications

standby system that is independent system.

of

the high voltage

The safety factors to be considered with high voltage systems are more stringent than those with low voltage systems. Only persons authorised to operate high voltage systems can be allowed to do so in the interests of safety. All electrical systems should be isolated before work starts. Work on high voltage equipment should not be carried out until a permit has been issued to state that the equipment is isolated, locked off and earthed. The area of safe working must be indicated physically by barriers and notices, together with a description and sketch on the permit. It is possible to use outside organisations to provide the service of operating and maintaining the private 11 kV system. The supply authority is one of these, subjeet to its agreement and charges. It has to be considered if this is an acceptable situation or whether directly-employed specialist staff are necessary. These costs need to be taken into account when studying the implications of high voltage operations. There maybe instances where it would be more attractive to use multiple low voltage sets distributed around a site rather than use central high voltage generators. This will provide a

The additional insulation and high fault withstand levels of high voltage generators make them more expensive to build than low voltage sets. For sets above about 1.5 MVA, the effect of the very high load current on the size, weight and cost of the low voltage alternator tends to make high voltage sets more viable. High voltage sets are usually made to order and as a result could have a longer delivery period than standard ex-stock units. If the unit suffers a major failure, the repair work may be specialised and need non-standard parts. This could mean that the set may be out of service for a considerable time. The circuit protection and switchgear differs to that for low voltage operation. Load current tends to be low whereas fault energies are high. The value of the equipment is also high. As a result an enhanced quality and degree of protection above that for a low voltage system is desirable. The fault level will increase as the rating of the set increases to a point where the method of earthing the high voltage system neutral needs to be reviewed. Methods of limiting earth fault current are to introduce an earthing transformer, reactor or resistor. The advice of a specialist should be sought for a particular application which, for example, could involve parallel operation of sets or parallel operation with the mains supply,

CIBSEAPPLICATIONS MANUAL

Mode of operation

operated regularly on load, the likelihood of ftiiure is very low.

Generator systems may be provided for standby or base load applications. The modes of operation for the alternative arrangements are outlined below. In a standby application, the set maybe an individual unit to replace all or part of the normal supply when that supply is not available. Alternatively, more than one set may be needed to support the site under these conditions. In some applications it maybe necessary to provide a spare set to the standby generating plant to ensure the availability of this supply. In base load operation, the option of obtaining a standby supply from the supply authority may not exist or may not be economically viable. In this case there would be no alternative supply and a spare generator would usually be provided. This may comprise a second machine identical to the primary generator or, in a multi-set installation, one set additional to those required to meet the site load. Provision of an additional set allows one set to be out of action for maintenance while the remaining sets are available for service. This applies to both base load and multi-set installations where continuous operation is essential and a standby supply must always be available.

2.2

Parallel operating generator systems

These may be installed for one or more of the following reasons: to match the load efllciently to improve overall reliability . to allow one set to be off-line for maintenance to increase flexibility. The installation of multiple sets will affect the operating costs of the generating plant. These costs include those for fiel, lubricating oils, ~ters and maintenance personnel. Fuel costs will vary according to the load and the operating eiliciency of the plant. It is advisable to optimise the number of sets supporting the load at any one time in order to minimise fuel costs. Unnecessary starting and running at low loads can result in inefficient use of fuel and increased wear. Automatic control systems are available which provide continuous load optimisation while the plant is running. As the load is reduced, sets are disconnected progressively and shut down. Such control systems usually enable the operating parameters to be adjusted to avoid unnecessary operations and to maintain a minimum percentage of spinning reserve (i.e. the spare generating capacity of sets mnning on load). This allows for starting of larger loads and for fault clearing.

2.1

Individual generator systems

An individual set is frequently adequate as standby to the normal supply. If the set is properly maintained and

10

PRWATE AND STANDBYGENERATIONOF ELECTRICITY

Specification requirements

in water-cooled engines in cold climates and for sand filters in areas prone to sand storms. In addition, for ambient temperatures at or below freezing it would be normal practice to provide electric heater facilities in the engine block to avoid water freezing and to assist starting.

3.1

Prime movers

The various types of prime mover have been discussed in section 1.3. The following deals principal y with reciprocating internal combustion engines. 3.1.1

Protectionf primemovers o

Any potential hazards to maintenance personnel associated with the prime mover should be indicated in the manufacturers health and safety policy documentation. This should also detail the measures to be taken under emergency situations. In particular, guarding in accordance with 13.S 5304{9) should be provided to all exposed moving parts. Such guarding should be removable to facilitate maintenance and danger notices should be provided. As an aid towards preventing undue wear and tear on the prime mover components, an hours-run meter should be incorporated either on the prime mover or within the generator set control panel. This will enable planned preventive maintenance to be carried out at the appropriate intervals.
3.1.2 Environmental

Safeguards are required to warn of malfunction of prime movers and to initiate automatic safety measures to protect both the prime mover and operatives near the machinery. The main risks of failure are due to the following: low oil pressure high oil temperature high coolant temperature low coolant level prolonged overload

rating factors

engine overspeed.

The effect of temperature on the performance and output of diesel engine prime movers can vary significantly between one type of engine and another. Specific reference should be made to manufacturers data relating to applicable de-rating factors for a given prime mover. When diesel engine prime movers are operated at high altitudes, the combustion air is of low density and the reduced amount of oxygen available will result in reduced power output. At very high altitudes there is always some derating necessary but the point at which this begins will vary with different engines. Therefore, reference to manufacturers data is essential Some de-rating for atmospheric humidity is generally necessary for naturally aspirated engines. With turbocharged and turbocharged/intercooled engines this is not necessary, but other factors, such as water temperature, will need to be considered.
3.1.3 Diesel engine speeds

Engine status and warning indication should be incorporated in the prime mover/generating set control panel to indicate when any of these criteria are approaching their safe limits. Under such situations the plant should be automatically shut down. An audio-visual alarm should also be activated as a warning to quickly bring attention to the malfunction, the sounder being capable of being muted, leaving a visual warning until cancelled. Automatic fuel isolation should be provided to protect the prime mover against abnormal conditions if they reach critical values whilst the machine is running. A warning that the system has operated should appear at a manned station. For frequency control, the running speed of the prime mover is maintained within pre-set limits by a governor which may be mechanical, hydraulic or electronic (see also section 3.3). It is normal practice to provide a safety device to prevent engine overspeed which could cause damage. The prime mover starting equipment should incorporate fail-to-start protection, where automatic mode of operation is arranged, such that the starter motor for the engine is automatically disconnected if the engine fails to start after a preset number of attempts or within a reasonable time (see also section 3.2). In addition to protecting the alternator and prime mover, this also avoids undue discharge of the batteries and should initiate audible and visuaJ warnings. Engine vibrations should be effectively damped by suitable resilient mountings on the prime mover and generator set main and sub-frame assemblies. Refer to section 4.5. Prime movers may need protection against the climatic conditions that are likely to prevail under both normal and abnormal situations. Examples are the need for anti-freeze

Engine speeds are normally bands:


divided into the following

high speed: 1500 rev/rein (typical) medium speed: 600-1000 rev/rein slow speed: below 600 rev/rein.

For base load operation medium or slow speed units are normally used. However, slow and medium speed sets are more costly, heavier and appreciably larger than fast running types. Also, with slow running sets there is more difficulty in controlling frequency within fine limits, due to the cyclic variation of rotational speeds of engines. Electronic governors and the use of high inertia flywheels will help to control the frequency to finer limits but can be costly. These considerations normally lead to high speed engines being chosen for standby purposes. 11

CIBSEAPPLICATIONS MANUAL

3.1.4

Reciprocating engines and turbine drives

3.2.4

Hand start

Reciprocating engines can be obtained with ratings of up to about 2 MW using high speed engines (i.e. 1500 revlmin) and up to about 13 MW using medium speed engines (i.e. 600 to 1000 rev/rein). Turbine drives are not generally available below 500 kW but above this rating they can meet power requirements up to any capacity. The choice between reciprocating engines or turbines for base load generation plant should be made after considering the information given on prime movers in this section and seetion 1.3.

Hand start is defined as being able to start an engine by means of a starting handle or rope. Normally, hand started engines are equipped with cylinder decompressors to allow the crankshaft to be turned more easily. This only applies to relatively small single or twin cylinder engines, of less than 20 kW shaft power, due to the amount of physical effort required. 3.2.5
Starting aids

3.2

Starting methods

3.2.1

Electric start

If an engine is to operate in relatively low ambient temperatures, e.g. less than 2 C for more than 12 hours, it maybe necessary to provide some form of an aid to start. The type of aid will depend to a large extent on the minimum temperature specified. The following are typical:

Most generators used for standby purposes employ electric starting methods. The engine crankshaft is rotated by an electric motor engaging onto a toothed wheel attached to the flywheel. Motor engagement can be of the inertia type or pre-engaged by means of a solenoid. The latter is preferred because less damage is caused to the toothed wheel on engagement. In the case of a gas turbine engine the motor rotates the compressor via a suitable gear train and free wheel clutch. On some small engines the voltage of the starter motor could be 12 V DCbut normally 24 V DCis used.

coolant heaters of the elecrnc type can be fitted into the jacket of a water cooled engine; these should be controlled by a suitable thermostat to maintain the jacket at about 40C when the ambient temperature is near freezing timed lubricating oil priming system to assist quick starting of large sets maybe appropriate glow-plug aids can be fitted to air cooled engines; these require approximately two minutes to heat the combustion space ether injection can be used for manual or automatic start; this involves injecting ether into the air intake manifold during cranking; recommended operation at or below -10C air intake manifold heaters can be used to preheat the air before cranking commences thereby assisting fuel combustion; as with the glow plug system, this can take at least two minutes to provide sufficient air temperature rise methods of preheating the fuel and/or the use of additives should be corisidered if there is a danger of sustained low outside temperatures.

3.2.2

Air start

The engine crankshaft is rotated either by injecting high pressure air into the cylinders by means of a sequenced distributor to suit the number of cylinders and the disposition of the pistons, or by an air motor similar to the electric start motor. Starting by means of an air motor is similar to that described in section 3.2.1 except that the starter motor is driven by air rather than electricity. Air is normally supplied at about 700 kPa (7 bar) and a storage cylinder ensures adequate capacity to provide at least three starting attempts. The compressor can be either electric motor- or diesel engine-driven with both being provided where mutual back-up is required. If air start is the only form of starting, then consideration must be given to a back-up air supply in the event of tiilure (e.g. by diesel motor compressor). 3.2.3
Hydraulic start

3.3

Batteries

It is essential that the batteries are carefully selected as battery problems are the most common causes of generators failing to start. Rechargeable storage batteries are used to provide the power for electric starter motors.The capacity of the battery will depend on the type of battery to be used and also on the current required to crank the engine when cold. In addition, the battery should have sufficient capacity to provide six consecutive starting attempts when at 00 C, without recharge. For locations other than the UK a temperature above or below 0 C may have to be specified according to the local environmental conditions. Batteries should always be placed as near to the starter motor as possible to prevent excessive voltage drops due to long cables. To prevent damage by vibration, high performance Plant& batteries should be installed on a stand conveniently near to the engine and not on the engine bedplate.

This method is often used for applications in hazardous areas, the pumps being located outside the hazardous area. It is also used as an alternative emergency starting system. The engine crankshaft is rotated by a hydraulic motor which is fed from a hydraulic accumulator. The accumulator is primed to about 3 MPa (30 bar) from an independent hydraulic system using a hand pump. The priming of the accumulator can take anything from five minutes to one hour depending on the size of engine. 12

PIUVATE AND STANDBY GENERATIONOF ELECTRICITY

It is imporant to ensure that the battery voltage drop during starting, particularly with repeated attempts to start, does not cause maloperation of the DCcontrols. Battery capacity is specified by the discharge current over a stated time period (usually 3, 5, 10 or 20 hours) to a particular end voltage at the battery or cell terminals, at a stated ambient temperature. For example, 80 ampere hours at the 3 hour rate means that, at an ambient temperature of 20C, the battery can supply 26.7A for 3 hours at not less than 1.80 V per cell after 3 hours discharge. Nickel cadmium battery capacity is normally specified at the 5 hour rate of discharge to 1.00 V at 20 * 5C. The types of battery normally provided for motor starting duties are lead acid or nickel cadmium. There are many variations of these basic types, the most important of which are &scribed below.
3.3.1 High performance Plant6 balteries

If automotive type batteries are used in conjunction with a trickle charger their life can be reduced to as little as 8 months. With a constant potential charger of suitable quality this effect is not so marked but the low charging rate may not be stilcient to bring the battery back to t%llcharge, Lead-acid batteries using thicker pasted plates in flooded versions are also available in automotive and stationary designs with life expectancies of between 4 and 10 years when used with constant potential chargers. A better option is to use a charger specifically designed for use with automotive batteries, having a taper characteristic chosen to suit the battery capacity and desired recharge time, This type of charger monitors the charge condition of the battery to which it is (permanently) connected and automatiea.liy provides the float or boost charge required. 3.3.5
Sealed rechargeable batteries

These batteries (manufactured to BS 6290[10): Part 2) employ thick pure lead positive plates and pasted grid negative plates in a transparent container. They have a life expectancy of 20 years or more when used for stationary applications with a constant potential charger, They are not suitable for mobile applications and should not be subjected to vibration.
3.3.2

These batteries are not, in fact, completely sealed but have safety valves to vent any excess pressure and maintain a constant internal pressure slightly above atmospheric. Automotive sealed rechargeable batteries will have approximately the same life expectancy as the flooded type batteries described in section 3.3.4. Valve regulated, gas recombination batteries (manufactured to BS 6290(10):Ilrti 4) in stationary applications have a life expectancy of about 10 years when used in conjunction with a constant potential charger. These batteries contain a gelled electrolyte and are covered by 3S 6745(13): art 1. P

Free electrolyte nickel cadmium batteries

These batteries (manufactured to BS 626@lJ) are normally used for engine starting and other standby duties. They can operate for long periods with minimal maintenance and have a life expectancy in excess of 25 years. Most nickel cadmium batteries accept rapid recharge and have excellent resistance to electrical or mechanical abuse. They operate over a wide range of temperatures. While the initial cost is higher than that for lead acid automotive batteries, this may be offset by the expected longer life.
3.3.3 Pocket plate nickel cadmium batteries

3.4

Battery chargers

Battery manufacturers provide specific instructions for bench charging or commissioning new batteries. Both lead-acid and nickel cadmium batteries gradually dkcharge when not in use (i.e. open-circuit) and therefore must be provided with some means of recharging. All batteries produce explosive gases when on charge. On trickle charge or float charge the amount of gas is very small but if the batteries are boost charged at an elevated voltage adequate ventilation should be provided. The explosive gases are often heid within the separators and not freed until some time after the last charge period. This is particularly important as batteries approach the end of their life as they are then more likely to produce gases at even the lower voltage levels. Appendix A of BS 6133[14)provides guidance on ventilation requirements. There are two main methods of recharging described in the foiiowing sections.
3.4.1 Engine-driven

These batteries are used for general standby duties and display the same characteristics as free electrolyte types (see section 3.3.2) but are essentially maintenance-free and can operate for up to 20 years without topping up. 3.3.4
Lead+cid automotive starter batteries

These batteries (manufactured to BS 3911(1ZJ) employ nominal 2 V ceils in 3-, 6- or 12-cell monoblock containers, giving nominal 6,12 and 24 V units. Each cell contains thin positive and negative lead alloy grids, pasted with lead compounds and with dilute sulphuric acid as the electrolyte. The cells are capable of supplying high currents for short periods. They have a limited life, however, of about 4 to 5 years when operating from an open circuit condition, with freshening charges being given from the generator output when the generator is started. Therefore batteries of this type are usually sized to give the required current output when the battery has been discharged from 100%o 75% to state of charge.

and these are

alternator or dynamo

A voltage regulator, suitable for the battery being recharged, must be incorporated. Recharging is only available when the engine is running but provides rapid recharge. If the battery becomes discharged, it will need to be charged with a portable charger or be removed for bench charging. 13

CIBSEAPPLICATIONS MANUAL 3.4.2 Mains operated batte~ chargers

3.5.2.1 Salient pole


Rotating

These chargers are essential for all applications where the battery may remain idle for some time. It is common practice to use constant potential chargers set to 2.20 to 2.25 V per cell for Plant&and industrial leadacid batteries. This provides a charge current of approximately 0.5 to 1.0 mA for each ampere-hour of rating. Mains operated chargers should be capable of supplying a current of approximately 7V0of the nominal 10-hour capacity, together with a boost circuit to raise the voltage to 2.5 V per cell. Sealed lead-acid batteries (to ll!$ 6290: Part 4(~0J) require a constant potential charger set to a nominal 2.27 V per cell and capable of supplying a current ofapproximately 10Aof the nominal 3-hour capacity. A boost circuit is not recommended for sealed leadacid recombination batteries. It is recommended that automotive batteries are float charged with a purpose-designed charger, see section 3.3.4. The charging rates and float voltages vary for different types of cell and reference must be made to manufacturers literature when commissioning a battery/charger system. For nickel cadmium batteries, it is usual to set constant potential chargers to 1.40/1.45 V per cell. Chargers should be capable of supp~ ying current usually 20A or 10% of the nominal capacity of the battery but currents of 1007ocan be used if rapid recharge is needed.
3.4.3 Alarms and indicators

main field comprising 2,4,6,8, 10 or 12 poles depending on the speed of the prime mover for synchronous operation. Excitation is provided by a separate exciter mounted on the same shaft or by other methods as described below. The excitation for the main field is supplied via a commutator and slip ring assembly. 3.5.2.2 Brushless salient pole This is the type of generator most commonly adopted for standby and private generation applications. It is similar to the conventional salient pale machine with the exception of the excitation arrangement. The output from the exciter is fed to a rotating rectifier assembly, the output of which is connected directly to the rotating field. This arrangement eliminates the need for brush gear. 3.5.2.3 Stofic excitation Similar to the conventional salient pole machine except that the excitation requirements are provided totally by external means. A slip ring assembly is used to supply the main rotating field. 3.5.2,4 Self-regulating
salient pole

Possibly the simplest form Of ACgenerator in use. The excitation system is static, self-exciting having open-loop control supplying the rotating armature via slip rings. 3.5.2.5 Distributed fiekl Usually associated with large and high voltage ACgenerators or where, for manufacturing difficulties, salient pole is not possible. The main field windings are drop-in coils in a slotted cylindrical rotor. 3.5.3
Asynchronous generators

It is recommended that an ammeter and voltmeter are included in the battery charger circuit. Alarms can be provided for the following conditions: battery charger failure low voltage high voltage mains failure.

3.5

Alternators

Asynchronous generators are, essentially, induction motors driven by a prime mover. They can operate independently, or in parallel with other machines or the mains supply, with simpler control than synchronous machines. However, they are suitable only where frequency stability is not critical. There are two basic types of asynchronous generators, compensated and uncompensated, and the choice will depend upan the application. Compensated asynchronous generators are self-exciting and therefore can operate independently of the mains. With uncompensated machines, the magnetizing cument is taken from the mains and therefore they have limited uses in standby applications. However, no special synchronizing control is required to parallel with the mains. 3.5.4
Protection

3.5.1

British and international standards

The relevant British Standards applicable to rotating electrical machines areBS 499Y3Jand BS 500(%4). These standards are broadly in line with International Electrotechnical Commission standards L!3C34(15)and IEC 72(WZ 3.5.2

Synchronous generators

Synchronous generators may be either single or three phase and can be operated independently or in parallel. The various types of synchronous generators are described in the following sections. 14

Potential faults on generator systems include starter insulation faults, overload, overvoltage, unbalanced loading, rotor faults, loss of excitation or synchronism, overspeed, and prime mover failure. Protection against some, or all of

PRtVATE AND STANDBYGENERATIONOF ELECTRICITY

these faults shouM be provided, the extent of which will depend upon the size or application of the generator. Alternators should be equipped with electrical protection to guard against excessive overload, overcurrent and earth leakage currents. This protection is often in the form of suitable inverse definite minimum time lag (IDMTL] relays
Ioeated in the associated essential supplies circuit breaker. Earth fault or leakage protection is of the unrestricted or restricted type, depending upon the overall distribution system protection design, using separate IDMTL relays and associated current transformers. Earth fault protection is of particular importance for portable or semi-portable sets. Unrestricted earth fault protection is normally applicable only to generating sets up to 300 kW rating, Restricted earth

circuit when the temperature setting is exceeded. However, difficulties in the accuracy and reliability of such devices, coupled with their extra cost, suggest that such facilities are not normally justified. Overspeed protection is provided normally by means of an electronic overspeed protection circuit built into the generator control panel. Certain types of alternator are also susceptible to damage due to operation below normal speed for an extended period and hence such equipment should be protected against underspeed. All alternators used with engine driven sets are required, as a standard provision, to withstand a 209ooverspeed above nominal value without damage. Physical protection to alternator windings is provided in the form of impregnation and external treatment of the windings with suitable varnish to guard against moisture and other contaminating substances. This is of particular importance for tropical climates. Other physical protection measures include anti-vibration mountings for the alternator assembly as part of the overall generating plant support I%tme. Radio interference suppressors should be provided in the automatic voltage regulator (AVR) circuit to give suppression within the limits given in BS80@8J.
3.5.5 De-rating faetora

fault protection will detect most winding earth faults and is best tiorded by using core-balance earth leakage protection. p Further information on typicalrotection arrangements is given in thel%orecriw RelaysApplication Guide(]7),published by GEC Alsthom Instruments Ltd. Earthing and bonding arrangements are described in section 4.7. Reverse power relay protection should be provided for sets intended for operation in parallel or where regenerative loads may be encountered. On large installations with sets running in parallel, it is normal to incorporate circulating current protection to detect winding faults. It is preferable on parallel set installations to have a field failure relay, rather than an under-voltage relay, to trip the alternator and engine in the event of an excitation fault such as a diode failure. The generator should be sized to contain the transient voltage dip to acceptable limits upon starting the largest motor. Care is required to prevent simultaneous starting ofa large number of motors under standby generation conditions. Ideally, the motors having the largest starting current should be started first. With small machines the output voltage may collapse under a fault condition whilst the machine continues to run, In this situation an under-voltage relay device should be provided to trip the alternator circuit breaker after a suitable time interval and to shut off the fuel supply to the prime mover. Excitation systems can be provided with field forcing/ current maintenance to maintain the short circuit levels at up to four times the full load current for 5 to 10 seconds. This ensures the operation of protective devices. See also section 4.8 on distribution system protection. Alternators should be continuously maximum rated to BS

Normally an alternator is rated with an efilciency factor at full load output and assumed power factor of 0.8 lagging. The efficiency of any given machine varies between low load and full load, and also with the power factor. Generally, the larger the rating of the alternator, the more efilcient it is, e.g. a machine of 500 kVA should have an efilciency in the order of 90%. Loads containing elements which are sensitive to voltage variations may dictate that there should be some restriction on the transient voltage limits of the machine. These limits must be maintained at the alternator terminals under all conditions of load variation. Selection of the alternator, therefore, may be determined more by this factor than by thermal considerations. This factor could result in a prime mover matched to an oversize alternator having a thermal rating well in excess of that which would be required for the plant rating associated with the engine power. The output of the alternator in any given application maybe limited by either its winding operating temperature, or by the transient performance when load changes are imposed upon it. The thermal performance will usually decide the rating of the alternator for prevailing ambient temperature and altitude conditions. Temperature rises for continuously rated machines must not exceed the values permitted in BS 4999(3)for the particular class of insulation at a maximum ambient temperature of 40C at an altitude not exceeding 1000 m. If cooling conditions are more difficult to accomplish, then the machine must be de-rated accordingly. For given ambient conditions the alternator will usually have a continuous rating equal to or greater than the continuous rating of the prime mover. 15

499!X3) BS 500d4)and, to comply with BS 5514(5), and must

be able to supply a 10% overload for one hour in any twelve hour period of continuous running at rated load without injurious overheating of the generator windings. This overload capability, however, should not be employed too frequently otherwise the life of the winding insulation may be shortened due to the associated higher winding temperatures. Overheating of the alternator stator windings maybe prevented by the use of temperature detectors (e.g. thermistors) built into the windings which isolate the

CIBSEAPPLICATIONS MANUAL

As a rule of thumb, a de-rating factor of 1% per C above an ambient temperature of 40 C should be applied. Detailed information on operating conditions is given in BS 499$31: Part 102. However, accurate de-rating factors should always be confirmed by the manufacturer.

3.6.2.1 Manua/ synchronisation


It is necessary to have a means of adjusting the engine speed and the generator voltage for each generating set. The engine governors must be compatible and have similar characteristics of load versus speed, i.e. droop. The speed droop must be the same and at least equal to 4 to 5% of the nominal speed in order to achieve good engine load sharing.

3.6

Control

3.6.1 Start-up control


The choice of start-up control method depends on the application and the requirements of the system. There are three types of start-up control: manual: cranking of the engine is initiated manual operation of a switch or pushbutton by the

The generators must be provided with quadrature droop equipment in order to achieve reactive load sharing, i.e. equal power factors. The process of synchronizing would be carried out manually by adjustment of the frequency and voltage of the incoming machine. The following control and instrumentation should be considered for manual synchronizing and parallel operation:

automatic: cranking of the engine starts on receipt of an independent signal multiple starting attempt: normally at least three cranking attempts are made should the engine fail to start. On some engines pre-lubrication is necessary before cranking can commence. This includes ensuring adequate lubrication of the main bearings. Where automatic start-up is used, caution notices should be displayed prominently to warn personnel. Automatic mains failure control systems are designed to start the generating set in the event of a complete mains fkilure or a deviation outside acceptable limits. The system is similarly designed to stop the set and restore the mains supply to the load upon restoration of the mains supply. Reference should be made to EZecmcity ouncil Enginemng C Recommen&tions G5W) and HSE Guidance Note PM53(2). Means must be provided using contactom or circuit breakers to allow changeover from mains to standby generator. Interlocking by mechanical and/or electrical means must be provided to ensure that both switches cannot be closed at the same time, Full details must be agreed with the supply authority. The rating of each switch must correspond to the maximum current to be carried when on mains or standby supply. These may not necessarily be equal. Changeover is initiated by a relay or solid state device which monitors mains voltage. This can be single or three phase depending on the nature and type of loads. When loss or partial loss of voltage is detected, a signal is provided to start the generator set. If required, this signal can be delayed to prevent starting if the loss of voltage is only of a transient nature. Likewise, on restoration of a healthy mains, the stopping of the generator set can be delayed to allow the mains to stabilise or for other operational reasons. 3.6.2
Synchronisation control for parallel operation

output circuit breaker, contactor or switch with short circuit protection and synchronizing check relays voltage adjustment provision frequency adjustment provision voltmeter indication of incoming and bus supplies frequency indication of incoming and bus supplies synchronizing lamps or synchroscope to indicate phase coincidence and frequency difference current indication for each phase kVAr meter power fhctor meter kW load indication for each set reverse power protection.
Automatic synchronisation

3.6.2.2

If a completely automatic system to synchronise two or more generating sets is necessary, then equipment is needed to perform the functions of frequency and voltage adjustment. In addition, if the system demands precise frequency control, i.e. isochronous operation, then some form of load control is necessary. The following control and instrumentation is considered essential for automatic synchronizing and parallel operation:

automatic synchroniser automatic load sharer for each set output circuit breaker, contactor or switch with short circuit protection and synchronizing check relays reverse power relay voltage adjusting device frequency adjusting device automatic governor. is also recom-

For parallel operation, in which a single load is supplied by more than one generating set, it is necessary to synchronise the sets by adjustment of the frequency and voltage. This may be achieved either manually or automatically, as follows. 16

The following additional instrumentation mended: current in~lcation for each phase kW load indication for each set

voltmeter indication of incoming and bus supplies

PRIVATE AND STANDBY Generation

OF ELECTRICITY

frequency indication of incoming and bus supplies synchronizing lamps or synchroscope to indicate phase and frequency difference.

Table6 Requirements ofgoverning systernd$ 19) Parameter Requirement ofstatedBritish


Standard for given classof system
BS5514 Bs 649t

Al Class
3.6.3

ClassA2 1.5%
1.0% 8.0%

class A2 1.0% lSF%


4.5%

Frequeney control

The frequency of the generator is dependent upon the speed of rotation and the number of poles, and is given by:
J -

Steadystate speed -up to 25%power -over 25%power Speed dropnoloadto fullload Transient speedchange rated load off reeoverytime
Transient peedchange s

1.0?70

0.8%
5.0%

%#

(3)

10.0%
8s
N/A N/A

15.0% 15s
N/A N/A

15.0% 15s
4.0% 5s

where~ is the output frequent y (Hz), lVPis the number of pairs of poles and n is the speed of rotation (rev/rein). Table 5 gives the combinations of speed and number of pairs of poles for a generator output of 50 Hz. Table 5 Numberofpairs ofpoles and speed for 50
Hz output Pairs
speed

25%load on
recuvery time

s Transient peedchange(nonturbocharged engine) rated load on


recovery time

10.O%
8s

15.0% 15

N/A N/A

t BS 649@) swithdrawn i andsupersededyZM55241s). b However,vatues are quotedfrom BS 649becauseexisting installationsmay have been designed tooperate totime requirements.

ofpoles 1 2 3 4 5 6

(rev/rein) 3000 1500 1000 750 600 500

3.6.3.2 /iydraulic governors

These are an improvement over the simple mechanical type. Hydraulic pressure is used to provide a servo action to act upon the engine fuel injection system. In a sophisticated form they can provide true isochronous speed control. A reasonable range of speed adjustment is available. Hydraulic governors are also particularly suitable for use in hot climates. 3.6.3.3
Electronic governors

Since fkequency control is dependent upon the shafi speed of the prime mover, a speed governor must be fitted to the prime mover. The choice of governor type will depend on the frequency control limits required to meet the load, application, type of prime mover selected and whether single or parallel generator applications apply. The three types of governor are described below. The requirements of governors are laid down in BS S514(5) and BS 649(19) (withdrawn). Table 6 summarises these requirements. Class Al (as defined byBS 649) and Class AO(as defined by BS 5514)aregenerally for special purpose applications such as radar, radio, computer supplies and heavy motor starting duties. Parameters for these applications must be determined by the designer and the manufacturer. BS S514 recognises turbocharged engines as a special case. The percentage of rated load that can be applied in one step is dependent upon the brake mean effective pressure (BMEP)
of the engine.

Electronic governors consist of a speed sensor, control unit and electro-hydraulic actuator. The speed sensor produces a high frequency signal proportional to the speed of rotation of the engine. This is compared with a set frequency signal in the control unit and any error is amplified and fed back to position the actuator which, in turn, acts upon the engine fuel injeetion system. A closed-loop servo system ensures stable control, This type of governor will provide the very best performance possible from any prime mover. 3.6.4
Voltage control

The method of voltage control will depend upon the voltage regulation limits required to meet the particular load application. Regulation standards are laid down by BS 499!X3): run 140.

3.6.3.1 Mechanical

governors

The types of voltage control are described below. The control of the output voltage of an ACgenerator depends on the type of alternator and its excitation system, see section 3.5. 3.6.4.1 Self-regulating compounded This is the simplest form of voltage control and normally comprises a linear choke, current transformer and rectifier. It provides open-loop control with excellent overload capability, However, voltage regulation is dependent upon a
17

The simplest form of mechanical governor consists of a spring-loaded rotating bob-weight assembly which acts directly on the engine fuel injection system. An inherent speed droop of 4-5% from no load to full load is typical. There is usually only limited provision for speed adjustment.

CIBSEAPPLICATIONS MANUAL

good engine governor to maintain speed and even then the over the load range of regulation will not be better than t 3+0 the generator. Voltage is normally pm-set with very limited provision for adjustment. 3.6.4.2 Variable voliage compounded

automatically controls the phased connection of the load groups in accordance with a pre-determined schedule of priorities (the schedule may differ according to the number of generating sets available, which incoming supplies have failed and other operational details) monitors and controls the reconnection of loads to the mains when a stable supply has been restored (see below).

This type of voltage control is an addition to the selfregulating type which has a diverter type closed-loop regulator in place of the diverter resistor. This retains the advantages of the self-regulating generator but, in addition, gives voItage regulation better than f 2% at any Ioad and reasonable provision for adjustment of output voltage. 3.6.4.3 Automatic voltage regulator
(AVR)

This last function may not be appropriate in some applications. For example, certain loads may need to be maintained on the generator supply for a period beyond mains resumption availability to avoid supply failure risk upon changeover to mains supply. In such cases, manual reconnection of loads is preferred. The software for load sequencing control systems is likely to be complex and care must be taken to avoid unduly complicated, and therefore potentially unreliable, control systems on emergency standby facilities. It is often preferable to ensure that such a control system acts as a stand alone system which cannot adversely affect the manual operation of the generating plant should a control system failure arise. If the building has a building management system (BMS) then it is normal, though not essential, for the automatic load sequencing control system to be interfaced with the
BMS.

This is the most common type used with brushless type generators. It consists of electronic control applied to the excitation system of the generator. Voltage regulation better than * 2% over the load range and at least A 10XOoltage v range adjustment can be achieved. It is usual to specify either Grade 1 or 2 voltage regulation (as defined in BS 4999(3): l%zrt140) depending upon the permitted variation for both steady load and sudden load application situations. Grade 2 regulation is normally recommended, giving control to+ 2.5V0of rated voltage for balanced steady loads between no load and full load and at any power factor between unity and 0.8 lagging. Upon sudden application of a step load of 60Afull load, Grade 2 regulation will restrict the initial voltage dip to within 15% of rated value, recovering to within 3Aof rated voltage within 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 seconds, as specified. Grade 1 regulation gives control to &5% of rated voltage for the same range of balanced steady loads, but at rated power factor. With a step load application of 35% full load the initial voltage dip will be restricted to 15Aof rated value, recovering to within 670of rated voltage within 0.5,1.0 or 1.5 seconds, as specified. Refer also to section 3.5.4 on protection. 3.6.4.4 Static excitation In this type of control the complete excitation system is provided in one unit and the voltage control is an inherent fimction. It is used for special applications only. 3.6.5
Load control

Guidance on the suitability of load sequencing control systems must be sought from the generator manufacturer and, if different, the control system supplier during design of the system to explore fully the operational implications.

3.7

Operator controls, instrumentation and alarms

3.7.1 Operator controls


The operator controls required for a generating installation may include the following:

set

stop: disconnects load and stops set at once; button will need to be reset, e.g. turn to release manual run: set will start, pick up load and run until offis selected automatic standby: set will start and pick up load on receipt of a remote signal, usually mains fail duty select: for multi-set installations, the order of loading and unloading sets may be seleeted mains Ml simulate: proves automatic standby operation by simulating a mains failure return to mains: overrides a previous signal to run on load; will not do so unless mains is healthy; set may continue to run off-load under automatic control alarm accept: acknowledges an alarm, leaving indication without audible alarm alarm reset: allows reset of alarm indication if cause of

When a standby generation system is arranged to accept and/or reject loads in accordance with a graded priority load sequence, rather than simple changeover between essential and non-essential loads, it maybe advantageous to utilise automatic load sequence control. Such controllers comprise a microprocessor-based system which performs the following fimctions: monitors mains supplies monitors which standby generators have started up as a result of a ftilure of the mains supply monitors the status of the generator start-up sequence to identify when loads can be applied 18 control

PRIVATE AND STANDBY GENERATIONOF ELECTRICITY alarm

is not present

fuel level: indicates fuel level of local (day) and/or bulk


tank(s) tachometer: engine shafi speed of rotation battery charger current: current flow to recharge and

. . .

lamp test: proves indicator lamps are healthy voltage adjust: allows fine tuning of control voltage frequency frequency adjust: allows fine tuning of speed, hence

maintain starter battery. 3.7.3


Alarms and indicators
encountered are the

single/parallel select: selects control circuits for parallel operation, namely voltage drop and load share voltmeter select: selects particular line-to-line or phaseto-neutral voltage or off ammeter select: selects particular phase current or off generated kW select: selects total multi-set installation

The alarms and indicators commonly following:

kW or one set of a

ready to start: set will start on receipt of a mains fail signal manual selected: set will start from a hand control automatic selected: set will start on receipt of a mains fail if read~ common alarm: remote single alarm lamp indicates when one or more alarms are activated standby on-load: load is supported b y the set mains on-load: load is supported by the mains

circuit breaker control: enables local open and close for testing, manual operation or manual synchronizing synchroscope onioffi enables manual synchronizing between set and another supply test/manual: engine starts and runs off-load power factor meter select: may select particular phases fid meter off.

which

3.7.2

Instrumentation

mains available: indicates mains has returned following a failure; operator may choose to transfer load to mains and stop set mains failed: mains not available; generator set start-up routine is activated if system is automatic battery charge failure: starting battery not receiving charge failure: set has failed to start or failed while running high engine temperature: indicates over-temperature of engine coolant water; will result in shutdown if safe limit is exceeded for a defined period low engine oil pressure: indicates inadequate pressure; will result in immediate shutdown oil

The instruments usually provided include the following:


. .
alarm: draws operators attention to condition its permitted tolerance outside

voltmeter: indicates phase and/or line voltage, both onand off-load ammeter: indicates phase current frequency voltage meter: indicates frequency of alternating

power factor meter: monitors power factor of the load kVAr meter: indicates reactive power flow hours run meter: provides record of running hours to assist planning of maintenance periods water temperature: engine indicates temperature of coolant in

earth fault: current flow to earth detected; will cause generator output circuit breaker to trip fuel level monitor: indicates high or low fuel level in local (day) or bulk tanks engine overspeed: shuts down set if normal speed is exceeded heater on: indicates operation achieve rapid warm-up. of coolant heater to

oil pressure: indicates engine oil pressure exhaust temperature {turbines only): over-temperature

will cause shutdown; full load aff&ted by temperature


of combustion air

19

CIBSEAPPLICATIONS MANUAL

Installation

requirements

drawings should be obtained before the design and layout are finalised. Table 8 Minimumclear room dimensions for single generator set with skidmountedcontrolpanelanddaily service fueltank output (kVA) Length Width Height

4.1

Space requirements and room layout

(mm) 4000 4350 6150 6150 6800 7100 7500 8250 9000 9000 9750 12000

(mm) 2500 2500 3500 3500 4500 4500 4500 5000 5000 5000 6000 6500

(mm) 2500 2500 3000 3500 4000 4000 4000 4500 4500 4500 4500 5000

The space required to house a generator will depend on the rating of the generator set required. For a given speed and generator set loading, the dimensions and weight vary slightly depending upon the manufacturer. The weight can sometimes be the overriding consideration when selecting a generator set, particularly if it is to be located on the roof of a building. Table 7 gives the dimensions and weights of typical generator sets. These are based on a four pole set with an automatic mains failure facility and a diesel prime mover operating at 1500 rev/rein. Allowance has been made for a local daily service fuel tank and nominal sound attenuation. This information should be used for initial design only. Detailed information appropriate to the actual machine chosen should be obtained from the manufacturer.

30 50 100 150 250 300 400 500 700 1000 1500 2000

The following checklist identifies the main considerations when planning the room layout and generator set configuration:

Table 7

Typical dimensions for 415 V diesel

number of sets required dimensions of each set daily service fuel tank; skid-mounted or remote control panel; skid-mounted or remote access requirements for maintenance access requirements for means of escape location of emergency stops isolation of electrical supplies and fuel acoustic treatment of generator and/or room plant layout to suit exhaust, ventilation and attenuator requirements plant layout to suit structural requirements limitations or special

stmrnator set with automatic mains failure facility output (kVA) 30 50 100 150 250 300 400 500 700 1000 1500 2000 Length (mm) 2650 2900 4100 4100 4550 4750 5000 5500 6000 6000 6500 8000 Width
(mm)

Height (mm) 1500 1500 1900 20Q0 2500 2500 2500 2500 3000 3000 3000 3500

Weight (k) 1300 1700 3250 3800 5000 8500 9000 9500 12000 13000 19000 26000

1100 1100 1400 1400 1750 1900 1900 20WI 2000 2000 3000 3500

The arrangement of the generator and the ancillary services (i.e. oil tanks controls panels etc.) will be determined by access for maintenance and for safety requirements. The final layout arrangement will also be influenced by the site restrictions, acoustic requirements, and weight distribution requirements. Table 8 indicates the minimum room dimensions required to accommodate a single generator set with skid-mounted control panel and daily service fuel tank.
Clear space should be allowed above the generator to accommodate the exhaust pipes and to permit removal of the pistons during maintenance (cylinder head arrangements w@. These requirements vary with engine type but at least 1 m should be allowed for sets up to 700 kVA and 1.5 m for

radiator/heat exchanger/cooKng tower; local or remote any special local authority requirements any height restrictions requirements to meet local planning

cabling requirements; high or low level type and voltage of batteries required attention to engine starting currents) type of battery charger storage for tools/manuals provision of workbench and maintenance areas lighting/emergency lighting requirements fire regulations (with particular storage and enclosures) reference to fuel oil (with special

larger sets. It is common for larger sets (e.g. 1 MVA and above) to require separate rooms for the accommodation of control panels and switchgear. The space requirement will depend upon the generator set configuration and the integration with distribution switchgear, The manufacturers certified
20

location and number of doors (doors should open outwards and two means of escape from the generator room should be provided)

PRIVATE AND STANDBYGENERATIONOF ELECTRICITY

oil/drip tray provision bulk oil storage and fuel transfer system low voltage switchboard and synchronizing equipment earthing protection floor loading space requirements additions. for future plant replacement and

4.2. ?.4 kdustriul fuel oils Industrial fuel oils from kerosene to heavy fuel oil Class G have flash points above 37.8 C and are therefore not subjeet to the provisions of the Petroieum ~Consoli&twn)Acr 1928. All fuel storage and handling systems should be in accordance with i9S 799(27), 286$2s) and BS 541tX29~. BS Fire insurance companies and the Fire Ofilces Committee (now incorporated into the Loss Prevention Council) issue recommendations on fuel storage and handling. In particular, see Recommendationsfm Oil Fired InsraUutions(30}, published by the Loss Prevention Council. Some local authorities also issue recommendations on fuet storage and handling. 4.2.1.5 Diesel fuel oil

4.2
4.2.1

Fuel systems
Types of fuel

The properties Guide(zO). 4.2.1.7

of various fuels are given in the C113SE


oil to

Natural gas

Natural gas is supplied by British Gas PLC at low pressure by means of pressure-reducing equipment to a statutory level of 150 mm water gauge, It sometimes has to be boosted to a higher pressure for generators. Provision for fuel storage is not required. Normally the supply main is brought to an agreed point, where a meter is installed; it is the responsibility of the consumer to transport the gas from the meter to the point of use. British Gas safety requirements must be met in all cases. Guidance documents are available from British Gas area offices; in particular, see British Ga Co& of Practice IM1 fi21). In instances where an interruptible gas supply is to be provided suitable alternative fuel storage should normally be incorporated. 4.2.1.2
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)

Diesel engines for generator sets usually run on Class A fuel BS 286~28J.It is sometimes advantageous to use a fuel oil common to other systems such as heating boilers. To optimise the fuel storage requirements in these circumstances a fuel oil other than Class A may be specified. However, care should be taken to ensure compatibility with the generator diesel engine. The ignition properties of fuel oils are defined by the Cetane Index. Typical values are as follows: marine engines: Cetane 40 industrial engines and generating set prime movers: Cetane 45 engines for road vehicles: Cetane 50. Diesel fuel oil tends to wax at low temperatures and hence, where temperatures of below 5 C can be expected, precautions such as additives and electrical trace heating
need to be considered.

4.2.2

Storage tanks

The safety requirements for the storage of no, both in bulk and in cylinders, in factories and other premises to which the Factories Act(22) applies, are covered by the Highly Flamntalh Liquids and Liquejied Petroleum Gases Regulations 197f123J. ompliance with these regulations also satisfies the C requirements of the Health and Safety Executive code of practice, 2%.s Storage OfLPGat Ft3cedInstaUations(24j. For bulk storage installations the pressure vessels should be installed away from buildings and the line of adjoining property. The speeific requirements regarding location and spacing of storage vessels are given in the Health and Safety Executive code of practice and in a code of practice published by the Liquefied Petroleum Gas Industry Technical Association, Installation and maintenance of bulk .LPG storageat consumers premi.ws~2s~. 4.2.1.3
Motor spirit

Most generator set installations, particularly large installations and those used for base load applications, include a bulk fuel oil storage tank feeding a daily service tank above, or adjacent to, each generator set. Bulk and daily fuel oil storage tanks should be manufactured using good quality mild steel plate in accordance with BS 799: Part 5(27).Bulk tanks are commonly cylindrical and may be installed either horizontally or vertically. When installed horizontally, they should be mounted with a slight fhll and be fitted with a cock at the lowest point for draining sludge and/or water. The fuel oil supply draw-off should beat least 80 mm above the sludge cock and preferably at the opposite end of the tank. Filters should befitted to both the intake and draw-off pipelines associated with the bulk storage tank. Either local or remote indication of the bulk tank contents should be provided. The daily service tank should be as close as possible to the diesel engine and ideally immediately above the engine fuel inlet. The fuel outlet inside the tank should be raised above 21

(petro/)

These fuels have flash points below 22.8C and fall within the provisions of the Petrwkum (Consolidation)Act 192ti2@.

CIBSEAPPLICATIONS MANUAL

the bottom of the tank in order to avoid sediment andlor water entering the engine. A vent is also necessary. Means of returning any leaked or overflow fuel to the bulk storage tank should be provided on pumped fuel transfer systems. This prevents pressurisation of the daily service tank. A bund wall may also be required, see also section 4.2. The quantity of fuel oil to be stored, either by bulk/daily service tanks or solely by dail y service tanks, depends on:

Fill point and Bulk guard unit

Ground

floor level

II I
~

period of use
Solenoid valve ~ II

fuel consumption of the engine(s)

;*W
f$~

availabilityy of fuel.
Daily _ --C7= @@ W

j!,

Spill wall oil proof render to 11 O% capacity of tank

The proportional division between bulk and daily (local) service tank fuel storage may be affected by the local regulations, see also section 4.2.3. While manufacturers will provide specific consumption figures for their particular diesel engine, a rough estimate of the storage requirement may be based on a rate of 0.34 litres of fuel per kWh at fill load. This should be checked using the manufacturers data as soon as details of the engine are known. It is usually advantageous to select a tank of a size that is commercially available. Table 9 gives typical dimensions for cylindrical tanks for a range of capacities.

&
m ;$

ij

Float witch

~, DOWservicetank should testedto ?% be pressure ++*Y withstond the standing &$:*


%*,$ :y** g head of bel in case the solenoid valve fails to

Figure 4 Gravity-feed fuel transfer system (from ABGSM Technical Msmormrdum TM3(311, reproducedby permission)

authority. Some local authorities also require an automatic warning system to indicate that the tank is full during refueling.
4.2.4 Fuel transfer methods

Table 9 Typical dimensionsfor cylindrical tanks for a range of capacities

Capacity (lime) 5000 10000 25000 50000

Diameter (m) 1.50 2.00 2.50 2.75

Length (m) 2.80 3.00 5.00 9.00

A simple but uncommon method of transferring fuel oil from the bulk storage tank (or fill point) to the daily service tank is by gravity feed. The bulk storage tank is located at a
level higher than the daily service tank in order to provide the gravity head of fuel. The fhel supply to the daily service tank is either: (a) automatically controlled by means of a float switch in the daily service tank and an electrically actuated solenoid valve in the supply pipeline, see Figure 4, or

The period of use for determining the fuel oil storage capacity can vary greatly between different standby generation users. It may range from three or four hours to two weeks or more, particularly for military and other vital establishments. A period of 24 to 48 hours is typical for most standby purposes, provided fuel deliveries can be assured. It is important to establish the period of use with the client at an early stage during design. Base load generation will require considerably longer periods. 4.2.3
Statutory requirements

(b) manually controlled by a hand operated gate valve and suitable level indicator in the daily service tank, an overflow pipe returning excess fuel to the bulk storage tank.

If the bulk storage tank is sited either some distance from or below the daily service tank, a remote fuel transfer method is normally provided, see Figure 5. The pump can be either filly automatic or semi-automatic. Fully automatic systems rely on a float switch in the daily service tank io initiate the pump operation with further float switches to provide low and high level alarms. Semiautomatic systems comprise a manual push button start and automatic stop by means of a float switch in the daily service tank. This latter system has the advantage that it can be topped up even if the level is only slightly below full. However, it presupposes that the generator set installation is not fully automatic in operation. An overflow pipe should be incorporated as a safeguard against pressurizing the daily service tank should a float switch fail.

The design and provision of all fuel oil installations must be approved by the local authority. Most local regulations allow for storage of 450-500 litres of diesel fuel oil in one room
without special precautions. Where bulk storage tanks are installed in commercial premises, local regulations normally require gravity operated fire shut-off valves on the outlet feed pipes and also an oil-tight bund wall around the tank to contain the fuel oil should a tank leak occur.

Where fuel storage is provided at roof level then special conditions may apply which need to be agreed with the local 22

PRIVATE AND STANDBY GENERATIONOF ELECTRICITY


Daily sewice

tonk

U Vent

Bulk tank gaug

%l\=i=llzll
m~m
u

d
0
7 I Pall

TO fu till

.- ---,..,

n
VA I nil!!
~~w I I

twe valve

-.

paint

..,, ,.,..., . ... ........ .... . . . :..,.,.,.,., ., . .. . . .. . :..,,.

:$ o 0 O.O gr~; .:: 0.. .0.0 r~~yr

Oil proof render to 110% of tank co pa city to form bund

Overflow pipe Sludge --- l%. LV%K

/ /

.. .. . .

Im$m

,.

: ,...

... .I

:,...~

,.. ,., A-7a .V_ ,,., l .


[ 1111 Ele&ic pump

Figure 5 Remote fuel transfer system(from ABGSM ?ethical

Shut off volve

MemorandumTM3(31), reproduced by permission)

A further alternative is to use a manually pumped transfer system. This is normally achieved by using a semi-rotary hand pump but this method is often tedious and timeconsuming. If the level of the bulk storage tank is more than about five metres below that of the daily service tank, the pump must be installed at the bulk tank end of the fuel supply pipeline. Manually pumped transfer systems are common with small generator installations. They are also used when it is required to fill the daily service tank from a delivery drum or similar vessel. In such cases, the connecting pipework should be fitted with a removable protective cover and retaining chain at each end, to prevent the ingress of dirt when not in use, together with a removable type filter. Any permanent fuel-filling pipeline installed to enable fuel to be delivered from a loading bay, or street level position needs special attention with regard to safety/security measures against accidental damage or vandalism. Fuel oil circulating pumps are normally of the electrically driven positive displacement screw or gear type. They must be suitable for the viscosity and temperature of the grade of oil to be pumped. Each pump is normally fitted with an integral pressure relief valve with isolating valves on the suction and discharge sides. It is advisable to provide semi-rotary hand pumps piped up in parallel with any automatic fuel oil pumps.

ideally from the ceiling slab, using roller brackets to allow for expansion of the pipe. The exhaust system should be kept as short as possible and have the minimum number of bends in order to reduce resistance to the flow of exhaust gases and to reduce back-pressure, thereby increasing the efficiency of the engine. Where long pipe runs are required, or where there are a number ofbends, it will be necessary to use pipework of a larger diameter. The diameter of the exhaust pipework should be increased by approximately 25 mm for every additional 8 m of pipe run, or for every three bends incorporated. Where the details of the engine are known, guidance should be sought from the manufacturer. Additional expansion bellows should be provided on long runs. Bends should be of rigid section, generous radius and be adequately supported, Vertical pipe runs, silencers and any horizontal pipework (with slight gradient) should be provided with drainage facility at the lowest points for removal of condensate. Where the exhaust pipework passes through walls, sleeving or wall plates should be used to prevent damage to the structure by expansion and/or movement. The pipework should be thermally insulated at these points, The final termination should be positioned to prevent exhaust gases being drawn into the building and the ingress of rain. On long runs a terminal silencer should be provided approximately 3 m from the termination paint. Exhaust systems from two or more engines should be entirely separate and should not utilise redundant chimney stacks or boiler flues without careful consideration as to gas tightness, resistance etc. Boiler flues which are in use should not be used for generator exhausts as the engine pulsations will upset the boiler draught, and ignition of unburnt gases may also take place. Silencers are required for noise attenuation. Normally on short runs only one silencer is required and should be 23

4.3
4.3.1

Exhaust systems
General

The first section of the exhaust system, after leaving the engine manifold, should include a length of flexible pipe, or bellows, to absorb thermal expansion and stresses due to engine movement. The next section normally includes a local silencer and should be supported independently from the generator set,

CIBSEAPPLICATIONS MANUAL

selected for the location in which the generator house is situated. Residential and spark arrestor silencers, in addition to the industrial type, can be used for special applications and absorption type silencers should be utilised
in addition to the normal silencer where high frequency noise is likely to cause problems.

The quantity of combustion air is relatively small and the engine draws this in as required with the cooling air into the space. Typically, over a the range of outputs from 150 kVA to 1.25 MVA, the combustion air varies between 5% and 10% of the quantity required for cooling. For reciprocating diesel engines, it maybe fmsible to install the radiator remotely from the engine. This will require interconnecting pipework, an enlarged pump and an electrically driven radiator fan but will reduce considerably the airflow and noise in the engine room. The engine water cooling system is normally designed for a limited head of water, When this is exceeded due to remote radiators or cooling towers a break tank or heat exchanger must be incorporated. This also prevents oxygenation of the water and contamination by foreign matter. A diesel fuelled gas turbine requires larger quantities of combustion air than a reciprocating engine. Broadly, the turbine draws almost four times as much combustion air as a reciprocating engine for a given rating, i.e. 0.007-0.0017 m3 S-l kW- for the above range of outputs, It should be noted that the axial (propeller) fan on an engine radiator cannot overcome high external air resistance. Typically, for the above range of outputs, this will be in the range of 250 to 380 N m-z. As a result the design of any ducting and attenuators must take into account the true available spare pressure head for the set being considered. The amount of air for the radiator needed by these engines is about 5.5 m3 S-l for small machines and 23 m3 s-l for large machines, corresponding to 0.03-0.05 m3s-l kW1.
Gas

The temperature of exhaust gases is often in excess of 600C and care must be taken to ensure adequate insulation of exhaust systems to reduce heat transmission into the room and to minimise danger of accidental contact with personnel. The temperature of the exhaust pipework must be borne in mind when choosing suitable insulating material. 4.3.2
Exhaust pollution

The third edition of the Clean AirAct Memorandum,Chimney Heightst32Jtakes account of pollution from low sulphur fiels such as natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as well
as that from coal and heavy oils. Local authorities will require that exhaust pollution be within the limits permitted by the Clean Air Ac&33).

Diesel exhaust is not likely to create a pollution hazard but, if necessary, washers can be installed to extract sulphur and acids from exhaust gases. Approval needs to be obtained fkom the local Public Health Inspectorate concerning the discharge point of exhausts. This is covered by the Clean Air Act Memorandum. In practice, approvals concerning base load and peak load lopping generation systems are treated more stringently than those concerning standby systems. Exhaust from gas turbines is likely to create a lesser hazard than diesel oil as the exhaust gases are diluted by the large quantity of air that accompanies the exhaust gas.

turbine engines are sensitive to resistance to flow of the combustion air and details must be obtained from the manufacturer. A thrther allowance must be made for cooling air to the alternator.

4.5 4.4
Air

Noise and noise attenuation


General

requirements
4.5.1

All diesel engines, whether reciprocating or turbine, require air for cooling and combustion. In addition the room in which the engine is installed may require ventilation if the set ventilation system does not remove all of the heat which is released into the room. In its simplest and most common form, the set is installed in a dedicated room which is provided with a suitable means of ventilation. The design of the ventilation system will depend upon the following: . air flow rate required for cooling

Generating sets produce high levels of noise, typically 95-110 dBA sound pressure level (sPL) at a distance of one
metre, The noise level can be controlled by using a combination of enclosures, exhaust and inlet silencing and vibration isolation. The control of airborne noise is enforced under the EnvimnmentalProtection Act 199(XW).

It is essential that engineers, architects, the acoustics specialist and the environmental health officer of the local authority liaise at an early stage to agree acceptable noise
levels, normally related to the background environmental levels. The criteria of acceptability would usually be more stringent for continuous or night-time operation than for short term emergency use, but criteria vary widely between local authorities.

air flow rate required for combustion noise levels acceptable to the local external environment adequate static pressure available on integral cooling fan (if any). A reciprocating diesel engine with a water jacket rejects most of the heat to an air eocded radiator normally mounted on the end of the set. A belt driven fan draws air over the alternator and the casing of the engine, then pushes it through the radiator to the outside. 24

Inadequate attention at an early stage to building and structural needs can result in costly alterations later on. To avoid this situation, advice should be sought from an acoustics specialist, particularly where the generating set room is adjacent to occupied areas, or where there is a risk of nuisance with respect to environmental noise levels. The generating set room should be situated as far as possible

PRIVATE AND STANDBYGENERATIONOF ELECTRICITY

from noise-sensitive areas, such as conference rooms, cellular offices and auditoria, and should be large enough to house any additional attenuation required in order to meet stringent criteria. For vibration isolation it is recommended that, where possible, generating sets should be on a solid floor at basement or ground level.

Examples of the sound pressure levels produced by various common noise sources for comparison with that of a
generating set are given in Table 10. The SPL is presented in A-weighted decibels (dBA) and the corresponding sound pressure in Pascals (Pa). The definition of sound pressure level is given in Appendix A2.

Explanations of common technical section are given in Appendix A2. 4.5.2


Sources of airborne noise

terms used in this Table 10 Comparison ofsoundpressurelevelsforcommonsourcesof noise Sub&tive to the overall level
assessment ofnoise levet Deafening

Sound

Relative Pressure Example


(Pa) source

The main sources of noise contributing are:


.

pressure energy level (dBA) 120 110 100


90

moving parts of the engine which cause the engine casing to vibrate and thus radiate sound engine exhaust outlet combustion air inlet (including turbocharger) cooling fan, water cooling equipment and auxiliaries room supply/extract air fans and louvres (where fitted).
Moderate Loud very loud

1012 1o11 1010


109

20 20 2 0.2 0.2 0.02 0.02 0.002

Jet aircraft at150 m Pop music group Motor horn at 5 m Inside underground train; busy street Typicat dieselgenerator Set Noisyofftce;Iargeshop Radioat full volume Normal conversationat 1m; inside urban dwelling Quiet ofiice Public lib~, quiet ccmveraation Rustle of paper Quiet church; still night in countryside; soundproof room Threshold of hearing

80 70 60 50

108 107 106 105

The cooling tin and room air fans may be remote from the engine room and hence require separate acoustic treatment. Large axial cooling fans often give rise to very high noise levels at high frequencies. 4.5.3 Noise levels

40

104 103 102 10

0.002 0J3002 0.0002 0.000Q2

Faint

30 20

Veryfaint

10

Typical A-weighted sound pressure levels at one metre for generating sets for different power ratings are shown in Figure 6. These data ean be used at the initial design stage to estimate the noise levels from a generating set. The spectrum corrections also enable the A-weighted octave band sound pressure level to be estimated. It should be stressed at this point that manufacturers data should be obtained for accurate calculations. Sound pressure levels at a given distance or sound power levels in octave bands 63 Hz to 8 kHz are required for this.

0.00002

A calibrated sound level meter which meets the requirements of BS 5969(%) should be used to measure the noise fmm generator sets, which is fairly constant in nature.

115

110 -

105

< % E ; 100 A n m 95 -

7-

Spectrum corrections

90 315 63 125250500 lk 2k 4k 8k

Figure 6 Estimation chart for engine noise levels (from NIJise


Control in Industry,

0 0

,
149,2 298.4 4474! 5968

,
746.0

,
895.2

,
1044.4

,
1193.6

,
1342.8

Research Laboratories reproducedby permission)

Sound Ltd,

25

CIBSEAPPLICATIONS MANUAL

63

125

I 250

I
1000 (Hz)

1
8000

500
Frequency

2000

4000

Figure 7 Equivalence between NC, NR and ISO acoustic levels (NR

level = 1S0 level)

4.5.4

Noise criteria

Local authorities will give advice as to acceptable noise levels emanating from plant rooms. Sometimes there may be reasons for maintaining noise levels below those required by legislation. BS 4142(371 provides a method of rating industrial noise affecting residential and industrial areas and would be the most likely basis for establishing design criteria. It should be noted that environmental criteria may differ considerably between local authorities. Two examples of criteria are:

achieve these criteria. Consequently buffer zones around the plant room (such as corridors) should be included in the design, or the generating set should be sealed in an enclosure within the room (see section 4,5.5. 1). Criteria will generally be given in terms of NRor NCcurves, which are shown in Figure 7 and explained in more detail in Appendix A2. Typically, they will be NR30NR40 for office
spaces.

the noise level must not exceed 45 dBA at 10 m the noise level from anew installation must not increase the background level by more than 2 dB or at all in some areas.

In either case, the requirement will depend on the location of the plant room with respect to residential or other sensitive areas. Criteria for interior spaces adjacent to the plant room wiIl depend on their usage, but maybe as stringem as 35 dBA. As typical generating plant room noise levels are 100 dBA, even 300 mm concrete will not provide sufficient attenuation to

There may alternatively be a constraint as to permissible noise levels inside the generating sets and plant rooms, such as 70 dBA in an office environment or 80 dBA in an industrial environment. In an office environment, noise breaking through the plant room walls will have to be kept to a minimum. Such walls should be constructed accordingly. All cracks and other routes through which sound could reach noise-sensitive areas should be treated to produce an air-tight seal. In particular, spaces between pipes and ducts, and the boundaries of the holes where they pass through the plant room structure, should be sealed by packing them to the full depth with mineral wool or non-setting mastic. To

PIUVATE AND STANDBY GENERATIONOF ELECTRICITY

maintain the design sound reduction of the walls, the door and other apertures must be suitably acoustically treated.

4.5.5.4

Attenuators in duciwork

4.5.5

Reduction of noise from generating sets

4.5.5. J Enclosures

Combustion and ventilation apertures often require attenuators in the form of silencer ducts with splitters, acoustic lagging and linings. Turbine machines need supply air attenuators in the plant room to reduce the noise caused by air being drawn in. These attenuators ean be large (2 m or more in length) and thus the design should allow for them.

The most successful way to attenuate the noise radiating tlom the casing of the generating set is to completely enclose it in a sealed structure. The sound insulation of an enclosure increases with its mass, a doubling of mass increasing the attenuation of a solid panel by approximate y 5 dB. A solid uniform panel weighing 100 kg m-2 has potential attenuation properties of about 40 dB. However, as the enclosure must be ventilated for cooling and aspiration air this figure is an overestimate of the attenuation for an enclosure made from such a uniform panel. It should also be noted that acoustic louvres offer little in the way of low frequency attenuation. Generating set manufacturers can provide enclosures for their sets to meet the required noise level.

4.6

Flexible connections

Both reciprocating engines and, to a lesser extent, turbine engines produce vibration while running. The movement of the vibrating parts should be isolated from the frame of the engine/generator unit for the following reasons: to reduce the direct transmission of sound as described in section 4.5 to prevent bearing shock and torsional stress which could lead to premature failure. Vibration isolation between the moving parts and the frame may be achieved by the use of a combination of spring and rubber block mounting assemblies. Specialist advice should be sought on the selection of the correct assemblies to achieve the desired stiffness of the suspension whilst reducing the transmission of vibration and noise to an acceptable level. These assemblies are usually secured with transit bolts which must be removed before commissioning. Flexibility y of the pipes and cables which cross the space between the vibrating and fixed parts of the engine or generator unit may be achieved as follows:

4.5.5.2

Exhaust silencers

Noise from exhausts connected to reciprocating engines can be attenuated by 15-20 dB with the aid of normal baffle-type silencers. A further 10 dB can be obtained by using a residential type silencer. Installing a secondary silencer will provide additional sound reduction of up to 15 dB, dependent on the type of silencer used. A secondary silencer will perform most satisfactorily when installed at a distance of 10 or more pipe diameters from the primary silencer.
4.5.5.3 Anti-vibration

mountings and flexible

connections

small gauge copper pipes (up to 25 mm diameter) should be installed with a loop of diameter 10 times the pipe diameter copper or steel pipes of diameter greater than 25 mm should befitted with rubber inserts or bellows earthing straps should be of braided copper with a sheath to give protection from abrasion. control cables using multi-core cable should have an isolation loop as for small pipes control cables using single-core enclosed in a flexible conduit cable should be

Anti-vibration mountings provide the most convenient method of isolating low frequency vibration, and preventing it from being transmitted to the structure. The generating set manufacturer or specialists in vibration should be consulted to establish the most suitable mountings for a particular machine and location. The amount of vibration isolation necessary depends on the compliance of the structure on which the generating set is mounted. It is generally much easier to isolate a generating set on a solid concrete floor at basement level than on a lightweight slab at a high level. Local stiffening of the slab is likely to be required, with restrained spring mounts typically deflecting through 50 mm. The high centre of gravity of some generating sets along with large torques exhibited on start-up can lead to instability on such mounts, and inertia bases or twxssed mounts maybe required. This can be costly and may result in structural changes. Special care must be taken to install hangers for exhausts with correetly chosen anti-vibration mounts to prevent the transmission of noise and vibration through the structure via the hanger fixings. Flexible connections are required in ductwork, cables and pipes to prevent the transmission of vibration to occupied areas (see seetion 4.6).

power cables up to 35 mmz cross-sectional area should use multi-strand single core cable inflexible conduit power cables of cross-sectional area greater than 35 mm2 should use flexible multi-stranded over-sheathed cable with glands where appropriate reinforced rubber pipes or flexible connections should be used to connect the engine to the fixed pipework where remote radiators are employed exhaust .DiDeconnections at the erwine take-off should incorporate flexible metal bellows (the exhaust is normally supported from the structure, not the engine); see also section 4.3.

Care should be taken in the selection of metal sheaths for electrical cables due to the risk of failure through metal fatigue. Specialist advice should besought if necessary. 27

CIBSE APPLICATIONS

MANUAL

4.7
4.7.1

Earthing
GeneraI

size and duration of likely fitult current

resistivity of the soil and underlying strata. The electrodes are connected together with copper tape or stranded conductor using bolted or welded connections to form a discrete earth system. The final connections from the earth system to the supply system neutral and protective earth equipment should be by means of bolted links to enable testing of the earth system. Every generator system must be provided with an earth connection which is independent from that provided by the supply authority. The exception is the case of a supply authority sub-station installed on the premises with its own electrode system which the authority may accept as also serving as the generator earth eleetrode. Any generator earth electrode must be bonded to the existing earth system. This connection is needed as the equipotential bond. An earth terminal derived from a supply authority cable sheath is not acceptable for use as the standby generator earth electrode. If the cable is damaged, the earth connection could be lost and a dangerous condition will eventually result when the standby generator is operated. 4.7.5
Neutral earthing for low voltage systems

In the UK, the electricity supply system must comply with the Electricity Supply Regulations 198$3s1. This requires that there be a direct and permanent connection of the source supply to earth, typically by the use of one or more electrodes driven or buried in the ground. The practice of connecting the system to earth is termed neutral earthing. The neutral point of a system is the star connection of a three-phase winding. 4.7.2
Neutral earthing

There may be a neutral earth connection on the low voltage (LV)generator system, another on the higher voltage system used for transmission, and further connections with earth In on LV systems used for secondary distribution. distribution sub-stations in the UK it is usual to provide a neutral earth connection for each transformer low voltage output. The decision to interconnect the neutral earthing points of low voltage generators operating in parallel will be partially dependent on the amount of third and higher order harmonic circulation current which would result if they were coupled. The manufacturers must be consulted to see whether or not any ensuing circulating harmonics could be tolerated. It is generally the larger sets (above 500 kVA) that are operated in parallel and normally one generator would be selected to have its neutral earthed. For identical machines, parallel running can be achieved with all neutrals solidly connected. However, it is recommended that advice on generator earthing be obtained from the AC generator manufacturer where parallel running is adopted. Resistance neutral earthing on LV systems conflicts with the ElectiiQ Supply Regulations. The solution maybe to use a static bahtncer suitably rated, to split the system to reduce the number of sets in parallel, or to use an LV/HV system. 4.7.3
Protective earthing

The particular depend on:

neutral earthing

arrangement

used will

the normal method of supply, i.e. supply authority or private generation the presence of other low voltage consumers independent solo or parallel operation. The neutral earthing arrangement selected to meet the requirements of the particular scheme will be one of the following solid unstitched electrode neutral connection to the earth

switched neutral connection to the earth electrode neutral earth connection not required (provided parallel-connected alternator or supply) by

static balancer installed to provide a neutral star point. Guidance on neutral earthing arrangements for a particular 8-15. Figure 8 is appropriate where the normal source of supply is a supply authority main. Figure 9 considers the case where the normal source of supply is privately generated. Portable sets are considered in section 4.7.6.
LV scheme is given in Figures

The exposed conductive parts of plant, equipment and appliances connected to a neutral earthed system must themselves be separately conneeted to the earthing system. This will allow a fault current to flow in the event that these parts become live. This current will enable protective devices to operate and thereby quickly isolate faulty equipment from the supply. The protective device should operate within the time period defined in the IEE Wiring Regulahns(39j to provide shock protection. 4.7.4
Earth electrode

The connection with earth normally comprises one or more electrodes buried in or driven into the ground. These are made of copper, copper coated steel or galvanised steel. The size and number of electrodes needed will depend on: required resistance (typically 1 Q or less) 28

Note that the use of a static balancer to provide the neutral will mean that the neutral of the four-wire system will be maintained irrespective of the number of generators operating on load, The static balancer must be connected solidly to the busbar and the generators are then conneeted as three-wire machines (see Figure 15). By following through the flowcharts shown in Figure 8 or 9, as appropriate to the normal source of supply, the correct earthing arrangement will be identified. However, it must be emphasised that these flowcharts are for guidance onlfi

PRIVATE AND STANDBY GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY

r
L
Other consumers present \ L

Independent (standby)

solo

Solid neutml connection

With

Neutrol earth
SUPPIY

authority

connection (see note

not required

(b))

Figure 8 Neutral earthing flow chartwherenormalsupplyis fmm authoritytnain. Notes:(u)if this set is m be run independentsolo, then neutral must be made availableas for independentsolo (seeFigures 10and 11); (b) solid
neutral to all sets subject to tolerable levels of circulating currents.

Independent
,dondby,

solo

Switched neutrrrl(awitch
open when set is offj

With source other sets

q Stotic boloncer
(generotor star points not connected with earth)

Parallel

Wth

other standby

q Switched neutral earth


(one eatihed at any one time) see section 4.72

sets, not source

Private genemtian (normal $+ source of supply) Wth privote

Star point of generator not connected with eorth [see note)

source only

\ ~ ~dependent .. (standby] sola

Solid neutralcanneetion

F@e 9 Neutral earthing flow chart where normal supply is privately generated, Note: if generator is to be operated independently, a switched neutral connection witl be required.

detailed advice should be sought from a suitably qualified and experienced specialist. A standby generating set should not be installed to provide back-up to an existing supply authority main without the full knowledge and agreement of the supply authority. Further details are contained in Electricity Council Recommendations G59(1J. The neutral earthing arrangements for high voltage systems are outside the scope of this guide. 4.7.6
Earthing of portable sets

the uortable SUPUIVis to be used for hand tools and site lighting then a~~s~lation transformer producing 110 V AC should be used.

4.8
4.8.1

Electricaldistribution system
Protection

These are sets which are sufficiently lightweight to be carried by one or two persons. The units are rated from above 0.5 to 5 kVA, often single phase, and are usually driven by petrol engines. The neutral earthing requirement is met by connecting one end of the winding to the frame earth of the machine. This must be connected to a suitably rated earth bar before the set is used. The earth maybe a conduit, trunking or other earthed metalwork in the premises in which it is located. If

Distribution system design is outside the scope of this publication but the problem of achieving rapid disconnection of short circuit faults on a distribution system fed from an independent alternator must be considered. The high internal reactance of the set limits the steady-state fault current flowing from phase-to-phase, or phase-to-earth fault, to a value of only three to four times that of the normal full load current for the set with the assistance of field forcing (see also 3.5.4). A protection device designed to trip instantaneously on a transient overcurrent of about 10 times the normal full load may not operate sufficiently quickly to isolate the faulty circuit on lower values of fault current. Typically, this applies to moulded case circuit breakers (MCCBS) with a 29

CIBSEAPPLICATIONS MANUAL

supply outhority intoke

Eorth eleetrode

system = Prime Prime

Cansumer

earth electrade

supply

))
1
supply 1
T

Earth bor [ 6 Q 6[ Generator T1

c1
mover

busl

Link

1 I I ~lo ~1 ~-o L R +0 Y B Y

R Y B N&

$
t- --+
R Y B

1----

B N E

Moins only

Essential generator1 maintained load

Iood

Con5umer

Figure 10 Earthingarrangementfor independentSO1O generatorwith independentneutral.Note serviceneutralfromtransformer alsosupports


other consumers.

Fqre 12 Earthing arrangement for occasional operation of generator sets in parallel. Notea: no neutral earth connection directly to alternator; the supply company electrode and consumer earth electrode may be combined in the special ease cited in section 4.7.4.

Eorth electrode n

s@em f Prime mover

l-+-i---

w
--

I
Earth bar

Interlock
R Y B

R Y 4

R Y B N E

1
L&d

F
0 Link o

1
Earthbar

output

to Iood

Eorth eleetrode system

Figure

11 Earthingarrangementfor independentsologeneratorwith independentneutral and commonearth electrode s~tem. Note: Speciat

F~e 13 Earthing arrangement for generator sets in parallel with solid neutral. Note: this is not commonlyused.

caseof dedicated transformer T1.

magnetic instantaneous (HRc) fuses.

trip or high rupturing

capacity

A means of ensuring that a phase-to-earth fault is sensed rapidly is by the use of a residual current devices (RCDS)to trip the controlling circuit breaker. Phase-to-phase faults are rare in four-wire distribution systems because they quickly become phase-to-phase earth faults. The RCD therefore
provides a back-up to conventional ing thermal and magnetic trips. circuit breakers involv-

(IDMT)relays which maybe adjusted to pick up the fault and operate the appropriate circuit breaker for required fault conditions in conjunction with a short circuit current maintenance facility for the generator. This latter will extend the period of time for which the generator can maintain the steady-state short circuit current, thus enabling downstream protective devices to operate. Refer to section 3.5.4.
system It is essential to ensure that the distribution protection devices operate properly with the generator operating and that they comply fully with the requirements of the IEE WiringRegu&tims(39j.

An alternative, but more costly, solution is to use overcurrent and earth fault inverse definite minimum time
30

PRIVATE AND STANDBYGENERATIONOF ELECTTUCITY

4.9

Power factor correction of generator loads

Commercial and industrial electrical loads would normally operate at a power factor of very much less than unity unless correction were applied. The uncorrected value could be around 0.8 lagging. Many supply authorities use special tariffs to penalise those consumers using a poor power factor. This provides the necessary financial incentive to cause consumers to improve the power factor.
R Y B N E

The 0.8 lagging power factor may be improved to 0.95 for an outlay that can often be recouped in a period of one to three years in the UK. The correction of the lagging power factor is achieved by connecting suitably sized banks of capacitors at the loads or at the building main service position. This is a satis~ctory arrangement when the premises are supplied with power by a supply authorit y. Care has to be taken if this same load is to be fed from standby generating plant when the authority supply is not available, Refer to Appendix A3 for further details.

Earth eleetrode

system

Figure 14 Earthing arrangement for generator sets in parallel with switched neutral/eertb links. Notea: for generators Gl, G2 and G3, only the neutral to earth switch Nl, N2 or N3 of the first set on load (or lead set)will be closed at any one time; the neutral connection must be made before connecting any generator to the bars; the control arrangement should ensure that a neutral is connected all the time that one or more generators to are connected thebars.

4.10

Fire prevention, detection and extinguishing General

4.10.1

; 1!.Ii
move move mov G1 G2 Stotic balancer JUUl!I N

Prime

Prime

Prim

A complete standby generator installation contains many constituent parts which may present a fire risk; these include the following: prime mover fiel (oil, petrol or gas) lubricating oil and grease high temperature exhaust gases electrical power circuits. Care taken at the design and construction stages can minimise the risk of these elements causing or contributing to a fire. Care should also be taken to ensure that personnel, electrical cables and flammable fluids and materials cannot come into contact with hot exhaust systems, manifolds and turbochargers. In instances where the generator is being used to provide a supply to life safety systems, the generator, generator room and distribution system must comply with the minimum fire protection arrangements applicable to the particular safety system. 4.10.2
Regulations, standards and local requirements

w
~

Earth bar Earih eleetrode system

F@e 15 Earthing arrangement for generator sets in parallel with static batancer

4.8.2

Maintenance bypasa

Maintenance bypass and/or isolating switches are comtnonly used in instances where changeover contractors are utilised. Full mechanical key-operated interlocks should be incorporated for safety purposes.

All relevant regulations, standards and recommendations on the constmction of premises and their protection from fire should be complied with. These include the following: Electricityat Wok Regu&ztions(Nj Building Regtdations(41J and local building control officers requirements 31

CIBSEAPPLICATIONS MANUAL

Health and Safety at Wbrk, etc.AC$42J local fire officers recommendations BS 5410: Code ofpracticefmotY ftrin~43j BS 5839: Fire detection and alarm systems in buiUings(J: Part 1: Code of practice of system design, installation and seroicing BS 6266: Code of practice fmjire protection for electronic daraprocessinginstaifations(45) BS 5306: Fire extinguishinginstalkstwns and eguiprnenton premises(~) RuZesfm automatic swnklerinstallations IEE Wiring Regulations(3gj specific requirements of the insurer GS116: Gasfloodingfieextinguishingsystzrns: toxicha.wmk andprecauttonsystesns(~) s
Fire detection

4.10.4.1 Carbon dioxide [COJ Gaseous carbon dioxide is used to flood the affected zone, thus displacing the oxygen and extinguishing the fire. However, considerable care must be taken in its use and suitable precautions taken to ensure the safety of personnel. The release of large quantities of carbon dioxide contributes to the greenhouse effect. 4.10.4.2 Iialon 1211 (6CF) and 1307 (BTM) Concentrations of 5 to 10% for a period of a few minutes will extinguish the fire by chemical action. If the fire becomes deep-seated before release of the gas then concentration must be maintained for a longer period. This is to allow materials or liquids to cool below their flash point. In areas with gas flooding systems it is usual to install a means of mechanical ventilation which can be controlled from outside the zone by the nominated fire officer to enable gas and smoke to be removed when the fire is extinguished. These extinguishants are toxic. The release of halons is damaging to the ozone layer and hence also contributes to the greenhouse effect{49). 4. JO.4.3 Foam Foam is used to blanket the area, thereby cutting off the supply of oxygen to the fire.
4.10.5 Action in the event of fire

4.10.3

The detection of a fire whilst the generators are operating may be achieved by one or more of the following: alarm activated manually by personnel present fusible link fixed heat detectors infm-red or flame deteetors. Each of the above detectors should also sound an alarm, shut down the plant and isolate fuel supplies. In some instances, fiel within the zone maybe dumped to an outside tank to reduce the fire risk. Conventional smoke detectors generators are not running. 4.10.4
Fire extinguishing

If not already carried out automatically, actions must be taken:


.

the foilowing

activate alarms stop ventilation dampers equipment and close relevant fire

may be used when the

stop and isolate electrical plant and generators unless needed for safety reasons (e.g. eseape lighting) close valves on fhel and gas lines at entry to the fire zone activate extinguishing system alert internal andlor external fighting teams. fire officers and fire

This is a specialised operation in an environment which could contain lubricating and fuel oils, very hot components and electrical equipment. Specially designed sprinkler systems using mist heads may be suitable. Other methods are as follows.

32

PRIVATE AND STANDBY GENEMTION

OF ELECTRICITY

Testing and commissioning


Introduction

loads of the eventual building installation. ticularly applicable to skid-mounted sets.

This is par-

5.1

The testing and commissioning of a generating set (or combination of sets) and the associated control equipment are vital functions which should be properly carried out and recorded. Tests will normally be divided into the following:

With large base load sets, however, it may often be impracticable to perform a full works test on the complete engine, alternator and auxiliaty equipment assembly. Such sets are more usually subjected to works tests on the separate alternator and engine assemblies at the appropriate manufacturers works, with combined assembly tests being carried out on-site as part of the extensive erection and testing procedures. It is important to maximise the benefits gained from works tests rather than to Ieave certain tests to be carried out during on-site commissioning since the latter option is . .. likely to create programme delays in completing the installation should a malfunction be found. All reputable generator manufacturers have their own series of works tests and details of these should be sought from the particular manufacturer. A code of practicet31J~ublished by the ABGSM sets out a basic standard test schedule and an extract, showing a typical works test record, is shown in Figure 16. However, the basic tests included in this schedule should be regarded as the minimum required and it may be appropriate to specify that additional type tests also be carried out. The basic requirements for performance are set down in BS 4999(33J3S 500ti4j nd BSS514t5j. a

Works tests: covering the manufacture, performance of the main component generating plant and control equipment.

assembly and items of the

Site tests: proving the installation standards and operational perfo~ance, under site conditions, of the complete generating plant installation including interfaces with associated engineering systems.

5.2

Works testing

5.2.1 ~eneral
The complete generator set assembly, including its control equipment and switchgear, must be tested as a composite unit at the generator set manufacturers works in order to prove that its performance meets specified requirements, in so far as is practicable in the absence of the actual dynamic

APPROVED Diesel Generating Set TW I I Make: I TYp.dNO. I AVR RAiom AC Genemtor

TEST RECORD/CERTIHCATE

Works Ref No. cu5t0mec

Serial No.

Engine Make Typw Smiol No,

Control Oear

Rated Outwt I RPM I


1

Custc.meI% Order Ode of Order

No:

I volts

1
f
1

I ----AEGW

I kVA

service Rating

kVA

Govsrncw Radiator Ty@No.


Insulation Class StutOr, Eng Sattmy Char.

DL ---

km. 1
1 Ratina -----

Rotoc

Alt/Om

I 12/24 NTP Continuous

Volt RatinQ

t
Conditions of Test

%1 I

TEST RESULTS - All hosed on ABGW Loud Acceptance Gwnrning

and Voltage Regulation 0.8PF

Cokkiliot I I 60/50 I I 601 501 60[ 50t 601 751

Unity PF

Hot/Cold 501 501 601 25! 501 25 I N/L

Hot/Cold

lHzf&*

WI
751

601 50!

,
I

i I

601 100

,
[

501 100

&
[ N/L

I , [

Fuel Oil:

-1

% Load KW
hps

11OI

11 OI1OOI1OO[

woe

Ull:

volts
H#RPM L.nd D.mt& Test ot UniN PF oil kW PF Amps Volh Hz PSJ 01 Air Tempemtures Water C Gen Out Ambmt Overshoot/Oio on Load !%.

%
Tim Lead

44+
kW Amps

volts IH2 I 1Oate,


[ Approval: Notes Customers Rep: Eng:

Figure16 Typicsl works test record sheet (fromABGSM TahmklMsnwrmsAm 3i~Jreproducedby permission)
33

CIBSEAPPLICATIONS MANUAL

5.2.2

Standard tests

record this load condition factory load acceptance,

as confirmation

of satis-

These should be conducted on every generating set before despatch and should include the following standard tests. The main components of this standard test schedule are listed in the preferred sequenee.

5,2.2.3 Governing and voltage regulation tests These tests should be carried out under both cold conditions (before the load duration tests) and steady-state hot conditions (following load duration tests). The load conditions should range from no-load to 100??plus the specified overload capacity (for ABGSM A rating sets) at unit power factor by increments of 20-25h of rated kW load. It is recommended that these tests be repeated at a power factor 0.8 lagging using an inductive load bank, although manufacturers may be reluctant to offer this facility.

Check plant build against specification record reference and rating data prepare generating set for test with connections for exhaust, cooling system, lubricating oil, electrical power, control wiring etc. preliminary starting and running checks/adjustments performance tests (initial set up cheeks) load acceptance tests governing and voltage regulation (cold conditions) load duration tests with detailed examination immediately following hot shutdown governing and voltage regulation (hot conditions) transient switching tests insulation tests final re-run of set to observe correet performance final check and clearance including draindown, disconnections and completion of test c=rtiiicates, of set

5.2.2.4 Load duration tests


The load duration test comprises the following:

for plant rated at 100 kW or more, run up generating plant and run at rated load (preferably at power factor 0.8 lagging) for a minimum of four hours to ensure that thermal equilibrium has been reached for plant rated at less than 100 kW, run up generating plant and run at rated load (preferably at power factor 0.8 lagging) for a minimum of one hour for continuously rated sets it is recommended that a load of 110% of rated kW at unity power factor (or, preferably, at power factor 0.8 lagging) be applied for 15 minutes for sets up to 100 kW and 60 minutes for sets above 100 kW (some engines can attain 110% only after a satisfactory running-in period). This should be carried out immediately after the above full load test periodically record all instrument and air temperatures readings and plant

These tests are described in more detail below. Alternators manufactured to El 4999(3) must be tested in accordance with Part 143 of that standard. Internal combustion engines manufactured to 13S 5514(5}must be tested in accordance with Part 3 of that standard. 5.2.2.1
Performance tests

The initial setting up cheeks should include the following:


check for leaks of fiel, oil or water during tests on completion of test, shut down plant and examine all components for excessive temperatures.
Transient switching

run up and apply rated kW load at power factors 1.0 and 0.8 lagging adjust engine speed and generator values and lock at these values voltage to rated

5.2.2.5

tests

check that all control, indicating and safety equipment meet the functional requirements of the specification check that overload capability of 10% is available (some engines can attain 110VOonly after a satisfactory running-in period) throw off rated load and check that frecmencv. and . voltage values remain within specified tolerances. Loud acceptance tests

It is recommended that the transient switching performance be included in the works tests. Often, this is not offered as a standard test and therefore will need to be specified in the initial briefhender. The test should comprise the following:

start

5.2,2.2

set and apply a single step load in accordance with the specified load acceptance category (typically 60V0of rated load) and record ~utput volt~gearid ~requ~ncy switch off load and record maximum transient overshoot values of output voltage and frequency before recovery to normal values re-apply step load and record transient changes in output voltage and frequency before recovery to normal values record final steady state values after reeovery.

Load acceptance tests should include the following: from cold start and no-load condition apply single step load in accordance with specified load acceptance category (ABGSM A rating load acceptance categories range from 25% to 100% single step load application; it is recommended that 60A be specified as a general standard) 34

PRIVATE AND STANDBY GENERATIONOF ELECHUCITY

Details of governor requirements to B.S S514(5)are given in seetion 3.6.3 and firther guidance on voltage regulation is given in section 3.6.4. 5.2.2.6
Insulation test

installation. The initial checks will consist largely of static checks to ensure that installation has been carried out correctly in readiness for full testing and commissioning.

The engine/alternator shaft alignment must be checked where the set is not skid-mounted or where the assembly has been dismantled for transportation to the site. The generator output voltage, frequency and phase rotation should be checked before further tests are carried out and before final connection to the electrical distribution system. It is desirable to carry out a load test with the standby generator supplying the full site load, Since it is unlikely that the actual building load will be available at the commissioning stage, consideration should be given to the inclusion in the contract of a suitably rated load bank. Such a load bank should be specified as multi-stage and capable of offering loads at power factor 0.8 lagging. The test load bank may al~o provide a test facility fo; ro-utine maintenance
where it is not practicable or desirable to use the actual

The insulation test comprises the following:


.

remove external wiring between plant and test panel isolate sensitive electronic equipment in alternator and control panel (as recommended by manuficmrer) open any neutral earthing links using an insulation resistance test instrument, measure and record values of insulation resistance(s) reconnect electronic equipment and neutral earth links re-run set to check frequency.
Completion

correct

output

voltage

and

5.2.2.7

building load.

On completion of the tests and final run, the plant should be closed down and the following procedure carried out:

drain cooling, lubrication and fuel systems, attaching notices warning of this condition disconnect batteries and any test cables replace all covers and ensure their security check accessible bolts and connections check accuracy of rating plates complete and sign test record sheets.
Type tests

The duration of the site full load test should be at least four (preferably eight) hours for all sets above 100 kW. Sets rated at less than 100 kW are usually tested for one hour.
In all cases, the test should be carried out at varying loads up to the full rated load, with instrument readings recorded every 15 minutes. These readings should include jacket water temperature, exhaust temperature, lubricating oil level, temperature and pressure, output voltage and frequency. The mom temperature should also be monitored.

It maybe necessary to use an oscilloscope


frequency measurements, particularly

for voltage and

where

close

5.2.3

tolerances are specified. Noise and vibration measurements should also be monitored if the generator installation is likely to cause a disturbance to nearby occupants. Multiple set installations will need to be commissioned so as to demonstrate synchronisation with any combination of sets available and, where appropriate and by prior agreement, in parallel with the supply authority. In the latter case, it is often possible to arrange for power to be exported to the supply authority network for load testing purposes. All local/remote controls, emergency stop and all protection devices/interlocks etc. should be proved during on-site commissioning tests. The time interval should be noted between initial startup and load acceptance for the lead machine and, for multiple set installations, the time taken for the remaining sets to synchronise and accept load. Load sharing between sets should also be cheeked.
Site testing of a generator set intended to supply power and start a large induction motor, such as a chiller compressor, may prove to be impracticable at the time of commissioning the generator installation. However, it is vital that this be proven before final acceptance of the installation. In advance of this tesq the generator works test data should be checked against the motor manufacturers data for com-patibility

Apart from the above standard tests, there may be a requirement for certain type tests to be carried out at the manufacturers works. The requirement to perform such tests must be agreed beforehand with the manufacturer and therefore should be included in the specification. Examples of such tests include the following: cold resistance of electrical windings winding resistance and temperature rise following hot shutdown transient performance test (see section 5.2.2.5) vibration tests noise tests ability to withstand short circuit. Any type test certiikates required should be requested from the manufacturer.

5.3

Site testing and commissioning

The generator plant, including its associated fuel, cooling, exhaust, electrical and fire safety systems, must be thoroughly checked for correct operation in both manual and automatic modes during and upon completion of site

35

CIBSEAPPLICATIONS MANUAL with the performance requirements. Similarly, the motor data should include proven data on the character-istics of the motor starting device in starting the actual motor so as to prove compatibility. Upon completion of all site commissioning tests the generator supplier should provide an appropriate period of user training before final hand-over to the building owner/operator.

Full operating and maintenance instructions, together with comprehensive record drawings and documentation, must be available on hand-over. It is advisable that the scope be ckarly defined in the specitlcation otherwise only minimal standard mantiacturers literature maybe provided, Related matters such as special tools for maintenance, spares and maintenance contract arrangements should be defined, as far as possible, in the original specification.

36

PRIVATE AND STANDBY GENERATIONOF ELECTRICITY

Operation and maintenance

operating instructions guidance for fault finding recommended spares and ordering information.

Upon completion of all site commissioning tests the generating set supplier should provide the following:

an appropriate period of user training before hand-over to the building owner/operator upon hand-over, full operating and maintenance instructions, together with comprehensive record drawings and descriptive documentation special tools for maintenance (irrespective of who will maintain the equipment) spare parts (as recommended
contract price) proposals for an ongoing

6.3

Special tools

andlor included in the


contract (if

The generator supplier must provide, upon hand-over, all special tools necessary to maintain or operate the equipment in a safe and proper manner. These tools are necessary irrespective of whether the supplier has a maintenance contract for the installation. Details of these tools should be included in the operating and maintenance manuals. The tools should be housed in a clearly marked location, preferably close to the main generating plant equipment,

maintenance

required).

6.4 6.1 User training

Spare par?s

It is vital that the staff responsible for the operation of the generating plant be given proper instruction prior to handover of the equipment. This must deal with all safety aspects in accordance with the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974(42),any relevant HSE guidance notes and the Electricity at Work Regulations 1988@~. Apart from the moving parts of the equipment, the users attention must also be drawn to the safety and health aspects of ancillary static components such as batteries, fuel oil, anti-freeze, lubricating oil and electrical hazards. The period of user training will vary depending on several factors including the number and size of sets, the calibre and experience of the operating staff, and any ongoing involvement of the generating set supplier. The full operating and maintenance instructions should be fully explained to the user. In addition, as part of the training, it is useful for the user to be taken through the commissioning reports, with demonstrations wherever practicable.

The contract specification for the generating plant should allow for the immediate provision of spare parts recommended by the supplier when required for maintenance purposes. Such spares should be provided to the user on hand-over. Other spare parts, to be ordered as necessary, should be detailed in the spares section of the operating and maintenance manual. This should include all references and sources of supply, together with ordering information.

6.5

Maintenance contract

Ongoing maintenance responsibilities need serious consideration at an early stage of the contract. The building owner/main tenant may wish to rely on suitably qualified and experienced in-house engineering personnel. However, contract preferred available. beneficial an alternative is to negotiate a maintenance with the generator set supplier. This may be whether or not in-house engineering staff are Such an arrangement may be particularly where a multi-set installation is concerned.

6.2

Operating and maintenance instructions

The operating and maintenance manual should cover all parts of the generating plant installation including the prime mover, alternator, control system and all ancillary equipment. The content should include:

Advantages of giving the maintenance contract to the supplier include the safeguarding of generating plant guarantees and the avoidance of split responsibilities. Should the generator installation operate at high voltage then ensure that only trained, authorised personnel carry out the maintenance of such equipment. An enquiry for a maintenance contract should request a detailed proposal from the generating set supplier describing the various periodic maintenance activities that would be provided, including clarification of all costs such as routine spares, fuel oil, service materials. The supplier should also be asked to identify separately the cost of providing a breakdown service.
37

data sheets health and safety warnings


description (general and detailed) installation guidance notes commissioning procedures and reeords/test sheets

general arrangement drawings cireuiI and schematic diagrams

CIBSE APPLICATIONS

MANUAL

6.6
6.6.1

Periodic maintenance
General

regularly and the system kept in a state of complete readiness. 6.6.3.1 Typical periodic

maintenance checklist

Generating plant requires regular attention to keep it in good working condition, to ensure reliability and to achieve optimum performance and long life. Although the alternator will require occasional attention, in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations, it is the engine system that primarily requires routine maintenance. Base load generating plant or standby plant operating in hostile conditions will need more attention than standby plant operating in a normal indoor environment. The operation and maintenance manual should be consulted to ensure that all aspects of maintenance are correctly carried out. Care regarding operator safety is essential during maintenance. It is particularly important to make sure that the set being worked on is isolated from other supplies and that its battery and/or air supply is disconnected to prevent inadvertent start-up. The design of the switchgear and distribution system should provide for regular load tests. Such tests may include the use of load banks, building load or parallel operation with the supply authority. 6.6.2
Plant log-book of commissioning of the generating plant, that a log book be established in which all

Check fuel tank level check radiator water level check lubricating oil level check air cleaner restriction indicators check for leaks etc. check condition and tension of charging generator and cooling fan drive belts check and maintain batterv system in strict accordance .. with manufacturers instructions and check specific gravity if top-up required.
at specified periods

6.6.3.2 Maintenance

More detailed maintenance will be required according to the manufacturers recommendations. This includes checking and/or replacement of items such as lubricants, filters, belts and coolant at periodic intervals, typically every 500 hours. At longer periods, typically 5000 hours, major maintenance should be undertaken. This may involve complete stripdown of the engine and inspection and/or replacement of defective or worn components. 6.6.4
Alternator maintenance

At the completion
it is recommended

relevant data can be entered. This should include a cumulative record of hours-run readings and a summary of all servicing and repairs carried out. A record should be kept of lubricating oil and fuel oil consumption, as this will assist in subsequent analysis of plant performance and provide an early indication of mechanical deterioration. 6.6.3
Engine maintenance

The total running hours for normal standby generating


plant could be quite small and may frequently only involve a monthly run-up for checking serviceability. The generating plant manufacturer should be consulted for recommendations in this respect. Generally, brushless alternators require minimal maintenance but it is usual for manufacturers to recommend the establishment of a servicing routine to ensure that operation is normal. Typically, for frequent usage of about eight hours

Maintenance schedules should be provided to ensure that regular checks are implemented consistent with the extent and type of plant duty. Plant which is being operated in a particularly hostile environment will need more attention. Base load generating plant operating in dusty areas will need frequent examination of the radiators to ensure that they are kept clear of fouling due to a mixture of oil and dust clogging the fins and thus restricting engine cooling. Similarly in these hostile conditions, air filters will require renewal much more frequently. Mains failure plant may be called upon to work only at infrequent intervals, due to the rarity in loss of electrical supply in many industrialised countries. However, it is imperative that when called upon to work, the plant operates in a satisfactory manner. This necessitates a regular check on its condition. It is recommended that this category of phutt is mn under load conditions at least once per month. The battery system in such cases is particularly vulnerable and the battery charge condition should be checked 38

alternator running per day under normal environmental conditions, the following checklist schedules indicate the primary actions that should be taken. 6.6.4.1 Typical monthly maintenance

checklist

Check that airflow is normal and not restricted by dust deposits or foreign matter at air inlet and outlet points check filters and remove any dust deposits with dry air line check for any evidence of noise, vibration or unusual temperature tise during running sequence.
checklist

6.6.4.2 Typical annua/ maintenance

Expose, examine and clean both the exciter assembly and rotating rectifier

check the bearings for retention of grease and re-grease if necessary in accordance with manufacturers instructions,

PRIVATE AND STANDBY GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY

6.6,4,3 Extended

period

maintenance

checklist

Completely dismantle and thoroughly clean alternator


examine all parts for excessive wear or darnage inspect and clean bearings and replace if necessary.

39

CIBSEAPPLICATIONS MANUAL

7
1

References
20

replaced by

BS 5514: Parts 3-5) (Milton Keynes: British Standards Institution) (1958)

Recommendationsfor dee connectionof private gtneratingplant to the El@ricityBoardsge nerang~stem G59 (London: ElectricityCouncil)

Fuels and combustion CIBSE Guide Section C5 (London: CharteredInstitution of Building ServicesEnginee@(1976) Codeofpracticefm naturalgasjidl.ed sparkignitionand dual-jid engines British Gas Code of Practice IM 17, amended by lM17/1 (London: British Gas)(1981/6) TheFactoriesAct1961 (London: HMSO)(l%l) Highly FlammableLiquids and L@.efied Petroleum Gases Regulations 1972(London: HMSO)(1972) TheSwrageofLPG asFtkedZnstaUations Health and SafetyExecutive HS(G)41 (London: HMSO) (1991)
p Installationand maintenanceof bulk LFG storageat cansumersremises Code of Practice No.1 (London: Liquefied Petroleum Gas Industry Technical Association UK) (1978) The Petroleum(CansoMation)Act1928 (London: HMSO) (1928)

(1985) 2 3
Emergencyprivate generation HSE Guidance Note PM53 (London: HMSO/Health and SafetyExecutive) (1985)

21

22

ES 4999: Generalrequiremrntsfbrotatingelectricalmachines;Part 101: r 1987: Specification for rating and performance; Part 140:1987: SpecrjIcatiors voltageregukstsins fm andpamlkiaptmrtwn ofa.c. synchronous generators; art 143:1987: Spec@ation~tests (Milton Keynes: British P StandardsInstimtion) (1987) BS 5&?O: otating electricalmachinesofpesrticseksr R types orfmparsicuksr applicatiosss;Part 2:1988: Specification for turbine-typesynchronous machines;Parr 3:1980 (1985): Generatorsto be driven by reciprocating internal combusttonengines (Milton Keynes: British Standards Institution) (1980-88) BS S514: Reciprocatinginternalcombustion engircas: pe@rmance; Part 1: 1987: Specificationfm standard referenceconditionsand declarationsof PotW,fielco$esumti andhcbricatengoti cmusemption; Part 2:1988: Test methods;Part 3:1990: Specificationf3r testmeasscrements; 4:1979 Part (1984): Speed governing; Part 5:1979 (1984): Torsional vibrations (Milton Keynes: British StandardsInstitution) (1979-88) Limis.sar harmonicsin the UK ele~city sscppey G5i3 (London: The f Electricity Council) (1976) Electrical services:supply and distribution Health Technical Memorandum HTM 7 (London: Department of Health and Social

23

24

25

26 27

ES 799: Oil burning equipment; are5:1987: Spwijicasion P f.sroil storage tanks(Mdton Keynes: British StandardsInstitution) (1987) BS 2869: Fuel oielror non-marineuse; Pars 1:1988: Specificationfor f ascsomoticeiesel~l (classAl); Part 2:1988: Specsiasion fbrjitel ailfw d f agricultural nd ircdwalengkes andburnersclaw.rA2, Cl, C2, D, E, F, a ( GandHJ (Milton Keynes: British StandardsInstitution) (1988) BS S41O:Code ofpractice for oilfiring; Part 3:1976: Installations for fismaces, kilns, ovens and other industrial purposes (Milton Keynes: British StandardsInstitution) (1976) Recommendations oil fired installations(London: Loss Prevention for council) (1990) A Code of PracticefmDesignen, Installersand Usersof GeneratingSets Technical Memorandum TM3 (Redhill: Association of British Generating Set Manufacturers)(1985) Chimney heights: Third edition of the Clean Air Act Memorandum (Lm-sdon:HMSO)(1981) CleanAirAct 1968 (London: HMSO) (1968) ErsvironrtseretalPmrecssimAcs (London: HMSO) (1990) 1990 Noise Control in Industry 3rd edn (London: Laboratories/E& F N Spon) (1991) Sound Research

28

6 7

29

Security/WelshOffice/HMSO)(1977) s
Emergency electrical services Hospital Technical Memorandum HTM 11 (London: Department of Health and social SecurityAVelsh Office/HMSO) (1974) 13S530A:1988: CodeofpraAefbr saf@ of machinay (Milton Keynes: British .Wutdarda Institution) (1988) Specificationfor lead-acid highpajbrrnancePlant&posisiw ppe; Part 4: 1987: Specifwation for lead-acid valve regulated sealed type (Milton Keynes: British StandardsInstitution) (1984-87)

30

31

32

10 BS 6290: Lead-acid stationary cells and batteries; Part 2:1984:


33 34 35

11 BS 6260:1982 {1988]: Specificationfm open nickel-cadmiumprismatic


dut%dk (1982) wngfeells(Milton Keynes: British StandardsInstitution) c

36

b engines;Part 12 BS 3911: Lead-acid stcsrser aaeriesfw internalcombustion 1:1982: Specification batteries for requiring regularmaintenance; are 2: P 1987: Specificationfor maintenance-freeand law-maintenance batteries (Milton Keynes: British StandardsInstitution) (1982-87) P 13 BS 6745: Portablelead-acid cellsarrdbatteries; art 1:1986: Spec@mson fm perfbrrrtance,design and constructionof valve regulated sealed type (Milton Keynes: British StandardsInstitution) (1986)
37

BS 5969:1981 (1989): Specification far sound level meters (Milton Keynes: British StandardsInstitution) (1981) BS4142: 1990:Methodofratingindussssdnaireaffecnngmixedreridenrial and indtssrrtidareas (Milton Keynes: British Standards Institution)

(1990)
38 39

TheElectric@Supp~Regulasions1988 (London: HMSO) (1988) IEE Regulationsfim Electrical Irrstaliations (16th edition) (London: Institution of ElectricalEngineers.)(1991) TheEi.ecnjci&atWorkRegulations1989 (London: HMSO) (1989) TheBuildingRegulationt1985 (London: HMSO) (1985) TheHealthandSafetyat Worketc.Act 1974 (London: HMSO) (1974) BS 5410: Cm% ofpractice fmoilfirirrg; Part 1:1977: Installationsup to 44 k Wasstputcupaci~fmspace heatirtgasedhot atersupplypurposes; art 2: w P 1978: Installatwns of 44 kW and abooeoutput capaci~fm spaceheating, hot water and steam supply purposes; Part 3:1976: Installations for furnaces, kilns, ovens and other indtsstrialpurposes (Milton Keynes: British StandardsInstitution) (1976-78) BS 5839:Fire&tectianaeedalarm systems fmbseildings; art 1:1988: Code P ofPactiefm !vstemdagre,installationand servicing(Milton Keynes: British Standards kSUNtiOn) (1988) BS 6266:1982: Code of practice forjlre protectwn for electronic data processing installations(Milton Keynes: British StandardsInstitution) (1982)

14 BS 6133: 198S: Code ofpracti~ fbr safe operationof lead-acid stationary


cells and bartenies(Milton Keynes: British Standards Institution) (1985)
40 41 42 43

15 Rotating electrical machines IEC 34 (Geneva: International


Electrotechnieal Commission) (1983-90)

16 Di-wns

of three-phaseinductionneotor-shajl heights ji-omS6 to 4M.J mm and frame numbers from F 55 to F 1080 IEC 72 (Geneva: International ElectrotechnicsdCommission) (1971-90) Alsthom Instruments Ltd) (1990)

17 GEC Protective Relays Application Guide 3rd edn(Stafford: GEC


of o 18 BS 80s2:1988: Specijicationforlimitsand methodc measurement fradio intt+rence characteristics householdelectricalappliances,portabletools of and similar electrscal apparatus (Milton Keynes: British Standards Institution) (1988)
44

45

19 BS 649:1958: Theperformanceof reciprocatingcompression/ignition


(died) engines,uciliaingli#jisel onLy, fmgerteralpurpases(snithdraurrs

40

PRIVATE AND STANDBY GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY

46

ES 5306: Fire extinguishing issssalkionsand equiprnsns npremises; ars o P O:198& Guidefm sheselecsian inrtahd ywenss andatherjireeqaipment; of Pars 1:1976 (1988]: H~rans systems,hosereelsandf~m inlets;Pars 2: @nklersystems;Part 3:1985: Codeofpracdcefm 1990: Specij5cationrfm tkeselectiq inssahbn andmaintessassce ofponablejirs extingssirkers; Part 4:1986: Spec-@ation fmcarbon dsbxia% system!;Part 5: Section5.1:1982: Hahn 1301 totaifloodingsystems;Part 5: Section5.2:1984: Halon 1211 total jlooding systenss;Par~ 6: Section 6.1:1988: Specification for iow Specification for expansion foam systems; Part 6: .Sectwn 6.2:1989: mediumand highexpanswnf~m systems;Part 7:1988: Specificationfm

powder sysmms (Milton Keynes: Brirish Standards Institution) (1976-1988)


47

Rss[esfor automatic sprinkler inssahations London: Loss Prevention ( Council) (1990) Gasjlooditsgjire extinguishing systems: toxic hazards and precautions Health and SsfetyEx~tive GS/16 (London: HMSO) (1984) Chlorojkrocarbons-pro sessional and practical guidance CIBSE Guidance Note GN1 (London: Chartered Institution of Building ServicesEngineers) (1989)

M 49

CIBSEAPPLICATIONS MANUAL

Appendix Al: Availabili~ wind power

of

Hence: Pp = 0.29A V3 Therefore,


to

(AL4)
a 5 kW output at a windspeed of 20 9 tds), the swept area of the rotor may

achieve

Al.1

General
available from the wind depends
on the

mph (approximately be estimated by:

The energy following:

A=

5X103 0.29 X93

= 23.65m2

air density
wind velocity area swept by the rotor

Hence, the rotor diameter is 5.5 m.

The power output may be computed from the mass of air passing through a given area in unit time, i.e: P= ++ (All) is the

Al.2

Bibliogmphy

Le Gouriers D Witsdpowerplarsss-theosy and design(Oxford: Pergamon Press) (1982) Wirsdener~forthe eighties (London: British Wind EnergyAssociation/Peter Perigrinus)(1982) Gelding E W 17se generation ofekcsrkq by windpower (London: E and F N Spon) (1976) Putnam PC Z%uerjbn thersind (New York Van Nostrand) (1948)

where~ is power output(W), o is air density (k~m3),~ swept area of rotor (m2) and ~is wind velocity (m/s). Thus: p=+@v3

(A1.2) VinceJ Discoverhgwindmilk (Risborottgh:Shire) (1992)

The density of the air varies with altitude and atmospheric conditions. In the absence of detailed information for a particular site, the density of air maybe assumed to be in the range 1.225 to 1.29 kg/m3. Using the latter value:

Taylor R H Ahernatioeenergysour (Bristol: AdamHilger) (1983) ce.r


Stoddard F S Wind turbineen~neering &sign (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold) (1987)

Barker A S Wind power potential and time response of wind energy 37 (1) 15-23(1986) machines SokzrE~

P= 0.645A VJ

(A1.3)

Madsen BT, Pslx W, RusmuasenB and Schmid J Small and medium wind turbinea Ins.y. SoksrEn~ 4(3) 123-160(1986) Cmver P C Windpower-electrieat poww sourcefor the fiture Sun world
11 (3) 86-90 (1987)

Equation A3 gives a good indication of the total power availability of the wind. However, with most modem wind generators the maximum power availability at the generator
terminals is 40 to 45% of the total power available when taking into account the efficiency of the generator and the rotor.

Twidell J A guide to small wind energy conversion systems (Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press)(1987) Gmbb M J The potential for wind energy in Britain l%ergyPolicy 16 (6) 594-607 (198S)

42

PRtVATEAND STANDBY GENERATION OF ELECTIUCITY

Appendix A2: Acousticscommonly used technical terms and units

A-weighting

of frequency weighings have been developed to imitate the ears varying sensitivity to sound of different frequencies. The most commonly used is the A-weighting,

A number

Decibel (dB)

This is the unit used m measure sound. The human ear has an approximately logarithmic response to acoustic pressure over a very large dynamic range (typically 20 @?a to 100 Pa), We therefore use a logarithmic scale to describe sound pressure levels, intensities and power levels. The logarithms used are to base 10; hence an increase of 10 dB in sound pressure level is equivalent to an increase by a factor of 10 in acoustic pressure in pascals. Subjectively, this corresponds to a doubling in perceived loudness of sound.
Sound

The A-weighted SPL can be measured directly or derived from octave or third octave band SPLS. he result is a single T figure index which gives some idea of the subjective loudness of the sound, but which contains no information as to its frequency content. It is measured in dBA. The correction factors to convert octave band SPLS into
A-weighted SPLSare given in Table A2. 1.

Table A2.I round levels Frequency (Hz) 63 125 250 500

A-weighting

of

A-weighting (dB) -26 -16 -9 -3

power /eve/ (SWL)

This is a function of the noise source alone and is independent of its surroundings. It is a measure of the amount of sound power in a reverberant room and will not be the same as the sound pressure level at 1 m from the same source measured in free field.
Sound pressure level (SPL)

000
2000 4000 8000

0
+1 +1 -1

This is a fimction of the source and of its surroundings and is a measure of the sound pressure at a point in space. For example, a sound pressure level measured 1 m from a source of a certain sound power in a reverberant room will not be the same as the sound pressure level at 1 m from the same source measured in free field. The relationship between the
sound pressure level (sPL) and the sound pressure in pascals is as follows:

Noise rating

(NIR)

C7n~

noise criteria (NR) curves

The A-weighted sound pressure level cannot be used to define a spectrum or to compare sound of different frequencies. Noise rating (NR) and noise criteria (NC) curves
convey frequency information in a single-figure index. This is done by defining the sound pressure level at each frequency for each curve. To measure the noise rating of a given environment, the SPL is measured in octave or one-third octave bands and the noise rating is then the highest curve touched by the measured levels. An example of a spectrum corresponding to NR35 is shown in Figure A2.1.

SPL=zolO&

(A2.1)

2X10-5 where SPL is the sound pressure level (dB) and P is the sound pressure (Pa). The denominator is the reference pressure (Pa) adopted in the UK. However some manufacturers in the USA, and their European subsidiaries, adopt other reference pressures which give lower values of SPL for the same sound pressure. This gives the false impression that the noise levels generated are lower than their UK equivalents.

The original noise rating system was the set of Nc curves which were specified by Beranektl) in the USA. The European (1S0) standard is the set of NR curves which are slightly more stringent at higher frequencies than the equivalent Nc curves and less stringent at low frequencies.
Intermitiency crnd time-weighting

Ocfave and third octave bands

The human ear is sensitive to sound over a range of approximately 20 Hz to 20 kHz, and is generally more sensitive to medium and high frequencies than to low frequencies. In order to define the frequency content of a noise, the spectrum is divided into frequency bands, and the sound pressure level is measured in each band. The most commonly used frequency bands are octave bands, in which the mid frequency of each band is twice that of the band below it. For finer analysis, each octave band may be split into three one-third octave bans or in some cases, five liequency bands.

The degree of annoyance caused by a noise also depends on its duration and intermittence. Intermittent, impulsive or repetitive noises tend to be more annoying than continuous noises. Various time-weightings have been devised to measure sounds of differing intermittencies and these can be measured directly on modern equipment, The most common time-weightings in use areas follows: L.wfi This is the sound pressure level exceeded for 90V0 of ~he measurement period, T. It is widely used to measure background and ventilation noise levels. : This is the sound pressure level exceeded for 10% L~l)>~ o t e measurement period, T. It is widely used to measure traffic noise. For a given measurement period, 43

CIBSE APPLICATIONS

MANUAL

60

50

40 NR40 30 NR35

-. --20

---

--.

NR30 NR25

t
10 I
63 125 250 Octave 500

==i
lk
(Hz) 2k 4k

1
8k

FA2.1 Example of sound spectrum corresponding to tm35


(denoted by broken line~

band centre frequency

t~~lo,r level is b y definition greater than or equal to 90,r

L.=: This is the maximum RMS sound pressure level measured during the measurement period, T, and shotdd not be confused with the maximum peak value.

: The equivalent continuous noise level is often use to measure environmental and intermittent noise. It is defined as the notional steady noise level that would contain the same acoustic energy as the varying noise over the measurement period! T. Bemuse the averaging process used is logarithmic, the L, = level tends to be $ dominated by the higher noise Ieves measured in the time period,

=[

Note: when these time-weightings are applied to overall Aweighted measurements they are denoted L~go,T&A1o =, > LAq= and LAmWr

Reference for Appendix A2


1

Beranek L L Criteria for office quieting based on questionnaire Amer.28 pp 833-S52 (September 1956) studies ~. Acoust.SOC.

PRtVATE AND STANDBY GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY

Appendix A3: Operation with loads corrected for power factor


The alternator of a typical generating set is rated to supply a declared maximum steady state value of kVA at a particular power fictor. The usual value of the power factor selected is 0.8. The equivalent true power produced in kW, plus the
losses in the alternator and transmission, is the shaft output power which must be available from the prime mover to

effect is quantitatively referred to as the synchronous reactance. If an alternator has a synchronous reactance of say, 200A (typical of modern brushless machines), the magnetic effects of the winding when carrying rated current at zero power fkctor lagging will be equivalent to 200% of the field excitation required to produce rated voltage at no load. The effectiveness of the armature reactions described above will depend not only on the magnitude of the armature current, but aIso on the power factor of the circuit being supplied and it will be found that operation of the machine at lagging power factors will require much greater field excitation to maintain the correct terminal voltage than for the case of unit power factor resistive loads. If the power factor of the load circuit moves into a leading mode, then the field excitation requirement for rated voltage and rated current wiIl be less than for the unit power fkctor condition.
A3.1.1 Typical excitation diagmm

drive the alternator. The relationship between prime mover output, load kVA and power factor is best shown in the form of an excitation diagram which is described in section A3.1. It is generally recognised that operation of alternators at leading power factors can give rise to difficulties and it is therefore useful to establish a simple, easily applied theory from which the acceptable operating limits can be determined. Any power factor correction capacitor equipment should be switched in or out with its associated load under generator load conditions to avoid the system operating at a leading power factor.

Figure A3. 1 shows an excitation diagram for a typical alternator of 200V0synchronous reactance operating under various conditions at rated terminal voltage. AOCB represents the operating condition with full load current and a power factor of 0.8 lagging. The straight lines represent (to scale) the following components of excitation and their relative phase angle relationships.

A3.1 Alternator field excitation


In the case of an alternator running at rated output voltage with no load across the terminals, the field excitation requirements will be comparatively low and will be necessary only to setup the magnetic flux in the machine necessary to produce the required voltage. If a load is then connected across the output terminals, a current will flow in the armature windings and the output voltage will fall, requiring an increase in the field excitation level to restore the voltage back to rated value. This fall in voltage is due to the reactions which occur inside the machine due to the current flowing in the armature windings. The machine characteristic which produces this
. .

OA: the excitation required to produce the magnetic flux sufficient to generate rated output voltage at no load OB: the excitation equivalent of the armature synchronous reactance at the rated output current CB: the in-phase ponsive to KW) or power component of OB (res-

OC: the quadrature or reactive component of OB (responsive to kVAr) AB: the total field excitation reauired to Compensate for synchronous reactance and pro~ide the magn~tic flux in the machine

Operation of the machine at rated voltage and current at other power factors will cause point B to move around the

Acceptable leading

area of

UPF
B1

PF operation

-.

\
=.

\
Unacceptable leading area af PF operation

0.8

PF Area of lagging

Y
L

B3 .

\ \.~\. .\ \.\ \

lagging <. n /

PF operotion

Areo of exceaa ~ field heating

Zero PF
A o t 25% Percentage /c) 50% 75% j 100% B2

rated output current

Figure A3.1 Field excitation diagram for 200% reactance alternator 45

CIBSE APPLICATIONS

MANUAL

100% semi-circle resulting in a change in the field excitation requirement as represented by the length of the line AB. Thus, point B1 represents the unit power factor condition where it will be seen that the reactive component of OB has disappeared causing a reduced field excitation requirement ABI. Similarly, operation of the machine at zero power factor lagging, point B2, would maximise the field excitation requirement represented by the length of the line AB2 since under this condition OB has no power component so that point C would coincide with point B2. If the power factor of the circuit is moved into a leading mode, (e.g. due to connection of capacitors), the reactive component of OB reverses and adds directly to OA, thus tending to self-excite the machine and produce a field excitation requirement which is less than for the unity power factor condition B1. In the diagram point B3 represents the practical limit of acceptability in the leading power factor mode since this is the condition under which the reactive component of OB exactly equals AO and therefore provides just the right amount of self-excitation to generate the rated terminal voltage. The total excitation requirement at this point is still appreciable due to the power component AB3, but the voltage regtdator of the alternator would maintain control of the output voltage and the machine could be expected to behave normally. However, if the machine is loaded further still into the leading power factor condition a situation of incompatibility occurs due to the fact that OC, the reactive component of OB now exceeds the no-load excitation AO and this produces an unacceptably unstable mode of operation. The excitation diagram includes semi-circles drawn to represent 75,50 and 25Aof the rated output current and, by drawing the diagram with the B points lying on these circles, the operation of the machine can be predicted at lower output current levels. It can be seen that in the case of the 200% reactance machine chosen, acceptable operation down to zero power factor leading will occur, providing the output current does not exceed 50Arated value.

A3.3 Maximum power output


In Figure A3.1, the vertical line drawn from B to the baseline represents the maximum kW output for rated current at a power factor of 0.8 lagging. The diagram also shows that as the power factor increases towards unity the kW output of the machine can be increased without exceeding the rated output current. It will also be seen quite clearly that at these higher power factor conditions the field current lies well within the limiting arc, so that rotor temperature rises could be expected to be comparatively low.

A3.4

Effectof sudden loss of load

The inability of these machines to cope with a leading power factor necessitates a note of warning where power factor correction is applied to a load fed from a standby generator. Power fhctor correction is achieved by connecting banks of capacitors to the load. This is intended to produce a net power factor between 0.85 and approaching unity. In the event that a large section of load is lost, yet the capacitors are left connected, the machine will be subjected to a sudden leading power factor. The rapid onset of instability can lead to complete shutdown of the supply or damage to equipment. There is little virtue in applying power factor corrections to a set which provides standby power, therefore the correction control equipment is usually arranged to inhibit the central power factor correction plant when the standby plant is running.

A3.5 Parallel operation mth authority supply


When designing systems which incorporate parallel operation of generators with the authority supply, it is usual to employ quadrature droop control. Quadrature droop control is achieved by a modification to the automatic voltage regulator (AVR) circuit to derive a small voltage which is proportional to the quadrature component of the current being measured and injects this into the voltage sensing network to give the effect of a voltage error and produce a change in generator excitation level, This form of control allows for the power factor on the supply authority main to be kept constant at an agreed level, usually about 0.8 lagging. The installation demand for reactive power component (VAr) is then met automatically by the alternator AVR system which regulates the excitation as required. When in-house capacitor power factor correction is provided, as previously described, it would normally be acceptable to leave these capacitors in circuit, bearing in mind the constraints outlined. If the capacitors are automatically controlled this provides an easier alternative as they should not give rise to excessive leading or lagging reactive power (VAr) on the system.

A3.2

limitation due to field heating

The line AB in Figure A3.1 represents the field excitation needed for a particular operating condition. Most alternators are rated at a power factor of 0.8 lagging, so that AB would normally represent the condition of rated field current, An arc, centred at 0, through point B indicates the area in which the field current exceeds the rated value and would therefore result in some degree of overheating. This area is indicated and it may be seen that for a zero power factor lagging condition the maximum output current which could be tolerated without excess field heating would be something under 90% rated value although in a practical machine this figure would be still further reduced due to the effects of magnetic saturation which have not been considered in the above discussion. 46

PRIVATE AND STANDBY GENERATIONOF ELECTRICITY

It is advantageous for the system to control automatically at a power factor of about 0.8 lagging as this provides a reasonable control band within which the alternator AVR can operate (i.e. 0.8 lagging to 1.0). Some supply authorities impose financial penalties for installations operating at a power factor lower than 0.9 lagging and this must be borne in mind on a generator

system operating in parallel with the authority as the saving in tariff costs by for instance increasing the power factor seen by the supply authority from 0.849 lagging may not be beneficial compared with the more stringent AVRcontrol requirements to meet a smaller working bank of VArs. Note that alternators operating at unit power factor or at leading power factors become unstable.

47

CIBSE APPLICATIONS

MANUAL

Index

A-weighting Acoustics-commonly used technical


terms and units Air start Airborne noise Alternator field excitation Alternator maintenance Alternators Anti-vibration mountings Asynchronous generatom Attenuators in ductwork Automatic synchronisation Automatic voltage regulator (AVR) Bsse load generation Base load generation scheme
Batteries Battery chargers

43 43 12 25 45 38 14 27 14 27 16 18 2 3 12 13 14 21

Gas turbines Governing and voltage regulation tests Gravity-feedfuel transfersystem Hand StStt High rupturing capacity (HRC)fuses Hydraulic governotv Hydraulic start High voltage and low voltage generation Installation requirements Insulation test Intermittence and time-weighting Inverse definite minimum time (IDMT)

5 34 22 12
30 17 12 8 20 35 43 30 15 8 13 8 21 34 7 18 34 14 38 38 39 37 16 46 17 4 10 7 21 29 21 28 4 24 26,43 43 25 26,43 8 37 37 45 18 10 46 3

Performanceteats Periodic maintenance Periodic maintenance checklist Plant log-book Plant&batteries Pocket plate nickel cadmium batteries Potential faults on generatorsystems Power factorcorrection Power output Primemovers Protection of prime movers Protective earthing Quadraturedroop control Reciprocating engines Reciprocating internal combustion engines Reduction of noise Remote fuel transfersystem Residual current devices Salient pole generators Sealed rechargeablebatteries Self-regulating salient pole generators Site testing and commissioning Siting of wind generators Sound power level Sound pressure level Space requirements
spare parts

34
38 38

3% 13 13 14 31 6 4,11 11 28 46 12 5 27 22,23
30 14 13 14

relays lag
Large motor loads Lead-acid automotive starterbat~eries Linear loads Liquefied petroleum gas Load acceptancetests Load characteristics Load control Load duration tests Mains operatedbattery chargers Maintenance checklist annual monthly extended period Maintenance contract Manual synchronisation Maximum power output Mechanical governors e Mobile genentting sets Mode of operation Motor loads Motor spirit @etrol) Moulded case circuit breakers Natural gas Neutral earthing No-break generating sets Noise and noise attenuation Noise criteria Noise criteria (NC)curves Noise levels Noise rating (NR) Non-1inearloads Opctating and maintenance manusd Operation and maintenance Operation with loads correctedfor power factor Operatorcmntrols,instrumentation and alarms Parallel operaringgenerators~tems Parallel operation with authority supply Peak-lopping sets

Bruahleaasalient pole generators Bulk tanks Combined heat and power (CHP) systems Commissioning Comparison of sound preaaurslevels
Daily servim tank De-raring factors Decibel Diesel engine speed Diesel engines Diesel fuel oil Distributed field generators Esrth electrode Earthing Earthing arrangements Electric start Electrical distribution system Electronic governors Energy available from the wind Engine maintenance Environmental raringfactors Exhaust pollution Exhaust silencers Exhaust systems Exporting surplus electricity Fire detection Fire extinguishing Fire prevention FIexible connections Free electrolyte nickel cadmium batteries Fuel transfermethods Fuel types of

2 33 25 21 15 43 11 5 21 14 28 28
30 12 29 17 42 38 11 24 27 23 3 32 32 31 27 13 22 21

Specikwion requirements Start-upcontrol Starting aids Starting kVA of the motor Starting methods Static excitation generators Storagetanks Sudden loss of load Supply authority Synchronisation control for parallel operation Synchronous generators Testing and commissioning Thermal efficiencies Transient switching tests Turbine drives Type tests Uninterruptible power supplies User training Ventilation Vibration isolation Voltage control Wind machines Wind power generation systems Works test record sheet Works testing

35 5 43 25,43 20 37 11 16 12 7 12 14 21 46 3 16 14 33 2 34 12 35 1,4 37 24 27 17 5 5 33 33