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# Topic/Title

## Points Across the Grades

Grade 10 Geometry 1 40-minute class period

Chalk or white board, computer with internet access, graph paper, 15-20 well sharpened pencils, 15-20 student rulers, student handouts

Standards

Content Standards

Geometry
Grade 6 Overview Geometry Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, surface area, and volume. 1. Find the area of right triangles, other triangles, special quadrilaterals, and polygons by composing into rectangles or decomposing into triangles and other shapes; apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems. 6.G

## Geometry Expressing Geometric Properties with Equations G-GPE

Use coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically 5. Prove the slope criteria for parallel and perpendicular lines and use them to solve geometric problems (e.g., find the equation of a line parallel or perpendicular to a given line that passes through a given point). 7. Use coordinates to compute perimeters of polygons and areas of triangles and rectangles, e.g., using the distance formula.

Standards (cont.)

## Standards for Mathematical Practice

1.

Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. Students will use a variety of problem solving strategies to understand the new mathematical content. Choose an effective approach to solve a problem from a variety of strategies (numeric, graphic, algebraic).

2.

Reason abstractly and quantitatively. Understand how concepts, procedures, and mathematical results in one area of mathematics can be used to solve problems in other areas of mathematics. Evaluate the relative efficiency of different representations and solution methods of a problem. Investigate relationships between representations and their impact on a given problem. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. Provide correct mathematical arguments in response to other students conjectures, reasoning, and arguments. Communicate logical arguments clearly, showing why a result makes sense and why the reasoning is valid. Support or reject arguments or questions raised by others about the correctness of mathematical work. Use correct mathematical language in developing mathematical questions that elicit, extend, or challenge other students conjectures. Model with mathematics. Use multiple representations to represent and explain problem situations (e.g., verbally, numerically, algebraically). Use appropriate tools strategically. Present correct mathematical arguments in a variety of forms. Use physical objects, diagrams, charts, tables, graphs, symbols, equations, or objects created using technology as representations of mathematical concepts. Attend to precision. Communicate verbally and in writing a correct, complete, coherent, and clear design (outline) and explanation for the steps used in solving a problem. Present organized mathematical ideas with the use of appropriate standard notations, including the use of symbols and other representations when sharing an idea in verbal and written form. Understand and use appropriate language, representations, and terminology when describing objects, relationships, mathematical solutions and geometric diagrams. Look for and make use of structure. Understand and make connections among multiple representations of the same mathematical idea. Recognize that mathematical ideas can be supported by a variety of strategies. Recognize and verify, where appropriate, geometric relationships of perpendicularity, parallelism, congruence, and similarity using algebraic strategies.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Use mathematics to show and understand mathematical phenomena (e.g., use investigation, discovery, conjecture, reasoning, arguments, justification and proofs to validate that the two base angles of an isosceles triangle are congruent).

8.

Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. Understand the corresponding procedures for similar problems or mathematical concepts.

Anticipatory Set

Discussion Students will be asked to complete the following problem in less than three minutes without constructing a rectangle around the triangle. Graph paper and rulers may be used to graph the problem on their own. Find the area of the given triangle
8

B
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B: (5.00, 7.00)

C: (3.00, 3.00) C

10

10

15

20

A: (1.00, 1.00) A

10

12

14

After a discussion of the impossibility of achieving this solution at this time, I will also tell them certain skills learned in previous years will be used to solve this problem. (Area, slope, etc.) Learning Activity The lesson will begin a review of methods used in previous grades. A simpler area problem would be presented on Geometers Sketchpad. The

students will be asked to individually construct the same triangle on a piece of graph paper using a ruler and a pencil. After all the students are done constructing the triangle, a class discussion would begin as to what previously learned method could be used to find the area. This would generate a discussion on using a rectangle around the triangle to find the area. While on sketchpad, the class would come to a general consensus as to the steps to solve the problem. Their steps will be recorded on Sketchpad and also will be asked to be recorded on their own drawings. This will incorporate a review of basic geometric rules regarding area. 1.) Construct a rectangle around the triangle 2.) Find the area of the square (A=base x height) 3.) Find the area of the four triangles generated by the square (Area= base x height) 4.) Subtract the sum of the areas of the four triangles from the area of the square, resulting in the area of the given triangle. After coming to a general consensus on the steps to solve the problem, the students will be asked to take no more than five minutes to complete the problem. After the five minutes, as a class the students will instruct how they recorded their work for every step and what answer they arrived at. If there is a disagreement somewhere, a solution to the discrepancy will be discussed and fixed. This will generate a discussion about how this method works and why it works. Students will have to review basic geometric rules about rectangles and triangles. This lesson will now connect to the anticipatory set. This will generate a discussion about what other strategies could be used to find the area of an irregular shape (oblique triangle in this case). The original problem presented at the beginning of class would be put back up on Sketchpad, however this time, a perpendicular line would be dropped from point C to line AB. This point will be labeled point D. The students will be asked to construct this same drawing on a piece of graph paper. It is at this juncture of the lesson that the slope criteria for perpendicular lines would be introduced. The slope criterion for perpendicular lines says that given two perpendicular lines, the slope of one line is the negative reciprocal of

the other. Example: If CD is a perpendicular line to line AB, and the slope of AB=1/2, what would the slope of CD be? This will generate a class discussion as to the relevance of this fact in our problem. Another fact will be brought to attention at this time: Since the line CD in the problem is perpendicular to line AB, not only does it have a negative reciprocal as its slope, but line CD is the base of the triangle, and line AB is the height of the triangle. The students know that the formula for the area of a triangle is base x height, so this will set the stage for the solving of this problem. It is at this time general equations should be reviewed. The first is the equation of a line: y - y1 = m ( x x1 ) The slope (m) is in this formula, but the students will be able to calculate the slope just by looking at their drawings. The students will then be asked to find the equation of the line AB using the above formula (the students will be told they can either use the point A or the point B in the formula). This task should take no more than 3 minutes. After this is completed the students will be asked to give the slope of the line CD knowing the slope of line AB. This will generate a quick discussion about the slope criterion for perpendicular lines. Next, the students should realize that since they have the point C, and the slope of line CD, they can find the equation of the line CD. In order to find point D, the students will have to simultaneously solve the equations of lines AB and CD to find point D. The equations will be put on the board and the students will be called on individually to help solve the equations. Equation of line AB is y = 4/3 x + 1/3 Equation of line CD is y = -3/4 x + 3/4 After this is done a review of the distance formula will be put on the board. Distance formula: Since points A, B, C and now D are known, the students will be asked to individually find the distances of lines AB and CD. This should take no more than five minutes. In order to get the students more involved, a student will be called on at random to put their findings on the board.

It will now be brought to the students attention again that line CD is the height of the triangle and line AB is the base of the triangle. The students will then be asked to use their knowledge of the area of a triangle formula to complete the problem. The lesson will be comprised of visual learning activities. The assigned homework will help the students practice finding the area of irregular triangles using the perpendicular line. Throughout the lesson, the NCTM Standards for Teaching Mathematics will be paramount, i.e., The students will be engaging in worthwhile mathematical tasks both in class work and assigned work. All assigned work is relevant to the NYS standards and will involve realistic applications. The teachers role in the discourse will be positive, engaging, challenging, and inspiring. The students role in discourse will be encouraged, important, and mathematical and will fully satisfy the communication strand. Multiple methods will be used for enhancing discourse including class work, technology and directed activities. The learning environment will constantly be one that will foster each students mathematical power. Students will be encouraged and assisted in active problem solving, making connections, and in understanding and creating representations while employing strong reasoning and proof skills. The teacher will engage in a constant analysis of teaching and learning pre- and post- lessons to ensure that all objectives are met. Strengths of the lesson will be identified as well as areas needing adjustment.

## Provision for Diversity

Gearing Down There is some provision for gearing down, in terms of the content of this lesson. For those students who cannot recall the definitions previously learned, the definitions will be provided for the class. For those students who may have difficulty taking notes or creating a graph, a print out of the notes and graphs will be provided for them. Students having considerable difficulty during the class will be asked

to come in for additional help. Gearing Up Those students who may have learned portions of this material in their previous education experience will be encouraged to assist in the presentation. They may also be utilized as student assistants to lend their expertise to other students. In any case, it is unlikely they would have known how to apply the slope criterion for perpendicular lines to find point D, so that will be an area of interest to them. Questions for Understanding Knowledge What method can be used to find the area of an oblique triangle? What are the area formulas for a square and triangle? Construct a triangle giving 3 points. What is the formula for distance? How do you find the slope of a line? What is the formula for the equation of a line? Comprehension What is true about the slopes of perpendicular lines? What is the slope of line CD? What does solving the two linear equations simultaneously provide? Application Find the equation of lines AB and CD. Solve the equations simultaneously. Use the distance formula to find the distances of CD and AB. Use the formula for the area of a triangle to find the area. Analysis Why cant you just use the formula for the area of a triangle initially? Synthesis Summarize the process of finding the area of and triangle. Extend this process to a parallelogram.

Evaluation You have learned two methods for finding the area of an oblique triangle. Which method would you use if you have not learned how to find the slope of a line perpendicular to a given line?

Practice

Guided Students will carry out each construction at the same time they are reviewing/learning it. The initial problem will be completed as a class exercise. Independent Students will be asked to duplicate the drawings seen on Sketchpad. They will also be asked to complete steps to the problem using the formulas and ideas discussed throughout class.

Technology Integration

Related constructions using Geometers Sketchpad will be presented. Assuming each student has access to Geometers Sketchpad at home, there will also be an opportunity to do an application of constructions and problem solving using GSP. Students will summarize the steps needed to solve the problem posed at the beginning of the class. The main idea being the importance of finding the slope of one line, when it is perpendicular to another to find point D. The students should realize that not every shapes area can be found using only one formula. The first method, along with the new method taught, will serve as the unifying concept of the unit. Immediate (Formative) As always, students will be expected to take notes in the math only notebook. Each student will be observed while doing the actual constructions. The problems will be done together in class. Each student will be given the opportunity to provide a step, an idea for a step, and to agree or disagree with the progress being made. Interviews may also be conducted with students on an as needed basis. The following holistic rubric will also be used during class and on assigned work for my information only. Students will not receive a grade based upon the rubric. 4 3 Possesses a good understanding of the solution of finding the area of oblique triangles using both methods. Possesses a good understanding of the solution of finding the area of irregular triangles using both methods but has more

Closure

Assessment

2 1

difficulty using method 2. Student can use method 1, but cannot use method 2 correctly. Possesses considerable difficulty using both methods equally to area problems.

Long Range (Formative) There will be an assignment designed to allow them to practice both types of methods, i.e., constructing a square around the triangle, and dropping a perpendicular. Assignments will be checked at the beginning of next class. All assigned homework will be collected, graded, and returned to the student the following day. Students have previously been made aware of the significance and point value of homework as a portion of their grade. There will also be an announced quiz after all of the material had been discussed and reviewed.