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In earlier lectures.

Find the response of an LTI system by expressing the excitation as a linear combination of impulses and expressing the response as a linear combination of impulse responses.
We called that technique convolution.

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Sinusoidal Signal

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Representing Real Signals using Complex Phasors

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Advantages 1. Simplifies mathematical derivations and analyses. 2. Addition of signals is easy

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Fourier series/Transform

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BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Time property of signal and its Fourier representations

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Fourier series
Fourier Series is an alternate method of signal representation. Signal is represented as a function of frequency. Every Periodic Signal (real world signal) can be expressed in terms of its Fourier coefficients. If the Fourier coefficients are known it is possible to synthesize the periodic signal
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Periodic Signal

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Fourier series representation


Trigonometric Form Exponential Form

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Trigonometric Form

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Compact Trigonometric Form

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Example

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Example 2

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Exponential Form

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Example

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Periodic symmetries & Fourier coefficients

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Fourier coefficients

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Line Spectrum

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2-Sided Line Spectrum

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Power Spectrum of a periodic signal

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Bandwidth of the signal


It is the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies of the spectral component of a signal.

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Determination of fundamental frequency and period

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Summary o Fourier Series

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Fourier Transform
Transforms a signal (i.e., function) from the spatial domain to the frequency domain. If the signal is aperiodic signal, Fourier Transform is used.
An aperiodic function is a function that never repeats itself Never Repeating itself is equivalent to Repeating at Infinity. => Aperiodic Function spans a Continuum of Frequencies of the Fourier Series Envelope

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Why is FT Useful?
Easier to remove undesirable frequencies.
Faster perform certain operations in the frequency domain than in the spatial domain.

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BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

In Fourier series,

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BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Examples

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Dirichlets conditions

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Fourier Transform of basic functions

Impulse function ----- Fourier Transform

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Inverse Fourier Transform

The Fourier transform and its inverse are referred to as a Fourier transform pair

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Inverse Fourier tranform of Impulse function

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Response of the system

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Properties of Fourier Transform

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