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INEQUALITIES

Law of inequalities
For any real numbers a , b , c , x , y
1. a > b a t c > b t c
2. a > b and c > 0 (i) ac > bc (ii)
a
/c >
b
/c
3. a > b and c < 0 (i) ac < bc (ii)
a
/c <
b
/c
4. a > b -a < -b
5. a > b and b > c a > c , transitive law
6. a > b > 0 (i)
1
/a <
1
/b (ii) a
2
> b
2
(iii) a
n
> b
n
, n is a natural number
7. 0 > a > b (i)
1
/a <
1
/b (ii) a
2
< b
2

To systematically solve these inequalities to following procedure is recommended:
(i) Make the RHS zero by shifting all terms to LHS
(ii) Fully factorize the LHS
(iii) Draw a sign diagram for the LHS
(iv) Determine the value required from the sign diagram
I. Quadratic
1. x
2
< 2. 3x
2
x 2 0
3. 4x
2
+ 10x 6 0 4. -3x
2
5x -2
5. 16 < x
2
6. 9x
2
30x + 25 0
7. x
2
> 5 8. x
2
+ 7x < 0
9. x
2
4x + 1 0
II. Polynomial
1. (x + 2)(2x 1)(3x + 7) 0 2. (2x + 3)(3x 1)
2
(x 5) < 0
3. x
3
5x
2
+ 6x 0 4. (x
2
+ 2x 3)(x
2
+ 3x)(x
2
x 12) 0
5. (x + 1)(x
2
+ 2x 7) x
2
1 6.
( ) 0 10 ) 1 ( 7 1
2
2
2
< + + + x x
7. ( )
3
2 3 x (x+1)
4
(2+3x)
2
(-x +4)<0 8.
81
4
> x
9. 6
5
7
5
2
+
,
_

+
,
_

+
x
x
x
x <0 10. ( ) 0 ) 4 ( ) 4 ( 16
3 2 3 3 4
< + x x x x
III Rational
1. 2
1 4
5 6

x
x
2.
4
1
2
1

+
x
x
x
x
3. 0
64
16
2
2
<

x
x
4. 0
1 2
4 4
2
2
>

+ +
x x
x x
5. 2
4
6 5
<

+
x
x
6.
1
) 1 (
1
2

+
x
x
7. 0
4 5
9 6
2
2


+
x x
x x
8. x
x
x
<
+

1
1
9. 0
4
30 9
1
14

+ x
x
x
x
10. 4
3 3
24 3
2
2
<
+
+
x x
x x
11.
( )( )
( ) ( )
0
4 3 1
3 4
2
3 2

+

x x x
x x
12.
( ) ( )
0
3 4
1 2 2
2
2

+
+ +
x x
x x x
13. 0
30
2 3
2
2 3 4
>

+
x x
x x x
14.
2
1
) 7 )( 1 (
) 4 ( 2

x x x
x
15. 2
1
8 7 3
1
2
2

+
+

x
x x
16.
( )( ) 4 1
) 3 4 )( 2 3 )( 2 ( 2
2 2


x x
x x x x
17. 0
18 7
40 17 3
2 4
2 4



x x
x x
18.
( )( )( )
( )( )( )
0
9 6 15 7 6 2
7 5 3 5 4 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
<
+ + +
+
x x x x x x
x x x x x x
IV. Discriminant and Inequalities
A. Roots of Quadratic Discriminant Value
Two real distinct roots D > 0
A repeated root ( two identical ) D = 0
Two real roots D 0
No real roots D < 0
Soal:
1. For the equation kx
2
+ (k + 3)x = 1, find the value of k for which the equation has:
a. two distinct real roots b. two real roots
c. a repeated roots d. no real roots
2. Untuk nilai-nilai yang manakah persamaan kuadrat x
2
2(1 + 3a)x + 7(3 + 2a) = 0 mempunyai
a. dua akar nyata berlainan ?
b. dua akar kembar ?
c. tidak mempunyai akar ?
3. Cari har-harga m agar x
2
+ (m -1)x + 2 = 0 mempunyai dua akar yang berlainan.
4. Diantara batas-batas manakah letak x dan y jika x
2
xy + y
2
= 3 ?
5. Berapakah batasan nilai
2
4
2
2
+
+
x
x x
?
B. ax
2
+ bx + c = 0
Jenis Akar Syarat-syarat
1. Kedua akar positif (x1>0,x2>0)

'

>
> +

0 . ) (
0 ) (
0 ) (
2 1
2 1
x x iii
x x ii
D i
2. Kedua akar negative (x1<0,x2<0)

'

>
< +

0 . ) (
0 ) (
0 ) (
2 1
2 1
x x iii
x x ii
D i
3. Kedua akar berlawanan tanda

'

<
>
0 . ) (
0 ) (
2 1
x x ii
D i
4. Kedua akar berlawanan

'

+
>
0 0 ) (
0 ) (
2 1
b x x ii
D i
5. Kedua akar berkebalikan

'


>
c a x x ii
D i
1 . ) (
0 ) (
2 1
Soal:
1. Berapakah harga-harga m, agar kedua akar (m 2)x
2
(m + 2)x + (m + 1) = 0
a. positif ? b. negative ? c. berbeda tanda ? d. berlawanan ? e. berkebalikan ?
2. Ditentukan persamaan kuadrat x
2
+ (2m 1)x + m
2
3m 4 = 0. Hitung m agar kedua akar
a. kembar. b. berlawanan c. negative.
3. Cari a agar akar-akar x
2
2ax + a + 2 = 0:
a. tidak sama tandanya b. positif.
4. Tentukan k supaya
4
1
x
2
(k 1)x + k
2
1 = 0 mempunyai akar-akar:
a. negative b. berbeda tanda
Tambahan:
1. Tentukan p supaya dari x
2
2px 2p + 3 = 0
a. masing-masing akarnya kurang dari 1.
b. x1 < 1 dan x2 > 1.
c. masing-masing akarnya > 1.
2. Berapakah harga m agar akar-akar 6x
2
+ mx + 35 = 0 terletak antara 2 dan 3 ?
3. Cari a agar akar-akar (a 2)x
2
(a 1)x + 5 = 0, x1 dan x2, dipenuhi x1 < 3 dan x2 > 3.
Irrational equation
Definition:
The equations that some variables is in the surds form.
How to solve irrational equation:
Make the number of surd form in RHS equal to LHS
If there is only one surd form make it separated
Quadratic RHS and LHS
Repeat all above until there is no more surd form
Check the solution
Exercise
1. 15 3 + x x 2. 0 28 12 1 8 3 4 + + + x x x
3. 6 3 2 1 + + + + x x x x 4. 8 7 15 3 9 2 + + x x x
5.
1 5 3 2 3 2
2 2
+ + x x x x
6. 4 7 9 2 + + x x
7.
9 11 4 3 34 4 3
2 2
+ + x x x x
8.
3 2
5
3
5
+
+ +
x
x
9.
1 7 6 5 6
2 2 2
+ + + x x x x x x

10.
0 5 2 32 2 5 2 3 3 2
2 2 2
+ + + + x x x x x x
Absolute equation
Definition :
The equations that some variables is in absolute form.
Function of absolute value:

'

>


0 ,
0 ,
) (
x if x
x if x
x x f
Law of absolute:
(i) 0 x (ii)
2
2
x x (iii) y x xy (iv)
y
x
y
x
(v) x y y x
How to solve absolute equation:
Use definition and Law of Absolute with dividing x into regions
For non-negative forms, use quadratic for RHS and LHS
Exercise
1. 7 2 6 x 2. 3 2 7 6 + x x
3. 3 1 4 + x 4. x x 3 3
5. 3 3 x x 6. 1 7 2 + x x
7. 6
2
5

+
x
x
8. 11 2 3 + x x
9. 12 3 4 3
2
+ x x 10. 10 2 x
11. 2 2 x x 12. 2 1 + + x x x
13. 2 2 2 1 3 1 + + + x x x x x 14. 4 1 1 + x
15. ( )
2
2 ) 4 (
3 2
8 3
+

+
x x x
x
x
Irrational inequality
Definisi:
Pettidaksamaan dimana variabelnya di bawah tanda akar.
How to solve irrational equation:
Determine the value of surd form into non negative (positive or zero)
Use the same method when you solve the irrational equation.
Combine above the step to find the answer
Exercise
1. 2 1< x 2.
4 1 3 + x
3. 4 2 3 + < x x 4.
2 2
4 x x
5.
1 1 2 + x x
6. 1
1 2
3
>

+
x
x
7. 1 1 2 > + x x 8.
6 4
2
x x x

9.
2 4
2
+ < x x
10. 3 1 3 + x x
11. 1
1
1
<
+

x
x
12.
2 3 2
2 2
+ x x x x
13.
1 4 2 4 2
2 2
< + + + x x x x
14.
2
1
4
4 7 2
2
<
+
+
x
x x
15.
x x x < 8 10 3
2
16.
x x x > 8 10 3
2
17. 1 1 5 7 3 5 2 < + + + x x x 18.
2
1 1 3 1
2
<
x x x
19.
2
2
3


x
x
20. x - 3
3 x
- 1 > 0
21.
1
2
1 2
<

x
x
22.
x x x 2 9 2 9 4
2
+ >
23. 0
1
3
4
1

+
x
x
x
x
24.
2
1
1 3 > + x x
Absolute inequality
Definisi:
Pertidaksamaan dimana variabelnya di dalam tanda mutlak.
Sifat-sifat:
Untuk a bilangan positif:
(1) , a x a a x (2) a x or a x a x
Cara Penyelesaian:
Gunakan cara penyelesaian seperti persamaan mutlak dan perhatikan sifat-sifat diatas.
Exercise
1. 5 1 2 x 2. 8 4 3 > x
3. 4 3 2 + x x 4. 2 2 3 > x
5. 4 4 2 + x 6. 6 9 2
2
+ x x
7. x x 3 1 8. x x 3 1 3 >
9. 10 3 3 3
2
x x 10. 1
3
1
<
+

x
x
11. 1 2 5
2
> x x x 12. 1 2 5
2
> x x x
13. 1 2 5
2
> x x x 14. 8 1 2 2 3 + + x x
15. 2
2
1 2 + + x
x
x 16. 3
1
1 3
2
2
<
+ +

x x
x x
17.
0
9 6
10 7
2
2
<
+
+
x x
x x
18.
1
2
3
>
+
+ +
x
x x
19. 4 12 7
2
< + x x x 20. ( ) 0 ) 5 2 ( 3 1 < + x x
21.
2
3
1 2 < + x x x 22. 1 2 1
2 2
x x
23. 1 7 + + x x x