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02a_Ch14: Formation of Western Europe- Agricultural Revolution!

Timeline: ~10th - 14th C (~1000 - 1300) " FQ: How did technology and innovations spark an agricultural revolution in Medieval Europe? ! ! Main Idea: The stable feudal period did witness technological innovation. Increased contact with non-Europeans fostered a profound revolution in several sectors of European feudal life, not the least of which was food production. Change in the productivity of the feudal peasant will ower into commercial growth, societal turmoil, and political upheaval." #! CCSS!

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I. Vocabulary (refer to the Word Puzzle)! II. Agriculture and Innovation ! A. The "Three Field System" and "Crop Rotation" replaced the "Two Field System" in Europe during the Middle Ages." 1. Traditional two-eld system: one eld was used for the sowing of a crop, while another eld of equal size was left fallow. The use of the two elds was rotated the following year." 2. Three-eld system & Crop Rotation: The division of land was changed to 33% fallow (Used as pasture for livestock. Animal manure became a fertilizer), 33% cultivated with a soil enhancing crop (peas, beans), and the remaining 33% dedicated to a staple grain (wheat,#barley or rye). In addition to improving the soil quality, the variation of crops improved the peasants' diet." 3. The three-eld system was possible wherever there were reliable summer rains. Having two harvests per year instead of one gave better protection against crop failure and famine. " B. Horses can now replace oxen as quality and quantity of fodder improves (oats, instead of grass/ hay). The animal can do more work and thus increase production.! II. Agriculture and Technology! A. Metal blade plow (from China) replaces wooden (or bone) blade plow." B. Shoulder and chest harness (from China), along with the invention of the padded collar, replaces the neck 'Yoke' commonly used with oxen. The horse proves a better and more versatile work animal than the ox (efciency, speed, endurance)." Demonstration- Neck Collar/ Yoke Demonstration! ! III. Impact" Population growth skyrockets as crop surpluses grow. The number of urban centers multiply as fewer farmers are necessary to support more people. "

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" IV. Summary Activity: Why its important now.! The changes developing during the Middle Ages laid the foundations for modern Europe.! "
Materials/Sources:#Refer to the course calendar for additional assignments and pertinent due dates.! World History: Patterns of Interaction! Flinders University" The Human Record, vol. 1 Fourth Ed." Millennium Video Series, The 12th Century: Century of the Axe, CNN Productions, Inc. 1999. [~8 Min. total]