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Teaching speaking and using dialogues in primary school

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Contents . Introduction......
1. Dialogues ..

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What is conversation ... Teaching Speaking.. Strategies for Developing Speaking Skills... What is 'speaking' in the elementary level classroom.. Correcting mistakes in oral work. My own experience taken from the practicum Conclusion Summary 10. Sources Appendix

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Introduction Dialogical speech is a very important unit in learning the foreign language at primary school . Ive chosen this subject for my major work because I think Im better at speaking then in reading or writing. I communicate with English native speakers a lot and I know that I subconsciously involved in many different Dialogical situations that require to use speaking abilities , so I definitely feel the necessarity in teaching speaking, so I decided that writing this paper will help me to learn more about some methods of teaching , and also I can share my own experience, gained from practicum at school. Speaking is the most demanding skill for the teacher because it is rather doubtful to involve children into conversation when they know some words and structures or almost nothing of the English language. Nevertheless it is important that pupils leave their first lessons with some target language. Many language learners regard speaking ability as the measure of knowing a language. These learners define fluency as the ability to converse with others, much more than the ability to read, write, or comprehend oral language. They regard speaking as the most important skill they can acquire, and they assess their progress in terms of their accomplishments in spoken communication. Communication involves enabling someone else to understand what we want to tell them, what is often referred to as our message. We probably tend to think of a message as being factual, and it is true that we can communicate facts, but in many everyday situations we also hope to communicate our opinions and emotions. As well as informing our listener or reader, we may hope to amuse, entertain, or mislead, ror example. As language teachers we also have to guard against assuming that communication necessarily requires the use of language; the sign showing lit cigarette with a red line through it 'tells' us that smoking is not allowed. In the case of a foreign setting, it does so more effectively than, for mple, the words would by themselves. Communication involves an audience. In the case of one-way spoken communication such as a radio broadcast, a member of the audience can as-tifiably be referred to as a 'listener', since they have no opportunity to respond or to intervene. However, in twoway communication such as face-to-face conversation, the social role of 'listening' often involves; a considerable amount of talking. For this reason the word 'partner' is more preferable to refer to someone engaged in spoken communication. I describe the process within which the partners in a conversation reach agreement is interaction. As soon as we look at examples of real conversations we see just how much people collaborate in achieving the aim of communication. The theoretical part Dialogues are very good for practising oral work they are good for pronunciation and particularly there are 3 main aspects to be observed : A good dialogue, How to use Dialogues, Follow-up-some ideas. [13]

I. A good dialogue should:


be short, no more than 6- 12 lines have only two or three speakers be fairly realistic in terms of situation and language. not introduce too much new material contain one or two new grammar points,each repeated two or three times

II. How to use Dialogues. This is one method of using dialogues but there are many others: Let the class HEAR the whole dialohue before they see it in written down . The teacher can : Play a pre-recorded tape.

Read out the dialogue himself, changing his voice for each different speaker.

Ask one of his more proficient language pupils to read one character in the dialogue while he reads the other. After the pupils have heard the dialogue once, they may be asked a few simple questions about it. The teacher plays or reads the dialogue again, then asks some more difficult question and lets the pupils see the written dialogue. He plays or reads the dialogue again while the pupils follow it in their textbooks. Now we go through the pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar that are wanted to be taught this lesson. III. Follow-up-some ideas. Let the students read the dialogue in pairs. Let one student read one role and the other student try to speak the other role without book. Let the students make up their own similar dialogue and act it out in front of the class.

It is rare for learners who study a foreign language not to have desire to speak it. Most children equate learning English with learning to converse it and they want immediate results. They expect to be able to express in the foreign language their thoughts, emotions, to communicate in English with other people. At the first lessons nearly all children are strongly motivated to learn and they need to be given opportunities to speak English as soon as possible. If a teacher fails to engage them into speaking activities the pupils begin to regard English as classroom mental gymnastics, rather than as a means of communication.It is useful to begin teaching with simple greetings and introductions. For example: Good morning! Hello! What's your name? My name is...

They listen to the first teacher's instructions and can use them in their speech: Sit down! Stand up! , etc. As this type of language is repeated at each esson, children learn it quickly and use in everyday speech.To provide the basis for the first speaking activities it is necessary to teach vocabulary for simple concepts such as names of classroom objects, colours, numbers, etc.Having learnt these words, children may use them in the structural patterns of the kind: Find a pen/ Take it/ Take this pen/, etc.Elementary learners and beginners require recycling of language materialtherefore the teacher provides the learners with opportunities to practise it, first, separately through precommunicative activities, which follow presentation and consist of drills and questions-answer practice. It is essential that they recycle this language very frequently so they do not forget the material they have learned at the previous lessons.As soon as the pupils have mastered presented patterns they can use them in the controlled conversation. Controlled activities can be made communicative if the pupils talk about real events and their own opinions.It is important to model the structures for beginning pupils, verbally or in written form. In spite of the fact that the pupils repeat the same structures they may fill them with vocabulary to express what they want. A lot of guessing games can also provide opportunities for controlled practice. "Hide-and-seek". One pupil comes to the blackboard and "hides" something in the picture of a flat, the other pupils have to find this object asking questions: - Is it under the table?, etc. It's a perfect game for practising asking and answering questions, as well as prepositions and words on the topic "A Flat". "Twenty Questions" ("I Spy With My Little Eye"). The leader of the game thinks about an object, which the rest of the group have to guess. The leader begins the game with the words: -1 spy with my little eye something beginning with the letter "D". The other pupils ask him questions: -Is it a door? -Is it a desk? ___

"Something in the Bag" may be used to review adjectives. To play the game, the teacher should prepare a bag with any object in it. One of the pupils comes up, puts one hand into the bag, trying to identify the object. The other pupils ask him questions about the object: Is it round? Is it square? Activities like these provide the basis for oral work. Their purpose is correct, simple, useful language within context.Structures and patterns should be presented and practised in the appropriate order which enables the learners in a very short period of time. Teachers give instructions, describe simple objects, to make up short dialogues, participate in role-plays and other activities. Guided practice gives the pupils some sort of choice, which is rather limited. For example: model dialogues may be changed by the pupils to talk about themselves. To carry out this task they use vocabulary and structures learned beforehand. To come to the dialogue in the communicative phase of teaching we have to gothrough the following steps: after the reading of the dialogue substitute the names of the char

acters by the names of the pupils; paraphrase the lines of the dialogue. Have the pupils use their own words and structures within the dialogue; pupils dramatize their dialogues; give a situation similar to the one in the dialogue and have pupils perform it on their own. Dialogues are more complicated than monologues. They contain : only statements, but different rejoinders. The model dialogue is a useful way to present pupils with examples of the speech act in use. "Interviews" is one more example of guided practice. Pupils interview each other on different topics. Later one pair interviews each other about a chosen topic. The rest of the class notes the replies and asks questions if necessary. \t "Information gap" exercises belong to this type as well

The teacher suggests a gapped dialogue: e.g. - Good morning. Can I help you? Yes, please. I'd like Here you are. How much_ ? _ _ _. Thank you. _

The pupils fill in the gaps, read the dialogue in pairs and dramatize it. Later the learners use the language of the dialogue in free activity, "Incomplete dialogue" is another example of "information gap" exercise: the learners are given a dialogue with only one part wntt e g A- Can you tell me how to get to the station? : A: And where does the bus stop? B:______A: Oh yes, I can see. Monological speech is developed along with dialogical one and exists in the form of descriptions of pupils' favourite toys pets her of Ukrainian and Russian fairy-tales as well as animated carlo Longer replies in dialogues, role-plays constitute monological ances and become integral parts of such activities. Role-play is one of the most important means of developing communicative skills in language teaching. They provide a reasor for taping and motivate learners to speak with other from the controlled practice of a dialogue because it has the elemen freedom of choice Role-playing is possible when the pupils have learned how to compose their own dialogues. The roles, which the dren play, can be given orally or in written form.

eg. Customer Shop assistant You go to a shop You work m a shop. to buy something A customer comes in for a picnic. Here are the prices of some Dialogical speech is a process of interaction of 2 ore more participants of communication . Thats why in the act of speech every participant can be a listener and a speaker in turns Dialogical speech is characterized by contact of participants , who are well-informed about conditions in which communication takes part . Dialogue foresees visual perception interlocutor , and some incompleteness of utterances , that can be completed by nonverbal methods ( mimics ,gesture , contacts of eyes ) Interlocutors express their wishes, hesitations ,doubts , sorrows , suppositions by means of this methods . So this cant be ignored in teaching foreign language. One of the most important psychological features of DS is its situational one. DS is situational because sense of it could be understood only if we take into account the situation in which its going on . There is a clear interaction of DS and the situation ,

that cant be understood literally . Y.I. Passow determines that external events of the situation by themselves could be present in the moment of speech , and they are present in the consciousness of communicants and are included in it. These events could be only past actions known only by the interlocutor , its emotions, or life experience.(2;) Model of the functional outline of the dialogue :

Across the garden Fence Complainer Open the conversation Explain the problem Neighbor

Suggest it isnt very serious

Insist that it is Apologise Say you dont know how to solve it Make suggestions Agree to suggestion

Express thanks Close conversation Example: Could I have a word with you ? Its about It doesnt happen very often Yes, but Im afraid Im sorry , but Why dont you? Thats not a bad idea .

Thank you Goodbye. In teaching DS there are some kinds of situations, they are called communicative . Its a kind of situations that impel into speech. Lets imagine that were thirsty . We usually go home and drink something. But when were at somebodys place as a guest , then the thirst can become a stimulus for speech .We come to a host and ask him/her for a glass of water. We say Would you give me a glass of water ? Im thirsty . The reaction could be verbal:( he would say Here you are ) or nonverbal (he will go to the kitchen and fetch a glass of water. )and you will express your gratitude . In real process of communication such situations appear by themselves . They are natural . And they can be imitated at English lessons. But there are very few situations of this kind , so authors of textbooks and teachers create artificial situations , in which the circumstances of the verbal intention have to be explained in more detail . It also expects verbal stimuli , and roles that communicants are going to take part in, and relationship within them. Educational communicative situations can be created at the lesson by means of different verbal and not verbal audiovisual means . They have to stimulate motives of education , cause interest to take part in communication , desire to solve the task quicker . Situational speech was studied by a lot of scientists ( I.P. Shubin, V.F.Buhbinder , G.A. Rubinstein , O.O.Leontiev , D.Bern and meny others ). But non of them could formulate it more accessible than V.O.Artemova did . for stage actualization of the speech action is useful to take in to account : who, what , why and under circumventers(3) Using another source (4) we can define some more components of communicative situations :a) communicants and their relationship(subjects of communication) b) object of speech c) attitude of the subject to the object of communication e) conditions of the speech act as well . One of the most important features of DS is its emotional colouring. As a rule speech is usually coloured emotionally , because speaker expresses his thoughts , feelings , his attitude towards something s/he is speaking about. Another important feature of DS is its spontaneity .The way of speech of interlocutor depends on that of his partner .Thats why dialogical speech cant be planned beforehand ( the same thing can be said about monologues ) . Exchange of phrases goes on really quickly , and the reaction requires normal rate of speech . This requires high level of automatism , and eagerness to use the material of speech. DS has a two- sided character. During the communication the interlocutors have be a speaker and a listener in turns to react to the partners remark. Exchange of remarks cant go on without mutual understanding . Here is the structure of the dialogue : Every dialogue consists of separate associated utterances . Utterances , border of which is the change of interlocutors is called remark. Remark is the first element of the dialogue. Remarks can have 2 or more phrases . In the dialogue they relate to each other by their communicative functions , by their structure and by intonation .The most tight communication is within continuous remarks . The first remark is an initial

( imperative remark ) .The second remark could be completely reactive , or reactive with initiative , that means that it includes reaction on the previous utterance , and motive for the next one. Pupils have to learn : 1)To start the conversation , using the remark of initiative .2) Quickly and correctly react in reply the remark of the interlocutor. 3) support the conversation by using all kinds of remarks. According to the function of dialogical units communication in the dialogue there could be admitted some kinds of dialogue : Dialogue inquiry Dialogue- agreement Dialogue-exchange of impressions and opinions Dialogue-discussion Example 1 Pretty girl: I want to buy a hat Assistant : Hats are upstairs on the next floor Example 2. Hostess Carter : Alice! Perhaps that passenger is a hijacker Hostess Allen ; Which passenger, Anne ? Example 3 Voice A: Whats wrong with you, Mrs Bloggs? Mrs Bloggs : Whats wrong with me? Example 4. Anne: Lets eat lunch in the garden . Ben: Shall we sit on this seat ? At the beginning of the dialogue speech will be more useful , the fill in dialogue , the structure of which could be repeated for several times( 5) . -How did you spend last Sunday? - I wnt to the gum . An what about you? - I wnt to the cinema Dialogical speech has its structure and linguistic means , in the utterance (6) All this kind of dialogues are called simple , cause they have remarks that make only one communicational function . But natural dialogues have a lot of communicative functions. Depending on the leading communicational function that is determined by one or an other dialogue , we can differentiate some functional types of dialogues .Results of researches that were led on the authentic educational materials (in English , German and Russian) showed that there are 4 widespread types of dialogues : dialogue question ; dialogue- agreement; dialogue exchange of impressions ; dialogue- discussion.

Dialogue- inquiry can be one-sided and two-sided . In the first case the initiative of asking belongs to one partner , in the other case to both of them (Two-sided ) Dialogue-question develops the initiative of two partners involved into the situational communication, that can resemble natural . One of the most important abilities that pupils have to get at the first year of studding , is the ability to make up the dialogue-agreement . Dialogue- agreement is used for making arraignments . After learning this kind of dialogue pupils start learning a mixed kinds of dialogue.: inquiry agreement. Then the next type ( according to the classification ) is the dialogue- exchange of impressions . The aim of them is consideration of some subject , event , phenomenon , to express the personal point of view , convince one another in something. Every functional type of the dialogue expresses some set of the dialogical unity. Main indexes of quality of forming of the general ability to lead the dialogue are this special abilities .: 1. To learn to start the dialogue , using the proper initial remark 2. To reply using remarks that have different communicative functions ; 3. to support the conversation , adding your own remarks; 4. To urge the interlocutor by expressing interest 5. To use all kinds of dialogical unitys ; 6. To produce different functional types of dialogues , by means of suggested communicational situation ; 7. the technique to interrupt the conversation politely ,and asking for additional information ;

Dialogues and role-plays are very useful because pupils speak in the first and second person as it is done in real-life communication, they involve information gap, choice and feedback. Children are highly motivated; they do not concentrate on vocabulary, structure, but on what they want to learn according to the roles. Their speech is more emotional, coloured by stress, intonation, facial expressions, mime and gestures. From "quasi-communication", in which the use of English is predictable, learners move to free expression activities where they express their personal needs and thoughts in the context of reality. Their speech is characterized by fluency which is more important than accuracy at this stage Free activities show if the pupils can or cannot use the language. Accuracy means the correct use of language (vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation). In controlled and guided activities the focus is \ usually on accuracy, while in free activities the teacher is interested in fluency, which means the ability to produce language easily, to communicate quickly, but not necessary with grammatical correctness. From a communicative point of view fluency is more important. The criterion for success is how well the learner can perform the task using language freely over longer periods of time. The focus of free activities is on the message and not on the language; they concentrate ' on meaning more than on accuracy. To achieve fluency the teacher

shouldn't interrupt pupils to correct their mistakes. All the corrections are done afterwards. Some examples of free activities for beginners, which are based on the information gap principle: 1. The pupils work in pairs. One of them receives a plan of thezoo where all the cages are filled with animals. The second pupil receives the plan of the same zoo, but the cages are empty.The task is to label all the cages asking necessary questions. 2. Both pupils receive pictures of one and the same room. One is furnished, the other is empty. The task is "to furnish" the room. It's important that they don't show each other the pictures of the room. 3. This time the pupil work in lockstep. Each has a card with a word denoting an animal. Everyone walks around the classroom trying to find as many domestic (wild) animals as possible. Another activity may be to find the names of the animals, which can fly (swim, run, jump).planned. First of all,the teacher has to decide what he wants to do and why. What will be the aim of the activity? Is it based on the material of the previous lessons? The teacher tries to predict if any support will be needed and prepares materials: pictures, cards, vocabulary and structures. Besides, the teacher has to think about the length of the activity and its place in the procedure of a lesson. It is necessary to work out the instructions. At the lesson before activity the teacher reviews the background knowledge useful for the exercise, arouses pupils' interest through visuals and a short talk, and sets up the activity giving clear instructions and indicating the time needed for preparation. The pupils start the activity and the teacher's role at that time is tc monitor and help. It is important to motivate children individually, to encourage them by making sure that they will cope with the task. During the activity the learners tend to use Ukrainian, because it is easier and they feel it unnatural to speak to their friends in English. Besides, it may happen because of the lack of classroom expressions. The teacher cannot supervise all utterances if they are correct, and the pupils may make mistakes. To overcome this difficulty, the teacher should teach and review essential vocabulary and base the activity on familiar language. It is not a good idea to interrupt the pupils' work during the production stage. The teacher should note the mistakes and attract to them the learners' attention after the activity. Younger learners want to see immediate results of their work and the teacher should provide feedback indicating how each pupil performed the task, how they communicated, how well organized their work. Children are encouraged for their future studies if they succeed. Bad results demotivate learners and we should avoid them, especially, at the early stages of learning. What is conversation

Conversation is a collaborative enterprise and makes demands all) the partners. Negotiation and repair play a part in all interaction and are not unique forms of language behaviour involving non-native speaJ ers. However, negotiation takes on a special value in the language classroom, since some of the input made comprehensible through interaction may be absorbed into the learners' expanding language knowledge. In this sense, simplificationthat is, successful simplificationcontributes both to the current communicative event and to longer-term language development. These complementary aspects of the foreign language classroom experienceinputfor-comprehension and input-for-learningcan be expressed in two phrasal verbs: getting through' and getting on'. In the short term, one can talk about the act of communication as getting through to someone', or 'getting the message through'; a teacher might even talk, less ambitiously, about simply getting through a lesson'. On the other hand, one talks about students' overall progress in terms of their 'getting on . In the rest of this book my aim will be to suggest ways in which teachers can usefully highlight particular aspects of the natural process of communication in the language classroom. Among the things we will looking at are: - how to create tasks that will make it likely that learners will need to negotiate meaning - how to draw learners' attention to particular aspects of the process 01 negotiation - how to respond to their performance in the classroom.

Teaching Speaking Speaking English is the main goal of many pupils. Their personalities play a large role in determining how quickly and how correctly they will accomplish this goal. Those who are risk-takers unafraid of making mistakes will generally be more talkative, but with many errors that could become hard-to-break habits. Conservative, shy students may take a long time to speak confidently, but when they do, their English often contains fewer errors and they will be proud of their English ability. It's a matter of quantity vs. quality, and neither approach is wrong. However, if the aim of speaking is communication and that does not require perfect English, then it makes sense to encourage quantity in your classroom. Break the silence and get students communicating with whatever English they can use, correct or not, and selectively address errors that block communication. Speaking lessons often tie in pronunciation and grammar (discussed elsewhere in this guide), which are necessary for effective oral communication. Or a grammar or reading lesson may incorporate a speaking activity. Either way, your students will need some preparation before the speaking task. This includes introducing the topic and providing a model of the speech they are to produce. A model may not apply to

discussion-type activities, in which case students will need clear and specific instructions about the task to be accomplished. Then the students will practice with the actual speaking activity. These activities may include imitating (repeating), answering verbal cues, interactive conversation, or an oral presentation. Most speaking activities inherently practice listening skills as well, such as when one student is given a simple drawing and sits behind another student, facing away. The first must give instructions to the second to reproduce the drawing. The second student asks questions to clarify unclear instructions, and neither can look at each other's page during the activity. Information gaps are also commonly used for speaking practice, as are surveys, discussions, and role-plays. Speaking activities abound; see the Activities and Further Resources sections of this guide for ideas. Here are some ideas to keep in mind as you plan your speaking activities.

Content As much as possible, the content should be practical and usable in real-life situations. Avoid too much new vocabulary or grammar, and focus on speaking with the language the students have. Correcting Errors You need to provide appropriate feedback and correction, but don't interrupt the flow of communication. Take notes while pairs or groups are talking and address problems to the class after the activity without embarrassing the student who made the error. You can write the error on the board and ask who can correct it. Quantity vs. Quality Address both interactive fluency and accuracy, striving foremost for communication. Get to know each learner's personality and encourage the quieter ones to take more risks. Conversation Strategies Encourage strategies like asking for clarification, paraphrasing, gestures, and initiating ('hey,' 'so,' 'by the way'). Teacher Intervention If a speaking activity loses steam, you may need to jump into a role-play, ask more discussion questions, clarify your instructions, or stop an activity that is too difficult or boring.

Listening and reading are useful sources of experience, but active practice inand feedback onspeaking and writing the target language is essential for faster progress. In die classroom, 'speaking' can cover a wide range 'T of oral activities, from genuine interaction (i.e. actually talking to someone about something) to repetition

drills. The Activity below compares two ways in which learners may be involved in speaking. jLanguage learners need to recognize that speaking involves three areas of knowledge: Mechanics (pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary): Using the right words in the right order with the correct pronunciation Functions (transaction and interaction): Knowing when clarity of message is essential (transaction/information exchange) and when precise understanding is not required (interaction/relationship building) Social and cultural rules and norms (turn-taking, rate of speech, length of pauses between speakers, relative roles of participants): Understanding how to take into account who is speaking to whom, in what circumstances, about what, and for what reason.

In the communicative model of language teaching, teachers help their pupils develop this body of knowledge by providing authentic practice that prepares students for reallife communication situations. They help their students develop the ability to produce grammatically correct, logically connected sentences that are appropriate to specific contexts, and to do so using acceptable (that is, comprehensible) pronunciation Focus On Communication Interaction requires communication, the transfer of a meaningful idea from one person to another. Good teachers go beyond the building blocks of English such as vocabulary lists or grammar drills to develop a learner's oral, written, and even nonverbal communication skills. Every lesson should prepare your students for real-world interaction in some way. Think meaningful and usable. When communication breaks down, native speakers usually try to clarify any potentially unclear items by asking questions and offering explanations. They ask for repetition or more information, confirm that the other person has understood what was said, expand on words or topics, or repeat back a paraphrase of what they just heard to confirm that they got it right. This is one of the greatest communication skills, but it can be difficult and ESL learners need to be taught how to do this in English. Teachers bring communication into their lessons by guiding learners through tasks or activities which require meaningful communication in a relevant context. Here are some tips for making your lessons communicative:

Clarification Skills Teach your students how to ask for clarification. The following phrases may serve as a starting point and can be expanded or adapted to an appropriate language level. o Do you understand? o Excuse me? / Could you repeat that? o Once more. / One more time.

Please speak more slowly. o How do you spell that? o Did you say ______? o What does ______ mean? o How do you say ______ in English? o I don't know. o I don't understand. Pair and Group Work When students must work with each other or one-on-one with you, they are forced to communicate. Make sure you have taught them how to ask for clarification when they don't understand something. If students share the same native language, limit its use as much as possible. Information gap activities, role plays, and collaborative problem solving are some communicative activities explained in more detail in the activities section of this guide. Individual Communication Some types of communication are not highly interactive. For example, you can have students give a speech, write a letter or composition, or report group work results to the class. As long as they are producing original language to convey their own thoughts, they are practicing communication. Interactive Teaching Specific practice activities aren't the only place where communication can occur. While you are teaching your main lesson, you don't need to do all the talking. Involve your students by asking them for related vocabulary words, the spelling of a word they suggest, the past tense of verbs (especially irregular ones), examples beyond those in the textbook, etc. Draw out what they already know and connect it to their life experiences. For example, if your text contains the word 'allergy' and you aren't sure if the students understand it, rather than simply teaching "an allergy is..." and moving on, ask if anyone knows the meaning and can explain it, what types of allergies the students can think of, and whether anyone has an allergy. Ask for the spelling of the plural form, 'allergies.' If your students have a lot to say, these side-tracks can become timeconsuming. You will need to decide how much time you will allow for this so you can still complete your lesson. What Communication is Not Some elements of your lesson will probably not be communicative. For example, memorization, vocabulary lists, reading, listening tasks, grammar structures, and pronunciation practice do not require any original language to be produced by the learner, yet they are all valuable building blocks for communication. As a teacher, you should be aware of the difference between what is communicative and what is not and balance the two.
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Goals and Techniques for Teaching Speaking(8)

The goal of teaching speaking skills is communicative efficiency. Learners should be able to make themselves understood, using their current proficiency to the fullest. They should try to avoid confusion in the message due to faulty pronunciation, grammar, or vocabulary, and to observe the social and cultural rules that apply in each communication situation. To help students develop communicative efficiency in speaking, instructors can use a balanced activities approach that combines language input, structured output, and communicative output. Language input comes in the form of teacher talk, listening activities, reading passages, and the language heard and read outside of class. It gives learners the material they need to begin producing language themselves. Language input may be content oriented or form oriented. Content-oriented input focuses on information, whether it is a simple weather report or an extended lecture on an academic topic. Content-oriented input may also include descriptions of learning strategies and examples of their use. Form-oriented input focuses on ways of using the language: guidance from the teacher or another source on vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar (linguistic competence); appropriate things to say in specific contexts (discourse competence); expectations for rate of speech, pause length, turn-taking, and other social aspects of language use (sociolinguistic competence); and explicit instruction in phrases to use to ask for clarification and repair miscommunication (strategic competence).

In the presentation part of a lesson, an instructor combines content-oriented and formoriented input. The amount of input that is actually provided in the target language depends on students' listening proficiency and also on the situation. For students at lower levels, or in situations where a quick explanation on a grammar topic is needed, an explanation in English may be more appropriate than one in the target language. Structured output focuses on correct form. In structured output, students may have options for responses, but all of the options require them to use the specific form or structure that the teacher has just introduced. Structured output is designed to make learners comfortable producing specific language items recently introduced, sometimes in combination with previously learned items. Instructors often use structured output exercises as a transition between the presentation stage and the practice stage of a lesson plan. textbook exercises also often make good structured output practice activities. In communicative output, the learners' main purpose is to complete a task, such as obtaining information, developing a travel plan, or creating a video. To complete the task, they may use the language that the instructor has just presented, but they also may draw on any other vocabulary, grammar, and communication strategies that they know.

In communicative output activities, the criterion of success is whether the learner gets the message across. Accuracy is not a consideration unless the lack of it interferes with the message. In everyday communication, spoken exchanges take place because there is some sort of information gap between the participants. Communicative output activities involve a similar real information gap. In order to complete the task, students must reduce or eliminate the information gap. In these activities, language is a tool, not an end in itself. In a balanced activities approach, the teacher uses a variety of activities from these different categories of input and output. Learners at all proficiency levels, including beginners, benefit from this variety; it is more motivating, and it is also more likely to result in effective language learning.

Strategies for Developing Speaking Skills Students often think that the ability to speak a language is the product of language learning, but speaking is also a crucial part of the language learning process. Effective instructors teach students speaking strategies -- using minimal responses, recognizing scripts, and using language to talk about language -- that they can use to help themselves expand their knowledge of the language and their confidence in using it. These instructors help students learn to speak so that the students can use speaking to learn. 1. Using minimal responses Language learners who lack confidence in their ability to participate successfully in oral interaction often listen in silence while others do the talking. One way to encourage such learners to begin to participate is to help them build up a stock of minimal responses that they can use in different types of exchanges. Such responses can be especially useful for beginners. Minimal responses are predictable, often idiomatic phrases that conversation participants use to indicate understanding, agreement, doubt, and other responses to what another speaker is saying. Having a stock of such responses enables a learner to focus on what the other participant is saying, without having to simultaneously plan a response. 2. Recognizing scripts Some communication situations are associated with a predictable set of spoken exchanges -- a script. Greetings, apologies, compliments, invitations, and other functions that are influenced by social and cultural norms often follow patterns or scripts. So do the transactional exchanges involved in activities such as obtaining

information and making a purchase. In these scripts, the relationship between a speaker's turn and the one that follows it can often be anticipated. Instructors can help students develop speaking ability by making them aware of the scripts for different situations so that they can predict what they will hear and what they will need to say in response. Through interactive activities, instructors can give students practice in managing and varying the language that different scripts contain. 3. Using language to talk about language Language learners are often too embarrassed or shy to say anything when they do not understand another speaker or when they realize that a conversation partner has not understood them. Instructors can help students overcome this reticence by assuring them that misunderstanding and the need for clarification can occur in any type of interaction, whatever the participants' language skill levels. Instructors can also give students strategies and phrases to use for clarification and comprehension check. By encouraging students to use clarification phrases in class when misunderstanding occurs, and by responding positively when they do, instructors can create an authentic practice environment within the classroom itself. As they develop control of various clarification strategies, students will gain confidence in their ability to manage the various communication situations that they may encounter outside the classroom. Developing Speaking Activities (9) Traditional classroom speaking practice often takes the form of drills in which one person asks a question and another gives an answer. The question and the answer are structured and predictable, and often there is only one correct, predetermined answer. The purpose of asking and answering the question is to demonstrate the ability to ask and answer the question. In contrast, the purpose of real communication is to accomplish a task, such as conveying a telephone message, obtaining information, or expressing an opinion. In real communication, participants must manage uncertainty about what the other person will say. Authentic communication involves an information gap; each participant has information that the other does not have. In addition, to achieve their purpose, participants may have to clarify their meaning or ask for confirmation of their own understanding. To create classroom speaking activities that will develop communicative competence, instructors need to incorporate a purpose and an information gap and allow for multiple forms of expression. However, quantity alone will not necessarily produce competent speakers. Instructors need to combine structured output activities, which allow for error correction and increased accuracy, with communicative output activities that give students opportunities to practice language use more freely.

Structured Output Activities Two common kinds of structured output activities are information gap and jigsaw activities. In both these types of activities, students complete a task by obtaining missing information, a feature the activities have in common with real communication. However, information gap and jigsaw activities also set up practice on specific items of language. In this respect they are more like drills than like communication. Information Gap Activities Filling the gaps in a schedule or timetable: Partner A holds an airline timetable with some of the arrival and departure times missing. Partner B has the same timetable but with different blank spaces. The two partners are not permitted to see each other's timetables and must fill in the blanks by asking each other appropriate questions. The features of language that are practiced would include questions beginning with "when" or "at what time." Answers would be limited mostly to time expressions like "at 8:15" or "at ten in the evening." Completing the picture: The two partners have similar pictures, each with different missing details, and they cooperate to find all the missing details. In another variation, no items are missing, but similar items differ in appearance. For example, in one picture, a man walking along the street may be wearing an overcoat, while in the other the man is wearing a jacket. The features of grammar and vocabulary that are practiced are determined by the content of the pictures and the items that are missing or different. Differences in the activities depicted lead to practice of different verbs. Differences in number, size, and shape lead to adjective practice. Differing locations would probably be described with prepositional phrases.

These activities may be set up so that the partners must practice more than just grammatical and lexical features. For example, the timetable activity gains a social dimension when one partner assumes the role of a student trying to make an appointment with a partner who takes the role of a professor. Each partner has pages from an appointment book in which certain dates and times are already filled in and other times are still available for an appointment. Of course, the open times don't match exactly, so there must be some polite negotiation to arrive at a mutually convenient time for a meeting or a conference. Jigsaw Activities Jigsaw activities are more elaborate information gap activities that can be done with several partners. In a jigsaw activity, each partner has one or a few pieces of the "puzzle," and the partners must cooperate to fit all the pieces into a whole picture. The puzzle piece may take one of several forms. It may be one panel from a comic strip or one photo from a set that tells a story. It may be one sentence from a written narrative. It may be a tape recording of a conversation, in which case no two partners hear exactly the same conversation.

In one fairly simple jigsaw activity, students work in groups of four. Each student in the group receives one panel from a comic strip. Partners may not show each other their panels. Together the four panels present this narrative: a man takes a container of ice cream from the freezer; he serves himself several scoops of ice cream; he sits in front of the TV eating his ice cream; he returns with the empty bowl to the kitchen and finds that he left the container of ice cream, now melting, on the kitchen counter. These pictures have a clear narrative line and the partners are not likely to disagree about the appropriate sequencing. You can make the task more demanding, however, by using pictures that lend themselves to alternative sequences, so that the partners have to negotiate among themselves to agree on a satisfactory sequence. More elaborate jigsaws may proceed in two stages. Students first work in input groups (groups A, B, C, and D) to receive information. Each group receives a different part of the total information for the task. Students then reorganize into groups of four with one student each from A, B, C, and D, and use the information they received to complete the task. Such an organization could be used, for example, when the input is given in the form of a tape recording. Groups A, B, C, and D each hear a different recording of a short news bulletin. The four recordings all contain the same general information, but each has one or more details that the others do not. In the second stage, students reconstruct the complete story by comparing the four versions.

With information gap and jigsaw activities, instructors need to be conscious of the language demands they place on their students. If an activity calls for language your students have not already practiced, you can brainstorm with them when setting up the activity to preview the language they will need, eliciting what they already know and supplementing what they are able to produce themselves. Structured output activities can form an effective bridge between instructor modeling and communicative output because they are partly authentic and partly artificial. Like authentic communication, they feature information gaps that must be bridged for successful completion of the task. However, where authentic communication allows speakers to use all of the language they know, structured output activities lead students to practice specific features of language and to practice only in brief sentences, not in extended discourse. Also, structured output situations are contrived and more like games than real communication, and the participants' social roles are irrelevant to the performance of the activity. This structure controls the number of variables that students must deal with when they are first exposed to new material. As they become comfortable, they can move on to true communicative output activities. Communicative Output Activities Communicative output activities allow students to practice using all of the language they know in situations that resemble real settings. In these activities, students must work together to develop a plan, resolve a problem, or complete a task. The most common types of communicative output activity are role plays and discussions .

In role plays, students are assigned roles and put into situations that they may eventually encounter outside the classroom. Because role plays imitate life, the range of language functions that may be used expands considerably. Also, the role relationships among the students as they play their parts call for them to practice and develop their sociolinguistic competence. They have to use language that is appropriate to the situation and to the characters. Students usually find role playing enjoyable, but students who lack self-confidence or have lower proficiency levels may find them intimidating at first. To succeed with role plays: Prepare carefully: Introduce the activity by describing the situation and making sure that all of the students understand it Set a goal or outcome: Be sure the students understand what the product of the role play should be, whether a plan, a schedule, a group opinion, or some other product Use role cards: Give each student a card that describes the person or role to be played. For lower-level students, the cards can include words or expressions that that person might use. Brainstorm: Before you start the role play, have students brainstorm as a class to predict what vocabulary, grammar, and idiomatic expressions they might use. Keep groups small: Less-confident students will feel more able to participate if they do not have to compete with many voices. Give students time to prepare: Let them work individually to outline their ideas and the language they will need to express them. Be present as a resource, not a monitor: Stay in communicative mode to answer students' questions. Do not correct their pronunciation or grammar unless they specifically ask you about it. Allow students to work at their own levels: Each student has individual language skills, an individual approach to working in groups, and a specific role to play in the activity. Do not expect all students to contribute equally to the discussion, or to use every grammar point you have taught. Do topical follow-up: Have students report to the class on the outcome of their role plays. Do linguistic follow-up: After the role play is over, give feedback on grammar or pronunciation problems you have heard. This can wait until another class period when you plan to review pronunciation or grammar anyway.

Discussions, like role plays, succeed when the instructor prepares students first, and then gets out of the way. To succeed with discussions: Prepare the students: Give them input (both topical information and language forms) so that they will have something to say and the language with which to say it. Offer choices: Let students suggest the topic for discussion or choose from several options. Discussion does not always have to be about serious issues. Students are likely to be more motivated to participate if the topic is television programs, plans

for a vacation, or news about mutual friends. Weighty topics like how to combat pollution are not as engaging and place heavy demands on students' linguistic competence. Set a goal or outcome: This can be a group product, such as a letter to the editor, or individual reports on the views of others in the group. Use small groups instead of whole-class discussion: Large groups can make participation difficult. Keep it short: Give students a defined period of time, not more than 8-10 minutes, for discussion. Allow them to stop sooner if they run out of things to say. Allow students to participate in their own way: Not every student will feel comfortable talking about every topic. Do not expect all of them to contribute equally to the conversation. Do topical follow-up: Have students report to the class on the results of their discussion. Do linguistic follow-up: After the discussion is over, give feedback on grammar or pronunciation problems you have heard. This can wait until another class period when you plan to review pronunciation or grammar anyway. Through well-prepared communicative output activities such as role plays and discussions, you can encourage students to experiment and innovate with the language, and create a supportive atmosphere that allows them to make mistakes without fear of embarrassment. This will contribute to their self-confidence as speakers and to their motivation to learn more. What is 'speaking' in the elementary level classroom? (10) Unfortunately, I think that all too often, 'speaking' can be confined to pupils answering the teacher's questions or repetition and manipulation of form. As my elementary students have limited linguistic resources, it can be difficult to find ways to get them to really 'push' their productive skills in a meaningful way. Lesson paradigms In 'Learning Teaching,' Jim Scrivener proposes a teaching sequence model which he calls 'ARC.' He suggests that any teaching sequence could potentially have three elements to it: 'Authentic use,' 'Restricted use' and 'Clarification and focus.' Hence ARC. In this model,

'Authentic use' means exposure to or practice of real language use 'Restricted use' means controlled practice of language 'Clarification and focus' means drawing our students' attention to form.

These elements of the lesson can appear in any order in the lesson, depending on aims, level and focus.

'Authentic use' is not confined to speaking, it incorporates any elements which allow the students to engage with the language in an authentic way. It could include any of the four skills. In this article, I'd like to look at the 'authentic use' element of the lesson and see what it might mean in terms of elementary speaking. I'll describe three very different lessons which introduce speaking in a more 'real life' way to our elementary learners. Three example lessons Talking about my room (Using here is / there are / is there? / are there?) Pre-teach or revise items of furniture and right, left, top, bottom and if you haven't already taught these, 'there is' and there are. The students should sit in pairs back to back. If this isn't possible you can use large card or their books to 'hide' the individual student's work. Each student draws their ideal room or favourite room in their house on the top half of a large sheet of paper. They should not show anyone. On the bottom half of the paper, each student draws an empty 'box' Students take it in turns to describe their room/ draw their partner's room on the paper. The teacher then comments on content and does a small amount of correction.

Parents (Using adjectives which describe character / comparatives) Pre-teach or revise 10 character adjectives e.g. kind, fair, intelligent, honest etc. Write the list on the board. Ask the students to decide which 8 qualities are important in a parent (or teacher). Each student writes their own individual list of 7 in order of importance. Students then share their lists in pairs and try to agree on one list. Students can then work in groups of four together and see how similar or different their lists are. Get group representatives to give feedback to the class. The teacher can then comment on content and give a small amount of correction if necessary.

Teenage advice (Using: should) Find or write a simple story about a teenager with a 'problem'. The story should be believable and should include a number of decisions. Leave it open-ended

Cut the story into four or five separate paragraphs so that at the end of each section there is a decision to be made. Students then work in groups of four, with a chairperson.

Give out the first paragraph. Students read and decide for themselves what they think s/he should do. Groups then compare ideas. Get some brief open class feedback from around the class, but don't correct errors. Do the same with each paragraph, with feedback after each section. Monitor throughout. Final feedback on what s/he should do at end of story from group representatives.

Personalisation These exercises all involve a degree of personaliseation. Instead of talking about a fictional picture in a course book, students are creating their own meanings. We all like to talk about ourselves and our lives. This makes the lesson transcend the level of 'practise phase' and move into the realms of 'real communication.' The students will relate to the teenage problem, as it's likely to be one that they or their friends have had. It allows them to deal with personal issues in a safe context, as they're talking about someone else. Creating the need to communicate The activities all involve an element of information gap and demand that the students interact in order to complete the tasks. In the first lesson they have to communicate because they can't see each other's drawing, the only way to get the information is to speak. The ordering exercise in the second lesson also helps them to focus. If the students are engaged, they are striving or 'pushing' to communicate. Any potential frustration when they find the 'gaps' in their language skills is offset by the intrinsically interesting and engaging nature of the tasks. Quality of teacher feedback As always, it's essential to give feedback on content as well as language. Otherwise, the message we're giving to our students is that only the language element is important. In this case, some comments about different rooms you've heard about during monitoring will be helpful. What will you do about correction of the 'form'? Well, it's unlikely that the students will get everything right first time. What I try to do is select one element to correct immediately, for example pronunciation of 'schwa', and then decide to review at another time. Teacher-learner feedback As I mentioned in Chapter 1, it is rare in non-classroom conversation in English to find

one speaker correcting the other explicitly; we prefer self- -repair. This means that the teacher's role as corrector is relatively unusual, even if it is an accepted and even expected part of what we do in the class- I room. As well as providing cognitive feedback (about the comprehensibil-ity or accuracy of what the learner has said), teachers give affective feedback (showing approval or disapproval). So there is a risk that, unless carefully handled, the act of correcting may impose an emotional burden on the learner. As Figure 6.3- shows, correction is not the only form of negative feedback. Repair signals such as clarification requests are a more subtle indication that there are problems with what, ihc speaker has said. One might assume that explicit feedback might be more effective than implicit, but there is some evidence that the opposite is true. Teresa Pica studied the way learners working on pair tasks with a native speaker reacted to implicit negative feedback from their partner (Pica 1988). She found that they made their output more comprehensible in 95 per cent of cases, and more accurate in almost half the cases. She also found that some native speakers Learner-learner feedback More attention is now given to ways of encouraging feedback from learner to learner. Among the usual reasons for getting learners to take on the role of corrector and adviser are: - it increases learners' speaking opportunities - it develops a conscious focus on language form it encourages them to express their own judgements on language points it is an acknowledgement that different individuals know more specific areas than others it provides an opportunity for real communication. Learner-led group tasks can provide opportunities for peer feedback, but they bring potential risks, too. My experience is that some learners resent being corrected by other members of the group. This seems to apply particularly to the correction of pronunciation. Perhaps in this specific area of language performance the person being corrected feels that the pot is calling the kettle black; few learners of English have achieved such native-like pronunciation that their peers feel they have earned the right to correct others. Also there is no guarantee that learner-learner feedback will help the learner to notice the gap

about

between what they have said and what they should have said. E A H E H E H \ E H E ______H A H J it must be very nice to travel on her (sounds like 'ong ha') yes it's? it must be very nice to travel to travel ong ha ong? ong ha ong ha? ong ha + and next? what's + what's mean 'ong ha ? a ship + on a ship a ship?

that's the ship + the boat you know!

Correcting mistakes in oral work Preliminary note. On the whole, we give feedback on oral work through speech on written work through writing; and although there are occasional situations where we might do it the other way round (for example, discuss an essay with a student in a oneto-one tutorial, or write a letter providing feedback on speech) these are very much the exceptions and will not be dealt with in this unit and the next. There are some situations where we might prefer not to correct a learner's mistake: in fluency work, for example, when the learner is in mid-speech, and to correct would disturb and discourage more than help. But there are other situations when correction is likely to be helpful. Would you support the recommendation to refrain from correcting during fluencyoriented speech, and to do so only during accuracy-orient exercises? Can you add any further comment? Read on for my answer to this. The recommendation not to correct a learner during fluent speech is in principle a valid one, but perhaps an over-simplification. There can be places where to refrain from providing an acceptable form where the speaker is obviously uneasy or 'floundering' can actually be demoralizing, and gentle, support in spite of

intervention can help. Conversely, even where the ethos is on getting the language right, we may not always correct: in a grammar exercise for example, if the learner has contributed an interesting or personal piece of information that does not happen to use the target form; also, when they have got most of an item right we may prefer not to draw attention to a relatively trivial mistake. Techniques of oral correction Oral corrections are usually provided directly by the teacher; but they may also be elicited from the learner who made the mistake in the first place, or by another member of the class. Corrections may or may not include a clarification of why the mistake was made, and may or may not require re-production of the acceptable form by the learner.The objective of the inquiry project suggested below is to ascertain which of these techniques are in fact most used in a selection of lessons taught locally, and which are preferred by learners. Some practical conclusions may be drawn from the results . Grouping When setting up group work, one of the teacher's important decisions is who is to work with whom. Some Methodists suggested that the greater the differences between learners, the greater the natural need for negotiation. Of course our room for maneuver may be limited; in most of the world's classrooms, learners come from a single background culture and share a common first language, so the teacher may not have the option of putting together speakers of different first languages when setting up communication tasks. Even so, the learners in any class are likely to vary in proficiency, and it should be possible to form groups of relatively 'unequal partners. In a multilingual class it makes sense for pupils with different levels to work together. A higher-level learner may not want to work with a weaker partner. However, there are advantages for both partners in a mixed-level pair: the more proficient learner gets practice in pro- ducing comprehensible output; the weaker partner gains experience negotiating meaning But group work is not the only alternative to non-interactive whole-class work. One Indian methodologist Karuna Kumar, who works in a context where large class size might be thought to make _ interaction and involvement difficult (Kumar 1992). His article shows that teachers can increase learners' opportunities to speak without resorting to -group work. He describes how one teacher of a class of 45 pupils set up a play-reading, using a script from the class's textbook. Nearly half the class were directly involved in reading different parts, while the others listened in, prompted, commented on the readers' performances and gave the teacher ideas and suggestions. Kumar shows that by encouraging contributions from learners a teacher can create opportunities for learner talk in a large class, even without allowing what he

calls the 'private talk' of groupwork. What matters, he says, is not class size, but attitudes; teachers should be prepared to include learners as 'co-participants in the activity and monitors of the classroom interaction'

My own experience taken from the practicum The most useful thing in teaching elementary pupils English , (as well as in other subjects) is using images . This makes the process of learning more interesting , colored and curious. Childrens perception is based in subjects, it is difficult for them to imagine things without seeing them , so images help them to remember the new word or make up the situation . Not less important thing is to use some communicational situations or a role-play .Almost at every English lesson I used some situations in which kids had to make up a dialogue . That was fascinating . During the situation children were involved in the game , this made them relax and they didnt feel like they were at the lesson . This was probably the most interesting item of our work , everyone wanted to take part in it. During learning new words and actions I tried to input them into relaxations . I find it easier to start with something you know your students have an interest in - it could be anything from painting to football - and then they are eager to 'talk' about the subject. Take football for instance, the students could mime actions and you could give them the English names e.g. pitch, goal, running, kicking the ball and so on. I have found that this method works for both children and adults. Radio and TV-shows could really help you to teach spoken English to the pupils. They will find it more interesting than a teacher who talks in front of them. But just keep in mind that you have to sort out the type of video or cassette that you would use. After watching or hearing the videos or cassette, just make sure to talk about it together with the students. There are a lot of good English videos available, I believe you can find one, right? I hope it works. I find it easier to start with something you know your pupils have an interest in - it could be anything from painting to football - and then they are eager to 'talk' about the subject. Take football for instance, the students could mime actions and you could give them the English names e.g. pitch, goal, running, kicking the ball and so on. I really think that the best way to have pupils talk is by giving them interesting topics to talk about. To do this teachers have to think first about what is interesting for their pupils rather than for them, then they will have to ask them a list of topics, then they will have to look for information about those topics because the teacher must know something about the topic which he want his students to talk. Then he has to give pupils an input, an appropriate input gives a formidable output, for this we can use a video, or an article taken from a magazine or a newspaper. Then we will have to create a series of tasks to develop the topic and finally ask pupils to talk about that or a related theme. A very good way of having pupils talk is by using project work The point in this is to give them interesting topics to research and finally to talk about. Speaking about topics , Id like

to admit that the work between us and pupils has to be topic- centred . Topic centered teaching is one of the ways of organizing teaching around a selected topic. The emphasis of the lesson is on a certain subject and language objectives are integrated with content study. Learners are more motivated if their attention is attracted to the topic, they are interested in. Pupils feel frustrated if we teach the material, which they feel they do not need. Working on a topic helps the children to associate new vocabulary and structurewith a particular topic and to memorize it. It is easier to teach vocabulary, which belongs to one area. Topic-centered work allows the teacher to go into a subject in depth. Besides, the content of the lesson becomes more important than the language itself, and j that provides a communicative basis for language learning. Topic -centered activities may be based on stories or text, and include the development of all the language skills.The choice of the topic, as well as the time we plan to spend working at it, is indicated at the long term planning stage. The teacher works out functions of the language he wants to focus on.

Games Some of these can be used as warm-ups. Most of them can be linked to any lesson theme or grammatical form you're working on. These games usually require at least a small group to play, but you may be able to adapt some of them for one-on-one settings.

Find Someone Who... (literate beginner-intermediate, group) Create a list of characteristics such as "likes chocolate," "has two children," or "can swim." There should be 10-15 items, and you can relate them to your lesson if you wish. Then let the learners mingle and get signatures of other learners who fit the descriptions. Make sure they are using appropriate question forms ("likes X" becomes "Do you like X?") and aren't just pointing to the items on the page. This can be made into a Bingo activity by putting the items on a grid. Pictionary (any level, group) Divide into 2-3 teams and give each a supply of paper if you aren't using a whiteboard. It's best if each team can sit around a table or have their own whiteboard space. Tell one member from each team what item to draw, and on your signal they may begin. The first team to guess wins a point. Play a fixed number of rounds and the team with the highest score wins. Notice that in this version, all teams are working independently at the same time to guess the same word, but you could take turns with each team. You can also give stickers or wrapped candy to the person or team guessing correctly if you don't want to make it competitive with points. Scavenger Hunt (any literate level, group) Divide into teams and hand out a list of items to be collected (a penny, a stick of gum, a signature, a pine cone, a shoelace, be creative). Define the searching

range (classroom, house, campus, neighborhood, building). The first team to return with all the items wins a prize. Twenty Questions (intermediate-advanced, individual or group) Select an object in your mind and let the learners ask up to twenty questions to guess what it is. Trade places with the winner and let that learner select an object for the next round. Storyline (intermediate-advanced, group) Divide into groups of 4-6 people. Give everyone a sheet of paper and ask them to write the first sentence of a story at the top of the page. It may begin "Once upon a time..." if they like. Then they pass the page along to the next person in the group. That person reads the first sentence and adds one more to it to continue the story. Then that person folds the top of the page backwards so only his or her own single sentence is visible and passes the page to the next person. That person writes one more sentence, folds the paper back to hide the previous sentence, and passes it along again. When the pages have passed through the entire group one or two rounds, everyone unfolds the pages and reads the stories. They are often hilarious, and this game usually generates contagious laughter. Telephone (any level, group) Divide the group into two teams and have them stand in single file lines. Whisper a somewhat complex sentence (according to their level) into the ear of the first person in each line. Make sure no one else hears. Give the same sentence to each line. Then each person must whisper it into the ear of the next person until the end of the line. The last person must either say the sentence or write it on a whiteboard. The team whose final sentence most resembles the original one wins. In case of a tie, the fastest team wins. Try giving an easy sentence to start with to build confidence before moving onto a difficult one. If the game is too hard in the first round, learners will decide it's no fun.

Simple dialogues

WHAT TIME IS IT NOW? - What time is it now?

2:00 3:10 7:14 9:15 1:21

It's seven o'clock. It's twelve o'clock. It's three ten. It's seven fourteen. It's nine fifteen.

It's seven p.m. / a.m. It's noon / midnight. It's ten (minutes) after three. It's fourteen after seven. It's (a) quarter after nine.

11:05 2:09 6:30 4:50 10:45 8:35

It's one twenty-one It's eleven oh five. It's two oh nine. It's six thirty. It's four fifty. It's ten forty-five. It's eight thirty-five.

It's twenty-one minutes past one. It's five after eleven. It's nine minutes past two. It's half past six. It's ten minutes to five. It's quarter to eleven. It's twenty-five minutes to nine.

Tell me about your family 1. Tell your classmates or teacher about your family. (If you have a family photograph, you may wish to show it to them.) Example, - How many members are in your family ? - There are five people in my family. (My mom, dad, older brother, younger sister and me.) OR - Whats your mothers job? My mother is a dentist. My father is a veterinarian. I have two brothers and one sister. OR (while showing a picture) This is my grandma... This is my dad... This is me, when I was 9 years old. 2. Ask your classmates about their families. Listen and ask appropriate related questions. -How many brothers and sisters do you have, Tammy? -I just have one sister. -What's her name? -Faye. -How old is she? -She's seventeen.