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CHAPTER 2 : FLUID STATICS Hydrostatic Forces

The design of many engineering systems such as water dams and liquid storage tanks requires the determination of the forces acting on the surfaces using fluid statics. The complete description of the resultant hydrostatic force acting on a submerged surface requires the determination of its magnitude, its point of application or its direction, and the line of action of the force.

2.7 Hydrostatic Forces On Submerged Plane Surfaces When a surface such as a gate valve in a dam, the wall of a liquid storage tank, or the hull of a ship is submerged in a fluid, forces develope on the surface due to the fluid pressure. For fluids at rest we know that the force must be perpendicular to the surface since there are no shearing stresses present. We also know that the pressure will vary linearly with depth if the fluid is incompressible. Fig. 2.18 below shows the hydrostatics pressure distribution on the submerged tilted, vertical and horizontal plates.

Fig. 2.18 : Hydrostatic force distribution on the submerged plates. In most cases, the other side of the plate is open to the atmosphere (such as the dry side of a gate), and thus atmospheric pressure acts on both sides of the plate, yielding a zero resultant. In such cases, it is convenient to subtract atmospheric pressure and work with the gauge pressure only. On a plane surface, we often need to determine the magnitude of the resultant force and its point of application, which is called the center of pressure.

2.7.1 Hydrostatic Forces Acting On Horizontal Submerged Plane Surfaces For the horizontal surface, such as the bottom surface of a tank as shown in Fig. 2.19, the magnitude of the resultant force is simply FR =pA =gh.A where ; p = uniform pressure on the bottom A = area of the bottom

Fig. 2.19 : Pressure distribution on the bottom horizontal surface of tank Since the pressure is constant and uniformly distributed over the bottom, the resultant force acts through the centroid of the area.

# Example 2.13 : Hydrostatic Force on the Horizontal Plane The rigid L-shaped gate OAB is 3 m width and hinged at O and rests against a rigid support at B. Find the hydrostatic force acting on the plate AB.

Fig E2.13 Solution :

FR = p A = gh A = (1000)(9.81)(7)(2 3) = 412 kN - - - - acting through the centroid of plate AB

To be continued at Example 2.14

2.7.2 Hydrostatic Forces Acting On Vertical and Inclined Submerged Plane Surfaces For the more general cases in which a submerged plane surface is inclined, as is illustrated in Fig. 2.20, the determination of the resultant force acting on the surface is more involved.

Fig. 2.20 : Arbitrary shape plane submerged in liquid For the present we will assume that the fluid surface is open to the atmosphere. Let the plane in which the surface lies intersect the free surface at O and make an angle with this surface. The xy coordinate system is defined so that 0 is the origin and y is directed along the surface as shown. The area can have an arbitrary shape as shown. Now, we wish to determine the direction, location, and magnitude of the resultant force acting on one side of this area due to the liquid in contact with the area. At any given depth, h, the force acting on dA is dF = h.dA and is acting perpendicular to the surface. Thus, the magnitude of the

resultant force can be found by summing these differential forces over the entire surface. In equation form,

FR = A h.dA with h = y sin = A y sindA = sin A ydA

The integral of ydA is the first moment of the area with respect to the x axis or ydA = ycA, so we can write,
FR = sin .y c A = y c sin . A

Or more simply as,

FR = hc A = ghc A

where ; hc = vertical distance from free surface to the centroid of the area. Note that the magnitude of the force is independent of the angle and depends only on the specific weight of the fluid, the total area, and the depth of the centroid of the area below the surface. In effect, the equation indicates that the magnitude of the resultant force is equal to the pressure at the centroid of the area multiplied by the total area. Since all the differential forces that were summed to obtain are perpendicular to the surface, the resultant must also be perpendicular to the surface. Besides the magnitude of resultant force, the location where this FR is acting on also has to be determined. This point or location is called as center of pressure, CP. The location of CP normally is described in terms of vertical distance from free surface, hR or hcp or inclined distance from free surface, yR (or sometimes also known as ycp).

Note : From the equation FR = ghc.A, our intuition might suggest that the resultant force should pass through the centroid of the area, this is not actually the case. The yR can be determined by summing the moments around the x axis. That is, the moment of the resultant force must equal the moment of the distributed pressure force, or

FR y R = A ydF FR y R = A siny 2dA

Thus,

yR

siny = A
FR

dA

siny = A

dA

Ay c sin

y = A

dA

yc A

But, A y2 dA is the second moment of the area (moment of inertia, Ix), with respect to an axis formed by the intersection of the plane containing the surface and the free surface (x axis). Thus, we can write,

yR =

Ix yc A

with

I x = I xc + Ay c

where Ixc is the second moment of the area with respect to an axis passing through its centroid and parallel to the x axis. Thus,

yR =

I xc + yc yc A

I xc sin2 hR = + hc since yR= hR/sin and yc = hc/sin hc A

Both result shows that the resultant force does not pass through the centroid but is always below the centroid, since Ixc/yc A > 0. Fig. 2.21 shows the Ixc properties of some common shape.

Fig. 2.21 : Geometric properties of some common shapes.

Procedure for computing the hydrostatic force on a submerged plane area 1. Identify the point where the angle of inclination of the area of interest intersects the level of free surface of the fluid. This may require the extension of the angled surface or the fluid surface line. Call this point as origin, 0. 2. Locate the centroid of the area from its geometry. 3. Determine hc as the vertical distance from the level of the free surface down to the centroid of the area. 4. Determine yc as the inclined distance from the level of the free surface down to the centroid of the area. This is the distance from 0 to the centroid. Note that hc and yc are related by hc = yc sin . 5. Calculate the resultant force from FR = hc A = ghc A 6. Then calculate the Ixc, the moment of inertia of the area about its centroidal-x axis. 7. Determine the location of cp by calculating the yR from (i)

y cp or y R =

I xc + yc yc A

* Or hR for vertical plane cases which is using the equation of (ii)

I xc sin2 hcp or hR = + hc hc A

8. Sketch the FR acting on the cp, perpendicular to the area (or the whole free body diagram if necessary). 9. Calculate other force magnitude if required using M=0 for equilibrium. Note : For inclined plane case, follow all steps 1 to 7. For vertical plane case, follow steps 2, 3, 5, 6 and 7 (ii). Step 8 and 9 required if problem involved solving using M=0.

# Example 2.14 : Hydrostatic Force on the Vertical Plane The rigid L-shaped gate, OAB, of Fig. E2.14 is hinged at O and rests against a rigid support at B. What minimum horizontal force, P, is required to hold the gate closed if its width is 3 m? Neglect the weight of the gate and friction in the hinge. The back of the gate is exposed to the atmosphere.

Fig E2.14 In this case, we should decompose the force analysis of L gate into two parts: determination the resultant force FR(AB) which acting on plate AB. i. determination of the resultant force FR(OA) which acting on the plate OA. ii. Solution : iii. From Eg. E2.13, FR(OB) acting on plate AB has been calculating which is equal to 412 Kn. For plate OA,

iv.

FR (OA ) = pc A = ghc A = (1000 )(9.81)(5 )(4 3 ) = 588.6 kN

3

I xc

bd 3 3(4 ) = = = 16 m 4 12 12

hR (OA ) = hc + = 5+

I xc h c .A

16 (5)(4 3) = 5.27m

FREE BODY DIAGRAM Refer to free body diagram above, for equilibrium,

M hinge = 0 FR (OA ) (5.27 3) + FR ( ) (1) = P ( 4) 588600(2.27) + 412000(1) = 4P

AB

P = 437kN

# Example 2.15 : Hydrostatic Force on the Vertical Plane An open tank has a vertical partition and on one side contains gasoline with a density 700 kg/m3 at a depth of 4 m, as shown in Fig. E2.15. A rectangular gate that is 4 m high and 2 m wide and hinged at one end is located in the partition. Water is slowly added to the empty side of the tank. At what depth, h, will the gate start to open?

Fig E2.15 Solution :

FR gasoline = p c A = ghc A = (700 )(9.81)(2 )(4 2 ) = 109.9 kN
3

I xc =

bd 3 2(4 ) = = 10.67 m 4 12 12

I xc h c .A

FR water = p c A = ghc A = 9810h 2

= (1000)(9.81)(h / 2)(h 2)

bd 3 2(h ) I xc = = = 0.167h 3 m 4 12 12
3

hR water = hc +

I xc hc . A

0.167h 3 = h/2+ (h / 2)(2h ) = 0.667h

For equilibrium,

FR water (h hR water ) = FR gasoline 4 hR gasoline 9810h 2 (h 0.667h ) = 109900(4 2.67) 3266.73h 3 = 146167 h = 3.56m

M hinge

=0

# Example 2.16 : Hydrostatic Force on the Vertical Plane A pressurized tank contains oil (SG = 0.9) and has a square, 0.6-m by 0.6-m plate bolted to its side, as is illustrated in Fig. E2.16. When the pressure gauge on the top of the tank reads 50 kPa, what is the magnitude and location of the resultant force on the attached plate? The outside of the tank is at atmospheric pressure.

Fig E2.16 Solution :

FR = p c A = (p air + ghc ). A = 50 10 3 + (900)(9.81)(2.3) (0.6 0.6) = 25.3 kN
I xx bd 3 0.6(0.6) = = = 0.0108 m 4 12 12
3

[(

hR = hc +
= 2. 3 +

I xc h c .A

0.0108 (2.3)(0.6 0.6) = 2.31m

# Example 2.17 : Hydrostatic Force on the Inclined Plane The 4 m diameter circular gate of Fig. E2.17 is located in the inclined wall of a large reservoir containing water. The gate is mounted on a shaft along its horizontal diameter. For a water depth of 10 m above the shaft, determine: (a) (b) the magnitude and location of the resultant force exerted on the gate by the water, and the moment that would have to be applied to the shaft to open the gate.

Fig E2.17 Solution : a. The magnitude and location of resultant force

FR = (1000 )(9.81)(10 ) (2 ) = 1230 kN
2

FR = ghc . A

I xx =

R 4
4

(2 )4
4

= 4 m4

yR = yc +

I xx y c .A

10 4 + sin 60 (10 / sin 60) (2)2 = 11.6m

b. The moment that would have to be applied to the shaft to open the gate.
M = FR (y R y c ) = 1230 10 3 (0.0866 ) = 1.07 10 5 Nm .

Pressure Prism The pressure prism is a graphical representation of the hydrostatic force on a plain surface. The magnitude of the resultant fluid force is equal to the volume of the pressure prism and passes through the centroid. Consider the pressure distribution along a vertical wall of a tank of width b, which contains a liquid having a specific weight . Since the pressure must vary linearly with depth, we can represent the variation as is shown in Fig. 2.22 (a), where the pressure is equal to zero at the upper surface and equal to h at the bottom.

Fig. 2.22 : The pressure prism

The pressure distribution shown in Fig. 2.22 (a) applies across the vertical surface so we can draw the three-dimensional representation of the pressure distribution as shown in Fig. 2.22 (b). The base of this volume in pressure-area space is the plane surface of interest, and its altitude at each point is the pressure. This volume is called the pressure prism, and it is clear that the magnitude of the resultant force acting on the surface is equal to the volume of the pressure prism or,
FR = volume of pressure prism = 1 (h )(bh ) = h .bh 2 2

= bh 2 2

JUST CHECK!....

FR

= Volume of pressure prism

1 h = bh 2 = A 2 2 sin ce h = hc 2 FR = hc A = ghc A
The resultant force must pass through the centroid of the pressure prism which is located along the vertical axis of symmetry of the surface, and at a distance h/3 above the base (since the centroid of a triangle is located at h/3 above its base) or 2/3h from the upper end. Or it can be proved as follows,

hR = hc +

I xc hc A

h bh 3 / 12 = + 2 h / 2 bh h h = + 2 6 2 = h 3
Note : The use of pressure prisms for determining the force on submerged plane areas is convenient if the area is rectangular so the volume and centroid can be easily determined. However, for other nonrectangular shapes, integration would generally be needed to determine the volume and centroid. In these circumstances it is more convenient to use the equations developed in the previous section. This same graphical approach can be used for plane surfaces that do not extend up to the fluid surface as illustrated in Fig. 2.23. In this instance, the cross section of the pressure prism is trapezoidal. However, the resultant force is still equal in magnitude to the volume of the pressure trapezoidal, and it passes through the centroid of the volume.

Fig. 2.23 : The pressure distribution on the vertical plates located far below from the free surface. Specific values can be obtained by decomposing the pressure prism/trapezoidal into two parts, ABDE and BCD. Thus,
FR = F1 + F2

where the components can readily be determined by inspection for rectangular surfaces. The location of FR can be determined by summing moments about some convenient axis, such as one passing through A. In this instance,
FR y A = F1y 1 + F2 y 2

Therefore the location where the FR acts measured from point A is

yA =

F1y 1 + F2 y 2 FR

# Example 2.18 : Determination of Hydrostatic Force on the Vertical Plane Using Pressure Prism Technique Solve Example 2.16 using pressure prism technique. Solution :

Fig E2.18
F1 = (ps + h1 )A = [(50000) + [(0.90 1000 9.81)(2)]](0.6 0.6) = 24.4 kN

Total hydrostatic force,

FR = F1 + F2 = 24.4 + 0.954 = 25.4 kN

The location of FR measured from O, yo,

FR y o = F1 (0.3 ) + F2 (0.2 )

So,
yo = F1 (0.3) + F2 (0.2) FR
3

= 0.296m

3 3

Therefore the location of FR measured from free surface, hR,

hR = 2.6 0.296 = 2.3m

2.8 Hydrostatic Forces Acting On Submerged Curved Surfaces The equations FR=ghCA and hR =Ixc/hC.A + hC are developed for the magnitude and location of the resultant force acting on a submerged surface only apply to plane surfaces. However,many surfaces of interest (such as those associated with dams, pipes, and tank) are nonplanar.

Fig. 2.24 : Examples of curved or nonplanar surfaces. For submerged curved surface, the determination of the resultant force (FR) typically requires the integration of the pressure force that change along the curve surface. However, the easiest way to determine the FR acting on the curved surface by separating it into the horizontal and vertical components, FH and FV. This is done by considering the free-body diagram of the fluid volume enclosed by the curved surface of interest and the horizontal and vertical projections of this surface, as shown in Fig. 2.25 below.

Fig. 2.25 : Hydrostatic force on the curved surface The forces acting on this enclosed volume include : 1. W is the weight of the enclosed fluid volume and acts downward through the centroid of this volume which is simply given by,

W=gV
2. Fx is the hydrostatic force acting on the vertical projection surface area, through the centroid of this vertical surface where,

Fx=gh2.Avertical
3. Fy is the hydrostatic force acting on the horizontal projection surface area, through the centroid of this horizontal surface where,

FY=gh1.Ahorizontal
Note that : vertical surface = the projection of the curved surface on a vertical plane, horizontal surface = the projection of the curved surface on a horizontal plane.

From the Fig. 2 25 (b), for the equilibrium, the force balances in the horizontal and vertical directions give;
FH = Fx

and

FV = Fy + W

The magnitude of resultant force, FR is then given by,

FR = FH + FV
And its direction,

= tan1

FV FH

Summary of the procedure for computing the hydrostatic force on submerged curved surface. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Isolate the volume of fluid above/under the curved surface. Sketch the free body diagram (FBD) of the fluid volume and show all the forces involved with correct direction and location. Compute the Fx=gh2.Avertical . (identify first the h2 and vertical projection surface area, Avertical for Fx). Compute FY=gh1.Ahorizontal (identify first the h1 and horizontal projection surface area, A horizontal for FY). Compute W=gV (identify first the fluid volume,V). Calculate FV and FH from the FBD. Calculate the resultant force, FR from FR = FH + FV and its
F direction from = tan1 V . F H Show the resultant force acting on the curved surface in such a direction that its line of action passes through the center of curvature of the surface. Sketch the FBD and solve problem using M=0 if required*.
2 2

8. 9.

# Example 2.19: Hydrostatic Force on the Curve Surface A 5 m width curved gate is located in the side of a reservoir containing water as shown in Fig. E2.19. Determine the magnitude of the resultant force and its location.

Fig. E2.19 Solution :

Fig. E2.19 (b) From the free body diagram of the fluid on the curve surface,
FH = Fx

And where,

FV = Fy + W

Fx = ghAy

3 = (1000)(9.81)6 + (5 3) 2 = 1104 kN

Fy = ghAx

= (1000)(9.81)(6)(5 3) = 883kN
r 2 W = g = g 4 l (3 )2 = (1000 )(9.81) 5 4 = 347kN

Therefore,

FH = Fx = 1104 kN

FV = Fy + W = 883 + 347 = 1230 kN

Thus,

FR = FH + FV = = 1653kN
and

(1104)2 + (1230)2
FV FH 1230 o = tan 1 = 48 1104

= tan 1

# Example 2.20: Hydrostatic Force on the Curve Surface A long solid cylinder of radius 0.8 m hinged at point A is used as an automatic gate, as shown in Fig. E2.20. When the water level reaches 5 m, the gate opens by turning about the hinge at point A. Determine the hydrostatic force per m length of the cylinder and its line of action when the gate opens.

Fig. E2.20 Solution : From the free body diagram of the fluid under curve surface,
FH = Fx

and where,

FV = Fy W
Fx = ghAy 0.8 = (1000)(9.81)4.2 + (0.8 1) 2 = 36.1kN

Fy = ghAx

= (1000)(9.81)(5)(0.8 1) = 39.2kN
R 2 2 )l W = g = g ( R 4 2 (1000)(9.81)(0.8)2 (0.8) (1) = 4 = 1.3kN

Therefore, and Thus,

FH = Fx = 36.1 kN

FV = Fy W = 39.2 1.3 = 37.9 kN

FR = FH + FV = = 52.3kN
and,

(36.1)2 + (37.9)2
FV FH 37.9 o = tan 1 = 46.4 36.1

= tan 1