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CCNA Semester1

Module 2 Networking Fundamentals


Networking terminology Some network architectures The importance of bandwidth Networking models: OSI vs TCP/IP

Networking Terminology

Relative size of network

Networking Devices

Equipment that connects directly to a network segment is referred to as a device. There are 2 type of devices: end-user devices and network devices.

Network Devices
Repeater: regenerate a signal. Hub: concentrate connections and may regenerate a signal. Bridge: convert network transmission data formats as well as perform basic data transmission management. Switch: add more intelligence to data transfer management. Router: routing and other services

Network Topology
The physical topology, which is the actual layout of the wire or media. The logical topology, which defines how the media is accessed by the hosts for sending data.

Physical Topology

Logical Topology


Token Passing

Logical Topology: Broadcast

Each host sends its data to all other hosts on the network medium. First-come, first-serve. Eg: Ethernet

Logical Topology: Token Passing

Access to media is controlled by an electronic token. Possession of the token gives the host the right to pass data to its destination. Eg: Token-Ring, FDDI

Network Protocols
Protocol suites are collections of protocols that enable network communication from one host through the network to another host. A protocol is a formal description of a set of rules and conventions that govern a particular aspect of how devices on a network communicate.

Functions of Protocols
Protocols control all aspects of data communication, which include the following:
How the physical network is built How computers connect to the network How the data is formatted for transmission How that data is sent How to deal with errors

Operate within a limited geographic area Allow many users to access high-bandwidth media Provide full-time connectivity to local services Connect physically adjacent devices

LAN Devices and Technology

Some common LAN technologies are:

Ethernet Token Ring FDDI

Operate over a large geographically separated areas Provide full-time remote resources connected to local services

WAN Technologies Include

Some common WAN technologies are:

Analog modems Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Frame Relay Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) T (US) and E (Europe) carrier series: T1, E1, T3, E3 Synchronous Optical Network (SONET)

Metropolitan-Area Networks (MANs)

A MAN is a network that spans a metropolitan area such as a city or suburban area. A MAN usually consists of two or more LANs in a common geographic area.

Storage-Area Networks (SANs)

A SAN is a dedicated, high-performance network used to move data between servers and storage resources.

Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)

A VPN is a private network that is constructed within a public network infrastructure such as the global Internet . VPN is the most costeffective method of establishing secured connection

VPN Types

There are three main types of VPNs:

Access VPNs Intranet VPNs Extranet VPNs


Importance of Bandwidth

Digital Bandwidth
Bandwidth is the measure of how much information, or bits, can flow from one place to another in a given amount of time, or seconds.

Bandwidth Limitations (LAN)

Bandwidth Limitations (WAN)

Throughput refers to actual measured bandwidth, at a specific time of day, using specific Internet routes, and while a specific set of data is transmitted on the network. Factors that determine throughput:
Internetworking devices Type of data being transferred Network topology Number of users on the network User computer Server computer Power conditions

Data Transfer Calculation

Calculate an estimate of network performance

Networking Models

Analyzing network in layer

What is flowing ? What is flowing ? Data Data What different forms flow ? What different forms flow ? Text, Graphic, Video ... Text, Graphic, Video ... What rules govern flow ? What rules govern flow ? Standard, Protocol ... Standard, Protocol ... Where does the flow occur ? Where does the flow occur ? Cable, Atmosphere ... Cable, Atmosphere ...

Communication characteristics
What are the source and the destination of a communication process?

Where does the communication take place?

How to make the communication process effectively?


Source Address


Destination Address

Data Communication

Source address, Destination address

Cable, Fiber, Atmosphere

Format Procedure

Evolution of networking standards



Interconnection Development Simplification




OSI Model
The OSI model: a framework within which model networking standards can be developed.
It provided vendors with a set of standards that ensured greater compatibility and interoperability between the various types of network technologies that were produced by the many companies around the world.

Proprietary vs. Open

Why a layered model

Reduces complexity. Standardizes interfaces. Facilitates modular engineering. Ensures technology compatibility. Accelerates evolution. Simplifies teaching and learning.

7 layers of the OSI reference model

Network processes to applications Data representation Interhost communication End-to-end connections Address and best path Direct link control, access to media a Binary transmission
All People Seem To Need Data Processing

7 layers of the OSI reference model

Network processes to applications Is the OSI layer that is closest to the user; it provides network services to the users applications.
File transfer Electronic mail Terminal access

7 layers of the OSI reference model

Data representation Ensures that the information that the application layer of one system sends out is readable by the application layer of another system.
Format of data Data conversion Data compression Data encryption

7 layers of the OSI reference model

Interhost communication Establishes, manages, and terminates sessions between two communicating hosts.
Sessions Dialog Conversations Data exchange

7 layers of the OSI reference model

End-to-end connections Provides reliable, transparent transfer of data over networks.
Segments, data stream, datagram End-to-end flow control Error detection and recovery Segmentation & reassembly

7 layers of the OSI reference model

Address and best path Provides connectivity and path selection between two host systems that may be located on geographically separated networks.
Packets Route, routing table, Logical address Fragmentation

7 layers of the OSI reference model

Direct link control, access to media Provides for the reliable transfer of data cross a physical link.
Frames Physical address Network topology Line discipline

7 layers of the OSI reference model

Binary transmission Transmission of an unstructured bit stream over a physical link between end systems.
Electrical, mechanical, procedural and functional specifications Physical data rate Distances Physical connector

7 layers of the OSI reference model

Network processes to applications Data representation Interhost communication End-to-end connections Address and best path Direct link control, access to media a Binary transmission
All People Seem To Need Data Processing

Peer-to-Peer Communication
The protocols of each layer exchange information, called protocol data units (PDUs), between peer layers.

The lower layers use encapsulation to put the protocol data unit (PDU) from the upper layer into its data field and to add headers and trailers that the layer can use to perform its function.

When the data link layer receives the frame, it does the following:
It reads the physical address and other control information provided by the directly connected peer data link layer. It strips the control information from the frame, thereby creating a datagram. It passes the datagram up to the next layer, following the instructions that appeared in the control portion of the frame.

Encapsulation example: E-mail

Layer-to-layer communications

Provide services Request services

TCP/IP model development

The late-60s The Defense Advance Research Projects Agency (DARPA) originally developed Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) to interconnect various defense department computer networks. The Internet, an International Wide Area Network, uses TCP/IP to connect networks across the world.

The TCP/IP Reference Model

Layer 4: Layer 3: Layer 2: Layer 1:

It is important to note that some of the layers in the TCP/IP model have the same name as layers in the OSI model. Do not confuse the layers of the two models.

TCP/IP Protocol Stack

OSI Model and TCP/IP Model

Focus of the CCNA Curriculum

Networking devices Some of the common network types Intranet and extranet Bandwidth and throughput The layered communication model OSI reference model TCP/IP networking model