Anda di halaman 1dari 144

SU

1. M
2. M
3. M
4. M
GU
Mr
LEC
CKP
C
ST
SIM
UBMITTED
Mr. MITHA
Mr. PATEL
Mr. GAJER
Mr. VALA
UIDED BY
. SAMIP P
CTURER, (
PCET SU
C.K.PITH
TRESS &
MPLE A
D IN PART
DEGRE
M
AIWALA C
L DHAVAL
RA CHINT
KULDIP

P. SHAH
(M.E.D.)
URAT
HAWALLA
THE P
& EXPE
AND AD
TIAL FULL
EE OF BAC
MECHAN
SU
CHIRAG
L
TAN





ACOLLEG
PROJECT E
RIMEN
VANCE
LFILLMENT
CHELOR O
ICAL EN
UBMITTE





M


GEOFEN
SURAT
ENTITLED
NTAL AN
ED PELT
T OF THE
OF ENGINE
NGINEER
ED BY
64913
64916
64920
5481

Mr. GAUR


NGINEER
T
NALYSI
TON WH
REQUIREM
EERING IN
RING

RANG C.
LEC
C

RING&TE
IS OF
HEEL
MENT FOR
N
CO-GUID
CHAUDH
CTURER, (M
CKPCET - S
ECHNOL
R THE
DED BY
HARY
M.E.D.)
SURAT
OGY
THEPROJECTENTITLED
STRESS&EXPPERIMENT TALANALLYSISOF
SIMPPLEANDAADVANCEDPELTONNWHEEL
SSUBMITTEDINPARTIALLFULLFILLM
BACHELO
MENTOFTH
OROFENG
HEREQUIRE
INEERINGI
EMENTFOR
N
THEDEGRE EEOF
MECHANICALENGINEERINNG
SUBMITTED DBY
1.MMr.MITHAIWWALACHIRRAG 649 913
2.MMr.PATELDDHAVAL 649 916
3.MMr.GAJERACHINTAN 649 920
4.MMr.VALAKUULDIP 548 81
GUIDED BY
Mr.
LEC
CK
C
. SAMIP P
CTURER,
PCET SU
C.K.PITH

P. SHAH
(M.E.D.)
URAT
HAWALLA




ACOLLEG




GEOFEN
SURAT

Mr. GAU


NGINEER
T
CO-GUID DED BY
URANG CC. CHAUD DHARY
LECTTURER, (M M.E.D.)
CCKPCET - S SURAT

RING&TEECHNOLOGY
CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the seminar entitled STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS
OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL submitted by Mr. Mithaiwala
Chirag (64913), Mr. Patel Dhaval (64916), Mr. Gajera Chintan (64920), Mr. Vala
Kuldip (5481) in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree in BACHELOR OF
ENGINEERING IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING of the C.K.Pithawalla college
of Engineering & Technology, Surat is a record of their own work carried out under my
supervision and guidance. The matter embodied in the report has not been submitted
elsewhere for the award of any degree or diploma.


GUIDED BY: CO-GUIDED BY:

Mr. SAMIP P. SHAH Mr.GAURANG C. CHAUDHARI
Lecturer, Lecturer,
(M.E.D.) (M.E.D.)
C.K.P.C.E.T. C.K.P.C.E.T.




Mr.ANISH H. GANDHI
Asst.Professor,
Head of Mechanical
Engineering Department
C.K.P.C.E.T.
Dhaval
Patel
Digitally signed by Dhaval
Patel
DN: cn=Dhaval Patel, o, ou,
email=khaki_211@yahoo.co.
in, c=IN
Date: 2009.06.30 14:37:59
-07'00'
EXAMINERS CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL

This is to certify that the project entitled STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS
OF SIMPLE & ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL submitted by Mr. Mithaiwala
Chirag (64913), Mr Patel Dhaval (64916), Mr. Gajera Chintan (64920), Mr. Vala
Kuldip (5481), in partial fulfillment of the requirement for award of the degree in
BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING of the
C.K.Pithawalla college of Engineering & Technology, Surat is hereby approved for the
award of the degree.

EXAMINERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It has been great privilege for me to work under estimated personality respected Mr.
Samip P. Shah Sir highly intelligent, experienced and qualified lecturer in Mechanical
Engg. Dept. C.K.P.C.E.T. Surat. It is my achievement to be guided under him. He is a
constant source of encouragement and momentum that any intricacy becomes simple. I
gained a lot of in valuable guidance and prompt suggestions from him during entire
project work. I will be indebted of him for ever and I take pride to work under him.
We are thankful to Mr. Gaurang C. Chaudhary Sir who has guided us and helped us
during project work.
W are also thankful to Mr.Anish H. Gandhi (H.O.D.) to provide us facility like
laboratory & workshop and being kindly helpful in this project.

Mr. Mithaiwala Chirag
Mr. Patel Dhaval
Mr. Chintan Gajera
Mr. Vala Kuldip

CONTENTS

-ABSTRACT I
-NOMENCLATURES II
-LIST OF FIGURE IV
-LIST OF PLATES VI
-LIST OF GRAPHS VII
1. INTRODUCTION 1-13
1.1 INTRODUCTION TO HYDRO POWER PLANT 1
1.2 GENERAL LAYOUT OF A HYDRO POWER PLANT 2
1.2.1 GROSS HEAD 3
1.2.2 NET HEAD 3
1.3 CLASSIFICATION OF HYDRAULIC TURBINES 4
1.4 PELTON WHEEL TURBINE 5
1.4.1 HISTORY OF PELTON WHEEL 5
1.4.2 THE PELTON TURBINE OPERATING PRINCIPLE 7
1.5 LAYOUT OF PELTON WHEEL 8
1.5.1 NOZZLE AND FLOW REGULATING ARRANGEMENT 9
1.5.2 RUNNER WITH BUCKETS 9
1.5.3. CASING 10
1.5.4. BREAKING JET 11
1.6 EFFICIENCIES OF TURBINE 11
1.6.1 HYDRAULIC EFFICIENCY (
h
) 11
1.6.2 MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY (
m
) 12
1.6.3 VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY (
V
) 12
1.6.4 OVERALL EFFICIENCY (
O
) 12
1.7 COMPARISION BETWEEN SIMPLE & ADVANCE PELTON WHEEL 13
1.7.1 SIMPLE PELTON WHEEL 13
1.7.2 ADVANCE PELTON WHEEL 13
2. LITRATURE REVIEW 14-27
2.1 LITRATURE REVIEW RELATED TO THEORETICAL APPROACH 14
2.2LITERATURE REVIEW RELATED TO ADVANCE PELTON WHEEL 18
2.3 OBJECTIVE OF PRESENT WORK 27
3. DIMENSIONAL DETAIL OF PELTON WHEEL 28-30
3.1 FORCE CALCULATION 30
4. MODELING OF PELTON WHEEL 31-37
4.1 INTRODUCTION TO PRO/ENGINEER 31
4.2 MODULES IN PRO/ENGINEER 32
4.3 FEATURES OF PRO/ENGINEER 33
4.3.1 PARAMETRIC DESIGN 33
4.3.2 FEATURE-BASED APPROACH 33
4.3.3 PARENTS CHILLED RELATIONSHIP 34
4.3.4 ASSOCIATIVE AND MODEL CENTRIC 34
4.4 GRAPHIC USER INTERFACE OF PRO/ENGINEER 34
4.4.1 MENU BAR 34
4.4.2 TOOLCHESTS 35
4.4.3 NAVIGATION AREA 35
4.4.4 GRAPHIC WINDOWS 35
4.4.5 DASHBOARD 36
4.4.6 INFORMATION AREA 36
4.5 MODELING OF BUCKET 36
5. STRESS ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 38-43
5.1 INTRODUCTION 38
5.2 MODELING 38
5.3 TRADITONAL RUNNER 38
5.4 ADVANCED OR HOOPED RUNNER 41
5.5 MECHANICAL CALCULATIONS 41
5.5.1 STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOR 42
5.5.2 STATIC STRESSES RESULTS 43
6. MANUFACTURING OF HOOP PELTON WHEEL 44-48
6.1 BUCKET CASTING PROCESS 44
6.1.1 BENCH MOULDING 44
6.1.2 CASTING PROCESS 44
6.1.3 BUCKET CASTING SPECIFICATION 46
6.1.4 MACHING PROCESS 46
6.2 MANFACTURING OF RUNNER 47
6.3 MANUFACTURING OF HOOP 47
7. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 49-52
7.1 DATA OF PRACTICAL SET UP 50
7.2 SAMPLE CALCULATION 50
8. RESULT AND DISCUSSION 53-74
9. CONCLUSION 75
10. FUTURE SCOPE 76
APPENDIX - A STRESS ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND 77
ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL
APPENDIX B EXPERIMENTAL DATA & RESULTS OF SIMPLE
PELTON WHEEL
APPENDIX C EXPERIMENTAL DATA & RESULTS OF ADVANCED
PELTON WHEEL
APPENDIX D EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE & ADVANCED
PELTON WHEEL
REFERANCES
ABSTRACT

In this project we have checked newly develop design known as hooped runner or
advanced pelton wheel in which there are two hoops which supports the bucket from back
side and giving it to rest on it. The new design is based on redistribution of the function of
different parts of pelton wheel. In conventional runner the jet of water is directly strike to
splitter of the bucket and transfers the force to it than buckets convert it into momentum
by which the shaft is rotate and giving us power. Whereas in advanced pelton wheel
bucket does not directly transport the force to the runner but transfer the force via these
hoops and these hoops is connected to shaft and by that producing the power so due to
hooped runner bucket act as simply supported beam comparing to simple pelton wheel so
stress developed in hooped pelton is less due to this construction. In this project we want
to achieve some critical data like stress developed and efficiency by which we can choose
that which have batter overall performance. For stress analysis we use ANSYS
workbench v11.0 and for finding the efficiency we made the advanced pelton wheel from
this data and carried out detailed experiment.
The project entitled STRESS AND EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE &
ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL is broadly divided in to ten chapters. The chapter one
discuss about the general layout of hydro electrical power plant and the classification of
hydraulic turbines. The objective of work and necessary literature are reviewed pertaining
to present topic are discussed in chapter two. The dimensional detail of pelton wheel use
in this project is given in chapter three. Use of Pro/Engineer software & its modules are
discussed in chapter four. Chapter five is discussed about stress analysis which we have
done. The manufacturing of bucket is discussed in chapter six. The performance evolution
carried out on pelton wheel is given in chapter seven. In the chapter eight the results
achieved from stress analysis and by the practical are discussed. The conclusion of whole
project is mentioned in chapter nine and the Future scope of present work is given chapter
ten.

I

NOMENCLATURES
d = Inlet pipe diameter (m)
dj = Jet diameter (m)
D = Mean diameter of runner (m)
Fu = Force on runner (N)
g = Gravitational force (m/sec
2
)
H = Net Head (m)
H
g
= Gross Head (m)
H
f
= Friction Head (m)
Kv
1
= Velocity of co-efficient
m = Jet Ratio
N = Speed (rpm)
Ns = Specific Speed (rpm)
P = Produced Power (kW)
Q = Flow rate of water (m
3
/sec)
Re = Extreme dia of runner (m)
R
i
= Mean radius of runner (m)
v
1
= Velocity of flow at inlet
v
2
= Velocity of flow at outlet
u = Runner speed (m/sec)
Z = No. of buckets



II

III

Greek Symbols
1 = Inlet angle of bucket
2 = Outlet angle of bucket
= Half length of bucket

h
= Hydraulic Efficiency

m
= Mechanical Efficiency

v
= Volumetric Efficiency

o
= Overall Efficiency
= Density of water (1000 kg/m
3
)
= Angle (in general)

LIST OF FIGURE

FIGURE
NO.
NAME PAGE
NO.

1.1 Hydraulic turbine and electrical generator 2
1.2 General layout of hydraulic power plant 3
1.3.1 Classification according to action of fluid on moving fluid 4
1.3.2 Classification according to direction of flow of fluid in
runner
4
1.4.1 Pelton turbine original patent document 7
1.4.2 Bucket geometric definitions 8
1.5.1 Straight flow nozzle 9
1.5.2 Runner of pelton wheel 10
2.1.1 Turbine housing modification in and pelton runner
dimensions
14
2.1.2 Coanda effect 15
2.1.3 Casing with cylindrical dome 16
2.1.4 Casing with rectangular dome 16
2.1.5 Effect of the casing on unit discharge, efficiency and
efficiency behavior factor
17
2.1.6 Jet needle tip and nozzle seat ring modifications for jet
quality improvement
17
2.1.7 Jet diameters in the observation area of nozzle 1 measured
from the images at three observation angles
18
2.2.1 Hooped Pelton runner for Beaufort power plant 19
2.2.2 Tangential displacement from FEA on 3D model 20
2.2.3 Buckets fixed on the hoops 21
IV

2.2.4 Arrangements of the hoops 21


2.2.5 Hydraulic efficiency of traditional runner and hooped
runner with no adaptation of the hoops.
22
2.2.6 Comparison of efficiency between a traditional runner and
a modified hooped runner
22
2.2.7 Tangential displacement of the hoops at synchronous speed 23
2.2.8 Equivalent stress at synchronous speed 24
2.2.9 Displacement of Traditional Runner of Pelton Wheel 25
2.2.10 Tangential Displacement of the Hoop (Double hoop) 26
2.2.11 Equivalent Stress (Double Hoop) 26
3.1 Construction of pelton runner blade 28
3.2 Bucket used in this project 29
4.1.1 Pro/Engineer in the industry 31
4.2.1 Modules in Pro/ENGINEER foundation 32
4.4.1 Menu bar of pro-engineering 35
4.5.1 Model of bucket created in Pro/Engineer 37
5.3.1 Model of pelton wheel 39
5.3.2 Constrains given to pelton wheel 39
5.3.3 Displacement of Traditional pelton wheel 40
5.3.4 Stress developed in the Traditional pelton wheel 40
5.5.1 Tangential Displacement of the advanced pelton wheel 42
5.5.2 Equivalent Stresses developed in the advanced pelton
wheel
43
6.1 Classification of sand moulding process 44
6.1.2 A metal casting poured in a sand mould 45

LIST OF PLATES

PLATE NO. NAME PAGE
NO.
1 Front and back view of Bucket used in this model 46
2 Hooped pelton wheel 47
3 Hooped pelton wheel after balancing 48
4 Test rig used for experiment 49
5 Hooped runner mounted on shaft. 50

VI

LIST OF GRAPHS

GRAPH
NO.
NAME PAGE
NO.
8.1 Max eq. Stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.01 m
3
/sec (simple pelton
wheel)
53
8.2 Min eq. stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.01 m
3
/sec (simple pelton
wheel)
54
8.3 Max displacement v/s Speed at Q = 0.01 m
3
/sec (simple
pelton wheel)
54
8.4 Max eq. stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.00666 m
3
/sec (simple
pelton wheel)
55
8.5 Min eq. stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.00666 m
3
/sec (simple pelton
wheel)
55
8.6 Max displacement v/s Speed at Q = 0.00666 m
3
/sec (simple
pelton wheel)
56
8.7 Max eq. stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.005 m
3
/sec (simple pelton
wheel)
56
8.8 Min eq. stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.005 m
3
/sec (simple pelton
wheel)
57
8.9 Max displacement v/s Speed at Q = 0.005 m
3
/sec (simple
pelton wheel)
57
8.10 Max eq. stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.0033 m
3
/sec (simple pelton
wheel)
58
8.11 Min eq. stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.0033 m
3
/sec (simple pelton
wheel)
58
8.12 Max displacement v/s Speed at Q = 0.0033m
3
/sec (simple
pelton wheel)
59
8.13 Max Stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.01 m
3
/sec (Advance pelton
wheel)
59
8.14 Min Stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.01 m
3
/sec (Advance pelton
wheel)
60
VII

VIII

8.15 Max displacement v/s Speed at Q = 0.01 m


3
/sec (Advance
pelton wheel)
60
8.16 Max Stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.00666 m
3
/sec (Advance pelton
wheel)
61
8.17 Min Stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.00666 m
3
/sec (Advance pelton
wheel)
61
8.18 Max displacement v/s Speed at Q = 0.00666 m
3
/sec (Advance
pelton wheel)
62
8.19 Max Stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.005 m
3
/sec (Advance pelton
wheel)
62
8.20 Min Stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.005 m
3
/sec (Advance pelton
wheel)
63
8.21 Max displacement v/s Speed at Q = 0.005 m
3
/sec (Advance
pelton wheel)
63
8.22 Max Stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.0033 m
3
/sec (Advance pelton
wheel)
64
8.23 Min Stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.0033 m
3
/sec (Advance pelton
wheel)
64
8.24 Max displacement v/s Speed at Q = 0.0033 m
3
/sec (Advance
pelton wheel)
65
8.25 Unit discharge (Qu) v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.01 m
3
/sec
(Advance pelton wheel)
66
8.26 Unit power (Pu) v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.01 m
3
/sec
(Advance pelton wheel)
67
8.27 Efficiency () v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.01 m
3
/sec
(Advance pelton wheel)
67
8.28 Unit discharge (Qu) v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.006 m
3
/sec
(Advance pelton wheel)
68
8.29 Unit power (Pu) v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.006 m
3
/sec
(Advance pelton wheel)
68
8.30 Efficiency () v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.006 m
3
/sec
(Advance pelton wheel)
69
8.31 Unit discharge (Qu) v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.005 m
3
/sec 69
IX

(Advance pelton wheel)


8.32 Unit power (Pu) v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.005 m
3
/sec
(Advance pelton wheel)
70
8.33 Efficiency () v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.005
m
3
/sec(Advance pelton wheel)
70
8.34 Unit discharge (Qu) v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.0033
m
3
/sec(Advance pelton wheel)
71
8.35 Unit power (Pu) v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.005 m
3
/sec
(Advance pelton wheel)
71
8.36 Efficiency () v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.0033 m
3
/sec
(Advance pelton wheel)
72
8.37 Efficiency () v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.0066 m
3
/sec and
20 % opening
72
8.38 Efficiency () v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.0066 m
3
/sec and
40 % opening
73
8.39 Efficiency () v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.0066 m
3
/sec and
60 % opening
73
8.40 Efficiency () v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.0066 m
3
/sec and
80 % opening
74
8.41 Efficiency () v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.0066 m
3
/sec and
100 % opening
74

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 INTRODUCTION TO HYDRO ELECTRIC POWER PLANT [1]
The purpose of a Hydro-electric plant is to produce power from water flowing under
pressure. As such it incorporates a number of water driven prime-movers known as Water
turbines.

The worlds First Hydroelectric Power Plant Began Operation September 30, 1882.When
you look at rushing waterfalls and rivers, you may not immediately think of electricity.
But hydroelectric (water-powered) power plants are responsible for lighting many of our
homes and neighborhoods. On September 30, 1882, the world's first hydroelectric power
plant began operation on the Fox River in Appleton, Wisconsin. The plant, later named
the Appleton Edison Light Company, was initiated by Appleton paper manufacturer H.F.
Rogers, who had been inspired by Thomas Edison's plans for an electricity-producing
station in New York.

In 1933, the U.S. government established the Tennessee valley Authority (TVA), which
introduced hydroelectric power plants to the souths troubled Tennessee River Valley.
The TVA built dams, managed flood control and soil conservation programs and more. It
greatly boosted the regions economy. And this development happened in other place as
well. Soon, people across the country were enjoying electricity in homes, schools, and
offices, reading by electric lamp instead of candlelight or kerosene. New electricity-
powered technologies entered American homes, Including electric refrigerators and
stoves, radios, televisions, and can openers. Today, people take electricity for granted, not
able to imagine life without it.

Hydraulic machines are defined as those machines which convert either hydraulic energy
[energy possessed by water] into mechanical energy [which is further converted into
electrical energy] or mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. The hydraulic machines,
which convert the hydraulic energy into mechanical energy, are called turbines.
STRESS & EXPERIMENTL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 1

INTRODUCTION

STRESS & EXPERIMENTL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 2




This mechanical energy is used in running an electric generator which is directly coupled
to the shaft of the turbine. Thus the mechanical energy is converted into the electrical
energy. The electric power which is obtained from the hydraulic energy [energy of water]
is known as Hydro-electric power. At present the generation of hydro-electric power is
the cheapest as compared by the power generated by other sources such oil, coal etc.


Fig 1.1 Hydraulic turbine and electrical generator [1]
1.2 GENERAL LAYOUT OF A HYDRO-ELEC. POWER PLANT [2]
Fig.1.2 shows a general lay-out of a hydro-electric power plant which consists of
(1) A dam constructed across a river to store water.
(2) Pipes of large diameters called penstocks, which carry water under pressure from
the storage reservoir to the turbines. These pipes are made of steel or reinforced
concrete.
(3) Turbines having different types of vanes fitted to the wheels.
(4) Tail race, which is a channel which carries water away from the turbines after the
water has worked on the turbines. The surface of water in the tail race is also
known as tail race.
INTRO ODUCTION

STRE

1.2.1 GR
The
kno
1.2.2 NET
It is
turb
frict
as lo
sma
frict




ESS & EXPERI
ROSS HEAD
e different b
own as gross
T HEAD [2
s also calle
bine. When
tion betwee
oss due to b
all magnitud
tion betwee

IMENTL ANAL
Fig 1
D [2]
between the
s head. It is
2]
ed effective
water is f
en the water
bend, pipe f
de as compa
en penstocks
H=
Hf
YSIS OF SIMPL
1.2 General
e head race
denoted by
head and
flowing from
r and pensto
fittings, loss
ared to head
s and water
=Hg - Hf
=
PLE AND ADVA
l layout of h
level and ta
y Hg.
is defined
m head rac
ocks occurs
s at the entr
d loss due t
than net he


ANCED PELTO
hydraulic po
ail race leve
as the head
ce to the tu
s. Though th
rance of pen
to friction. I
eat on turbin

Where, V=
ON WHEEL
ower plant
el when no
d available
urbine, a lo
here are oth
nstock etc.,
If hf is th
ne is given b
Where
= velocity o
L=
D=diame

[2]
water is flo
at the inle
oss of head
her losses a
yet they are
he head los
by
e, Hg = gro
of flow in p
= length of



owing is
et of the
d due to
lso such
e having
ss due to
ss head,

enstock,
the pen,
eter of the penstock.
3
INTRO ODUCTION

STRE

1.3
The
of t
spec
turb
If a
kno
from
ener
flow
ESS & EXPERI
CLASSI
e hydraulic t
the turbine,
cific speed
bine:

F
Fig 1.3.2
at the inlet
own as impu
m inlet to ou
rgy as well
ws through
Tangen
FlowTur
IMENTL ANAL
IFICATIO
turbines are
direction o
of the turb
Fig 1.3.1 Cla
2 Classifica
of the turbi
ulse turbine
utlet of the
as pressure
the runner,
tial
rbine
Outwar
Radia
FlowTurb
YSIS OF SIMPL
ON OF H
e classified
of flow thro
ines. Thus
assification
ation accord
ine, the ene
. As the wa
turbine. If a
e energy, th
, the water
Imp
Turb
Radial
FlowTurb
rd
l
bine
PLE AND ADVA
YDRAUL
according t
ough the va
the followi
according
ding to dire
ergy availab
ater flows ov
at the inlet o
he turbine is
is under p
Turb
ulse
bine
Hydrau
Turbin
bine
Inward
Radial
FlowTurbi
ANCED PELTO
LIC TUR
to the type o
anes, head
ing are the

to action of

ection of flo
ble is only
ver the vane
of the turbin
s known as
ressure and
bine
Rea
Tur
ulic
ne
ine
Axial
FlowTurbin
ON WHEEL
RBINES [2
of energy a
at the inlet
important c
f fluid on m
ow of fluid i
kinetic ene
es, the pres
ne, the wate
reaction tu
d the pressu
ction
rbine
ne

2]
available at
of the turb
classificatio

moving blad
in the runne
ergy, the tu
sure is atmo
er processes
urbine. As th
ure energy


the inlet
bine and
on of the
des
Mixed
FlowTurbin

er
urbine is
ospheric
s kinetic
he water
goes on
e
4
INTRODUCTION

STRESS & EXPERIMENTL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 5



changing in to kinetic energy. The runner is completely enclosed in and air tight casing
and the runner and casing is completely full of water.
If the water flows along the tangent of the runner, the turbine is known at tangential flow
turbine. If the water flows in the radial direction through runner, the turbine is called
radial flow turbine. If the water flows from outwards to in wards, radially the turbine is
known as inward radial flow turbine, on the other hand, if water flows radially from
inwards to out wards, the turbine is known as outward radial flow turbine if the water
flow through the runner along the direction parallel to axis of the rotation of the runner,
the turbine is called axial flow turbine. If the water flows through the runner in the radial
direction but leaves in the direction parallel to axis of rotation of the runner, the turbine is
called mixed flow turbine.
1.4 PELTON WHEEL TURBINE [1]
The pelton wheel is a tangential flow impulse turbine. The water strikes the bucket along
the tangent of the runner. The energy available at the inlet of the turbine is only kinetic
energy. The pressure at the inlet and outlet of the turbine is atmosphere. This turbine is
used for high head and is named after L.A.PELTON, an American engineer.
1.4.1 HISTORY OF PELTON WHEEL [1]
Lester A. Pelton was an American inventor who successfully developed a highly efficient
water turbine, for a high head, but low flow of water operating in many situations. Most
notable today the hydro-electric power stations. Little is known of his early life. Pelton
embarked on an adventure in search of gold. He came to California from Ohio in 1850, he
was 21 years old. In 1864 after a failed quest for gold he was working in the gold mines
as a millwright, and carpenter at Camptonville, Yuba County, California. It was here that
he made a discovery which won for him a permanent place in the history of water power
engineering. In the mines, Pelton saw water wheels were being used to provide
mechanical power for all things mining, air compressors, pumps, stamp mills and
operating other machines. The energy to drive these wheels was supplied by powerful
jets of water which struck the base of the wheel with flat-faced vanes. These vanes
eventually evolved into hemispherical cups, with the jet striking at the center of the cup
on the wheel. Pelton further observed that one of the water wheels appeared to be
rotating faster than other similar machines. It turned out initially that this was due to the
INTRODUCTION

STRESS & EXPERIMENTL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 6



wheel had come loose, and moved a little on its axle. He noticed the jet was striking the
inside edge of the cups, and exiting the other side of the cup. His quest for improvement
resulted in an innovation. So Pelton reconstructed the wheel, with the cups off center
only to find again that it rotated more rapidly. Pelton also found that using split cups
enhanced the effect. By 1879 he had tested a prototype at the University of California,
which was successful. He was granted his First patent in 1880. By 1890, Pelton turbines
were in operation, developing thousands of horsepower, powering all kinds of equipment.
In 1889 Pelton was granted a patent with the following text. Pelton water turbine or
wheel is a rotor driven by the impulse of a jet of water upon curved buckets fixed to its
periphery; each bucket is divided in half by a splitter edge that divides the water into two
streams. The buckets have a two-curved section which completely reverses the direction
of the water jet striking them.
The first wheel that Pelton put to practical use was to power the sewing machine of his
landlady, Mrs. W. G. Groves in Camptonville. This prototype wheel is on display at a
lodge in Camptonville. He then took his patterns to the Allan Machine Shop and Foundry
in Nevada City (now known as the Miners Foundry). Wheels of various types and sizes
were made and tested. Hydro-electric plants of thousands of horsepower running at
efficiencies of more than 90 per cent were generating electric power by the time of his
death in 1910. The Pelton wheel is acclaimed as the only hydraulic turbine of the impulse
type to use a large head and low flow of water in hydro-electric power stations. Pelton
wheels are still in use today all over the world in hydroelectric power plants. The Pelton
Wheel Company was so successful that it moved to larger facilities in San Francisco, in
1887. Pelton went to San Francisco and worked out an arrangement with A. P. Brayton,
Sr. of Rankin, Brayton and Company, and together they organized the Pelton Water
Wheel Company. Later Pelton sold out, but stayed on as a consulting engineer and later
retired Oakland.

INTRO ODUCTION

STRE

1.4.
The
mec
dow
imp
buck
ESS & EXPERI
.2 THE PEL
e Pelton turb
chanical en
wnstream Re
pinges on b
ket and its m
IMENTL ANAL
Fig 1.4.1
LTON TUR
bine is an im
nergy. The
eservoir occ
uckets, loca
main definit
YSIS OF SIMPL
1 Pelton tur
RBINE OP
mpulse turb
transfer o
curs at atmo
ated at the
tions.
PLE AND ADVA
rbine origin
PERATING
bine that onl
of the tota
ospheric pre
periphery
ANCED PELTO
nal patent d
G PRINCIP
ly converts
al energy f
essure. The j
of a wheel
ON WHEEL
document [3
PLE [3]
kinetic ener
from the n
jet stemmin
. Figure 1.4


3]
rgy of the fl
nozzle exit
ng from the
4.2 shows a


flow into
t to the
injector
a Pelton
7
INTRODUCTION

STRESS & EXPERIMENTL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 8




Fig 1.4.2 Buckets Geometric Definitions [3]


1.5 LAYOUT OF PELTON WHEEL [2]
The Pelton wheel or Pelton turbine is a tangential flow impulse turbine. The water strikes
the bucket along the tangent of the runner. The energy available at the inlet of the turbine
is only kinetic energy. The pressure at the inlet and outlet of the turbine is atmosphere.
This turbine is used for high heads and is named after L.A. Pelton, an American Engineer.
Figure1.2.1 shows the lay-out of a hydro-electric power plant in which the turbine is
Pelton Wheel. The water from the reservoir flows through the penstocks at the outlet of
which a nozzle is fitted. The nozzle increases the kinetic energy of the water flowing
through the penstock. At the outlet of the nozzle, the water comes out in the form of a jet
and strikes the buckets (vanes) of the runner. The main parts of the Pelton turbine are
1. Nozzle and flow regulating arrangement (spear),
INTRODUCTION

STRESS & EXPERIMENTL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 9



2. Runner and buckets,
3. Casing, and
4. Breaking jet.
1.5.1 NOZZLE AND FLOW REGULATING ARRANGEMENT [2, 4]
The amount of water striking the buckets (vanes) of the runner is controlled by providing
a spear in the nozzle as shown in figure1.5.1 the spear is a conical needle which is
operated either by a hand wheel or automatically in an axial direction depending upon the
size of unit. When the spear is pushed forward into the nozzle the amount of water
striking the runner is reduced. On the other hand, if the spear is pushed back, the amount
of water striking the runner increases.


Fig 1.5.1 Straight flow nozzle [4]


1.5.2 RUNNER WITH BUCKETS [2]
Figure 1.5.2 shows the runner of a Pelton wheel. It consists of a circular disc on the
periphery of which a number of bucket evenly spaced are fixed. The shape of a cup is like
INTRODUCTION

STRESS & EXPERIMENTL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 10



a double hemispherical cup or bowl. Each bucket is divided into two symmetrical parts by
a dividing wall which is known as splitter.

Fig 1.5.2 Runner of pelton wheel
The jet of water strikes on the splitter. The splitter divides the jet into two equal parts and
the jet comes out at the outer edge of the bucket. The buckets are shaped in such a way
that the jet gets deflected through 160 or 170. The buckets are made of cast iron, cast steel
bronze or stainless steel depending upon the head at the inlet of the turbine.
1.5.3 CASING [2]
The function of the casing is to prevent the splashing of the water and to discharge water
to tail race. It also acts as a safeguard against accidents. It is made of cast iron or
fabricated steel plates. The casing of the Pelton wheel does not perform any hydraulic
function.
INTRODUCTION

STRESS & EXPERIMENTL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 11



Powei ueliveieu to the iunnei
Powei supplieu at the inlet
1.5.4. BREAKING JET [2]
When the nozzle is completely closed by moving the spear in the forward direction, the
amount of water striking the runner reduces to zero. But the runner due to inertia goes on
revolving for long time. To stop the runner in a short time, a small nozzle is provided
which directs the jet of water on the back of the vanes. This jet of water is called breaking
jet.
1.6 EFFICIENCIES OF TURBINE [2]
The following are the important Efficiencies of a turbine.
(A) Hydraulic efficiency (
h
)
(B) Mechanical efficiency(
m
)
(C) Volumetric efficiency(
v
)
(D) Overall efficiency (
o
)
1.6.1 HYDRAULIC EFFICIENCY (
H
)
It is defined as the ratio of the power given by water to the runner of a turbine (runner is a
rotating part of a turbine and on the runner vanes are fixed) to the power supplied by the
water at the inlet of the turbine. The power at the inlet of the turbine is more and this
power goes decreasing as the water flow over the vanes of the turbine due to hydraulic
losses as the vanes are not smooth. Hence the power delivered to the runner of the turbine
will be less than the power available at the inlet of the turbine. Thus mathematically, the
hydraulic efficiency of the turbine is written as

h
= =
R.P.
w.P.


=
w | v
w1
_v
w2
]u
g 1000
kW

Power supplied at inlet of turbine and also called water power
W.P. =
p g H
1000
kW
INTRODUCTION

STRESS & EXPERIMENTL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 12



1.6.2 MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY (
M
)
The power delivered by water to the runner of turbine is transmitted to the shaft of the
available at the shaft of the turbine is less
nc
turbine. Due to mechanical losses, the power
than the power delivered to the runner of a turbine. The ratio of the power available at the
shaft of the turbine (known as S.P. or B.P.) the power delivered to the runner is define as
mechanical efficiency. Hence, mathematically, it is written as

m
=
Powc ut thc shu]t o] thc tubnc
Powc dcIccd b wutc to thc un
=
R.P.
S.P.

1.6.3 VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY (
V
)
The volume of the water striking the runner of a turbine is slightly less than the volume of
e volume of the water is discharged to the
ly striking tbc runncr
r supplicJ to tbc turbinc
the water supply to the turbine. Some of th
tailrace without striking the runner of the turbine. Thus the ratio of the volume of the
water actually striking the runner to the volume of water supplied to the turbine is defined
as volumetric efficiency. It is written as

v =

:olumc o wotcr octuol
:olcmc o wotc

1.6.4 OVERALL EFFICIENCY (
O
)
It is define as the ratio of power available at the shaft of the turbine to the power supplied
is written as
ct o] thc tubnc
by the water at the inlet of the turbine. It

o
=


powc uuIubIc ut thc shu]t o] thc tubnc
powc suppIcd ut thc nI

S.P.
w.P.
= =
S.P. R.P
R.P w.P.
=
m
x
h




INTRODUCTION

STRESS & EXPERIMENTL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 13



1.7 COMPARISON OF SIMPLE AND AVANCED PELTON WHEEL
1.7.1 SIMPLE PELTON WHEEL
phery.
m.
(3) In the flow analysis resist by buckets inner surface.
cover the bucket an also act
ts by bucket surface and also by the slot which consist the bucket.
ple pelton wheel due to simply supported



(1) It is the conventional pelton wheel with the runner having bucket on peri
(2) In this bucket act as cantilever bea

(4) The stresses produce in bucket is high due to the cantilever structure.
(5) Assembly is light due to having single plate as a runner.
1.7.2 ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL
(1) It has a hoop runner made of two plates as a hoop which
as a runner.
(2) In this runner bucket act as a simply supported beam which have its one end hinged.
(3) Flow is resis
(4) In bucket stress is lesser than the sim
structure.
(5) Assembly is heavier due to having two plates as runner.
LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
The subject of stress analysis contains a wide variety of process and phenomena. Even a
brief summary of the vast amount of material that has been published on stress analysis
would be well beyond the scope and intention of this chapter. Our attention is focused on
few key aspect of stress analysis that is considered important and relevant to the pelton
turbine along with advanced Pelton runners.
2.1 LITERATURE REVIEWS RELATED TO THEORETICAL
APPROACH
J. Vesely, M. Varner [4] has conducted the upgrading of 62.5 MW pelton turbine.
During that they have investigate that With refurbished runner and nozzles the rated
capacity will be increased up to 68.2 MW from 62.5 MW at net head of 624.8 m The
power of the new runner increases by 9 % and efficiency increases by 1.4%. The power
and efficiency improvement of the mentioned turbine were reached with application of
runner, new design of straight flow nozzle tips, straight nozzles strike enlargement and
modification of turbine housing. The commercial CFD software Fluent was used for the
flow simulations through the other parts of rehabilitated turbine. Finite element stresses
analysis of the runner and some components of straight flow nozzle were used as well.




Fig 2.1.1 Turbine housing modifications and Pelton runner dimensions
STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 14
LITERATURE REVIEW

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 15



They have modified the casing of turbine and also adopt the new design of pelton wheel
which made by some modification in old one. So by this they showed that the casing of
has great affect on the operation of a Pelton turbine and so it is very important to include
the casing as an important factor in all investigations.

Alexandre Perrig [3] says that the Pelton turbines combine 4 types of flows: (I)
confined, steady-state flow in the piping systems and injector, (ii) free water jets, (iii) 3D
unsteady free surface flows in the buckets, and (IV) dispersed 2-phase flows in the casing.
They have conducted the series of practical and derive some important conclusion like the
impact pressure strongly depends on the energy coefficient, i.e. the angle of impact. The
high-pressure pulse is strongly affected by the initial jet/bucket interaction. Its influence
on the bucket torque and power signal should be kept in mind at the stage of performing
mechanical dimensioning of the bucket. The initial jet/bucket interaction evidences the
probable occurrence of compressible effects, generating an outburst of the jet and leading
to erosion damages. When the jet impacts the bucket inner surface, a high-pressure pulse,
which amplitude is larger than the equivalent stagnation pressure, is generated, and
caused by compressible effects. The bucket backside acts as the suction side of a
hydrofoil undergoing the Coanda effect, generating a depression, and in turn a lift force
contributing positively to the bucket and runner torques. The Coanda effect may be
described as the phenomenon by which the proximity of a surface to a jet stream will
cause the jet to attach itself to and follow the surface contour. When such a surface is
placed at an angle to the original jet or nozzle exit, the jet stream will be deflected. Figure
2.1.2 illustrates the Coanda effect between a cylinder and a vertical jet.


Fig 2.1.2 Coanda effect
LITERATURE REVIEW

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 16


Heinz-Bernd Matthias, Josef Prost and Christian Rossegger [5] have done experiment
to estimate the influence of the splashed water distribution and Catch of the splash water
in the casing on the turbine efficiency. Further they showed that the casing has great
influence to the operation of a Pelton turbine and so it is very important to include the
casing as an important factor in all investigations. The tests were made on 9 different
casings. Figure 2.1.3 shows one of the casings with cylindrical dome. The radius and the
width of the dome have been varied. Figure 2.1.4 shows an example of a tested casing
with a rectangular dome. Modifications were made on the width of the dome.


Fig 2.1.3 Casing with cylindrical dome


Fig 2.1.4 Casing with rectangular dome

For each casing they determined the characteristic of the turbine. For a constant position
of the needle of the nozzle and a constant head (constant unit discharge Qu) the best
efficiency point and the corresponding unit speed Nu can be located. The best efficiency
LITERATURE REVIEW

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 17


and the corresponding unit discharge now can be estimated. The results for all casings are
presented in Fig. 2.1.5. In order to rate the performance of the turbine in partial load and
overload conditions (variation of discharge Q res. unit discharge Q11) we defined an
efficiency behavior factor. This factor is the radius of curvature at the vertex of the
efficiency characteristic. High values of this factor mean high efficiency out of the
optimum.


Fig 2.1.5 Effect of the casing on unit discharge, efficiency and efficiency behavior
factor

T. Staubli and H.P. Hauser [6] have concluded that the quality of a jet of a Pelton
turbine has major impact on the overall efficiency of the turbine.


Fig 2.1.6 Jet needle tip and nozzle seat ring modifications for jet quality improvement
LITERATURE REVIEW

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 18


They modify jet needle tip angle and nozzle seat ring to achieve higher efficiency that
modification we can see in fig 2.1.6 above. And also they observed that the jet on the
video sequences showed unsteadiness of the jets surface structures, which appear to
develop directly at the nozzle exit. These structures entrain air, whereby precise jet
observation becomes impossible further downstream. However, the jets contours can still
be determined and measured on the images. The resulting data clearly show a jet diameter
considerably larger than the theoretical values which we can see in fig 2.1.7 a second
means of determining the jets diameter is by measuring the position of the first
appearance of the bucket splitter tip when cutting through the jet. This procedure also
demonstrated that the jet diverges. With nozzle modifications the quality of the jet could
be improved, which showed increased turbine efficiency. At full load a 1.2 percent higher
efficiency was measured after the modifications.

Fig 2.1.7 Jet diameters in the observation area of nozzle 1 measured from the images at
three observation angles
2.2 LITERATURE REVIEW RELATED TO ADVANCE PELTON
WHEEL
Maryse Francois, Pierre and Yves Lowys [7] of ALSTOM power hydro has developed
new design of pelton wheel called hooped pelton turbine which is based on redistribution
of function. Classically, in Pelton runners, the buckets are encased onto a central rim,
LITERATURE REVIEW

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 19


either in case of a one piece runner or of mechanically fixed separated buckets. The
attachment zone is then subjected to cycled high bending stresses as the bucket repeatedly
passes into the jets. Furthermore, once the pressure on the bucket has been released, its
cantilever structure gets vibrating according to its natural modes and, if not properly
designed and/or manufactured, a resonance may occur and severely increase the dynamic
stress amplitude.
In the new design, the separated buckets keep their main hydraulic function which is the
transformation of the jets kinetic energy into a tangential force, but their structures are
not solicited to also transform this force into torque by involving shear and bending at
their connections with the rim. This latter function is accomplished by two hoops on
which the buckets are mounted, allowing stresses to be more efficiently distributed all
around the runner.

Fig 2.2.1 Hooped Pelton runner for Beaufort power plant

Calculations (Fig 2.2.2) show that the tangential displacement of the hoops is global: its
value on the outer diameter in the non-loaded area is still more than half the maximum
value on the opposite side within the jets influence. Therefore the whole structure
participates in supporting the jets loads.
So far as stresses are concerned, the results must be analyzed in term of maximum stress
range over time at any point of the structure of the hoops, to be then compared to fatigue
limits. The full modeling allows obtaining the evolution of stress vs. time by its spatial
counterpart considering the evolution of the stresses at homologous locations near
successive buckets.

LITERATURE REVIEW

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 20



Fig 2.2.2 Tangential displacement from FEA on 3D model

Bernard Michel, Georges Rossi, Pierre Leroy, Pierre and Yves Lowys [8] a new
development in Pelton runner design, the hooped runner, is based on a redistribution of
functions between the buckets and the hoops, and thus allows stresses to be minimized
and distributed more efficiently. This design which combines advantages from the
mechanical point of view as well as from the manufacturing aspect without any special
drawback from the hydraulic point of view confirms the interest of this new solution. This
paper presents in detail the mechanical aspects as well as the results of the hydraulic
comparison between traditional runners and hooped runners. This new design has been
patented by Alstom Power Hydro.
In the old design, the bucket had two functions:
transformation of the jets kinetic energy into a tangential force,
transmission to the runner rim of the torque generated by this force.
The new design separates the functions:
the bucket still transforms the kinetic energy into a tangential force,
the transformation of this force into torque is carried out by hoops on which the buckets
rest.
This uncoupling allows the forces to be borne up by specific components in an improved
way.
LITERATURE REVIEW

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 21



Fig 2.2.3 Buckets fixed on the hoops

Due to the geometry of the bucket, the seat of these stresses is in the connection radius
between the rim and the centre edge in the upper part of the bucket thereby generating
traction stresses.
As shown on fig 2.2.4, the two hoops are located on both sides of the jet, close to the
natural position of the reinforcing ribs on traditional pelton runners.



Fig 2.2.4 Arrangements of the hoops

LITERATURE REVIEW

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 22



Fig 2.2.5 Hydraulic efficiency of traditional runner and hooped runner with no
adaptation of the hoops.

After the modification at internal and external fillets of slot we have better optimization
which we can see in fig 2.2.6



Fig 2.2.6 Comparison of efficiency between a traditional runner and a modified hooped
runner
LITERATURE REVIEW

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 23


Also in the structural behavior Displacements results prove the validity of the concept.
Calculation at synchronous speed shows the participation of the entire hoops to support
the water jet forces. The tangential displacement of the hoops is global and higher in the
area where the jet pressure is applied. Fig 2.2.7 shows this tangential displacement of the
hoops at synchronous speed.


Fig 2.2.7 Tangential displacement of the hoops at synchronous speed

This distribution of the water jets forces on the entire hoops involves a decrease of the
stress level in the runner. The following fig shows the equivalent stress distribution (VON
MISES) at synchronous speed in the structural parts of the runner, it means the hoops.
Maximal stresses are localized in the internal and external radius of the buckets
openings. The maximal VON MISES stress is equal to 144 MPa.

LITERATURE REVIEW

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 24



Fig 2.2.8 Equivalent stress at synchronous speed

The main part of this stress is a static traction stress created by the centrifugal forces
(rotational synchronous speed). It is localized in the internal radius of buckets opening,
at the intersection with the buckets internal attaches.

Dr.S.A.Channiwala & Mr.Gaurang C. Chaudhari [9] have done the experimental as
well flow analysis on advanced pelton wheel and shows that The stress analysis carried
out on the traditional runner and designed hooped runner shows the stress distribution. At
internal and external radius of buckets, the percentage reduction of VON MISES stresses
is of the order of 1.98 %, using Single hoop while the percentage reduction of VON
MISES stresses is of the order of 14.22 % using Double hoop. Similarly, at the buckets,
the percentage reduction of VON MISES stresses is of the order of 67.19 %, using Single
hoop while the percentage reduction of VON MISES stresses is of the order of 73.57 %
using Double hoop. This means that the use of hoop, allows stresses to be minimized and
distributed more effectively.
The CFD simulation carried out on pelton wheel shows that the velocity of flow is very
high at nozzle outlet and there after decrease. Further, the highest pressure encountered is
3.9E005 Pascal in the middle of the bucket where the impact is the most direct. First there
is a rise in pressure level in the middle of the bucket. Then the pressure level decreases.
LITERATURE REVIEW

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 25


The experimental results prove that the power developed and efficiency in traditional
runner as well as hooped runner is nearly same which shows good hydraulic behavior of
the hooped pelton runner. In nutshell, the achievement of new hooped runner design is
based on the redistribution of functions between the buckets and the hoops. This allows
stresses to be minimized and distributed more efficiently. The design is created using
simple interchangeable components, making maintenances easier without affecting
hydraulic performance.
They have done modeling & stress analysis with the help of Ideas-11 and for flow
analysis they have use CFD code CFX-10.0


Fig 2.2.9 Displacement of Traditional Runner of Pelton Wheel

LITERATURE REVIEW

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 26



Fig 2.2.10 Tangential Displacement of the Hoop (Double hoop)


Fig 2.2.11 Equivalent Stress (Double Hoop)
Maximum stresses are localized in the internal and external radius of the buckets
openings. The maximum VON MISES stress is equal to 1.15 N/mm
2
.Below; Fig.2.2.11
shows the isometric view of equivalent stress of double hoop. In the single hoop the VON
LITERATURE REVIEW

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 27


MISES stresses is 37.6 N/mm
2
.While, VON MISES stresses in double hoop is 1.15 N/
mm
2
which are very low as compared to single hoop.
2.3 OBJECTIVE OF PRESENT WORK
Based on literature review following objective is derived
1. To design a pelton wheel from obtained data.
2. Carry out the stress analysis of simple and advanced pelton wheel using ANSYS
workbench v11.
3. To perform the practical on designed pelton wheel and obtain results like efficiency
and characteristic curves.
4. To make the comparative assessment the simple and advanced pelton wheel with
respect of stresses developed and overall efficiency.

DIMENSIONAL DETAIL OF PELTON WHEEL

CHAPTER 3
DIMENSIONAL DETAIL OF PELTON WHEEL

Fig 3.1 Construction of pelton runner blade [10]


STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 28
DIMENSIONAL DETAIL OF PELTON WHEEL

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 29


The dimension of bucket is decided by these empirical relations
Length L = 2.3 to 2.8 times d
1,
where d
1
= diameter of jet
Width B = 2.8 to 3.2 times d
1

Depth T = 0.6 to 0.9 times d
1

Inlet Angle
1
~ to 8 5
Outlet Angle
2
~10 to 20 at centre
The dimension of our bucket which is used in stress analysis and performance evaluation is
given below.
The jet diameter is d
1
= 23.90 mm
L = 66.94 mm
B =76 mm
T = 20 mm
S = 25.3 mm

1
= 5.78 mm

Fig 3.2 Bucket used in this project
DIMENSIONAL DETAIL OF PELTON WHEEL

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 30


2gb
3-D model of this bucket is given in next chapter named modeling of pelton wheel. The other
dimension of pelton wheel like runner diameter is given in 3.1.
3.1 FORCE CALCULATION
Here we shown sample force calculation for one flow rate only, whole data including readings
and results at different flow rate & different opening is given in Appendix-A
The jet of water is comes out from nozzle and strikes on splitter of the bucket. The force which
transferred by jet to the bucket is calculated below
Flow rate Q = 10x10
-3
m
3
/sec
Runner mean diameter D = 360 mm
Head H = 40 m
Speed N = 680 rpm
V
1
= Kv
1

= 0.9852 9.81 4u
= 27.54 m/sec
U
1
=
nN
60
=
n36010
-3
680
60
= 12.817
1S
m
3
/sec

Vw
1
= v
1
-u
1
= 14.773 m/sec
Vw
2
= 0.85 Vw
1
= 12.55705 m/sec
Vu
2
= u
2
Vw
2
cos
= 0.68786 m/sec
So, Force applied by jet on bucket
Fu = Q (Vu
1
-Vu
2
)
= (Vu
1
Vu
2
)
= 26.912
Fu = 269 N
MODEELING OF PELT T

STRESS & EXPE

4.1 INTR
Pro/ENGIN
industry. T
corporation
developed
engineering
Pro/ENGIN
industrial d
NC tool pa
capture the
design.


ERIMENTAL ANA
MO
RODUCTI
NEER is le
The softwar
n (PTC), b
for the m
g productivi
NEER is co
design, deta
ath creation.
e design int
NALYSIS OF SIMP
ODELIN
ION TO P
eading prod
re is develo
based in U
manufacturin
ity, faster ti
omprehensi
ail design, s
With the p
end for any
Fig 4.1 P
Drawings
CAD
Exchange
PLE AND ADVAN
CHAPT
G OF PE
PRO/ENG
duct develo
oped and s
United State
ng Industry
me to mark
ive product
simulation
powerful too
y complex m
Pro/Enginee
Pro
Des
Simu
NCED PELTON
TER 4
ELTON
GINEER
opment sol
supported b
es. Pro/EN
y to meet
ket, and imp
t developm
and analysi
ol of Pro/EN
model, by i
er in the ind
o/E
sign
lation
WHEEL
N WHEE
R [11]
lution for a
by the para
GINEER i
the comp
prove produc
ment solutio
is, mould/to
NGINEER,
incorporatin
dustry
Mfg
Analysis

L
any manuf
ametric tec
is unique s
peting dem
ctivity.
on for conc
ool/die desi
you will be
ng intellige
ON WHEEL
31
facturing
hnology
software
ands of
cept and
ign, and
e able to
nce into

MODEELING OF PELT T

STRESS & EXPE

4.2 MOD
Pro/ENGIN
class tool f
software. T
various mo
Pro/
Pro/
Pro/
Pro/
Manufactur
Pro/
Pro/
Pro/
Pro/
This refere
creation of
you through
ERIMENTAL ANA
DULES IN
NEER is a c
for product
To suite the
odules. Som
/ENGINEE
/ENGINEE
/ENGINEE
/ENGINEE
ring Module
/ENGINEE
/ENGINEE
/ENGINEE
/ENGINEE
ence guide
f new part,
h process, s
Fi
Assemb
Design
Wire
Surfac
NALYSIS OF SIMP
N PRO/EN
complete pr
design, ana
definite ne
e of the imp
ER Foundati
ER Interactiv
ER Cabling
ER Intralink
es:
ER Machini
ER NC Shee
ER Tool Des
ER Plastic A
covers the
assembly, d
systematical
ig 4.2 Modu
Sk
Part
bly
n
eframe
eDesign
PLE AND ADVAN
NGINEER
roduct deve
alysis, data
eeds of diffe
portant mod
ion
ve Surface D
ing
et Metal
sign
Advisor
foundation
drawing, an
lly.
ules in Pro/
etcher
tDesign
View
Generat
NCED PELTON
R [11]
lopment sol
manageme
erent custom
dules are as
Design
of Pro/EN
nd surface d
/ENGINEE
Productio
drawings
w
tion
WHEEL
lution. You
ent, in manu
mer, Pro/EN
follows
u can get the
ufacturing i
NGINEER p
NGINEER, w
design with
ER foundati
on
s
Detailing

which desc
h the tools t
ON WHEEL
32
e best in
in single
provides
cribe the
that lead

ion
MODELING OF PELTON WHEEL

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL33

4.3 FEATURES OF PRO/ENGINEER [11]


Pro/ENGINEER is a one-stop store for any manufacturing industry. It offers effective
feature, incorporated for wild variety of purpose. Some of important feature are as
follows.
Parametric design
Feature. based approach
Parent chills relationship
Associative and model centric

4.3.1 PARAMETRIC DESIGN

Pro/ENGINEER designs are parametric. The term parametric means that design
operation that are captured, can be stored as the take place. They can be used
effectively in the future for modeling and editing the design. These types of modeling
helping faster and easier modification of deign.
For example, you can see a concentric a hole drilled for the base feature. If the model
is not parametric, and if there are any design changes (say, in the diameter of the
hole), you will have to edit each hole individually, in addition the based sketch will
vary, there for, a definite number of stapes are required for the change.
If the model is the parametric and related properly, a change in one value,
automatically edits the related values, for example, if the diameter of the hole and
dimensions of the arc are related, a change in the diameter of the hole will
automatically edit the arc radius
4.3.2 FEATURE-BASED APPROACH

Features are the basic building blocks required to create an object. Pro/ENGINEER
modules are based on a series of feature. Each feature builds upon the previous
feature, to create the model (only one single feature can be modified at a time).each
feature may appear simple, individually, but collectively forms a complex part and
assemblies.
MODELING OF PELTON WHEEL

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL34

The idea behind feature-based modeling is that the designer constructs an object,
composed of individual feature that described the manner in which the geometry
supports the object, if its dimensions change. The first feature is calls the base feature.
4.3.3 PARENTS CHILLED RELATIONSHIP

The parent chilled relationship is a power full way to capture your design intent in a
model. This relationship naturally occurs among feature, during the modeling process,
when you create a new feature, the existing features that are reference, become
parents to the new feature.
Consider the example the hole is drilled at 15mm from the two edges of the
rectangular block. This hole is the chilled feature and the block is the parent. If we
make any changes in block, the hole adjusts itself to maintain the specified relation
with the parent.
4.3.4 ASSOCIATIVE AND MODEL CENTRIC
Pro/ENGINEER drawings are model centric. This means that Pro/ENGINEER
models that are represented in assembly or drawings are associative. If changes are
made in one module these will automatically get updated in the referenced module.
4.4 GRAPHIC USER INTERFACE OF PRO/ENGINEER [11]
The Pro/ENGINEER main window consists of a navigation area, Manu Bar, Tool
chests, Browsers, and Information Areas, you can open multiple windows in
Pro/ENGINEER but only one window will be active at a time.
4.4.1 MENU BAR
The Menu Bare, also known as the pull-down menu, contents commands for all the
actions to be performed. We can customize the menu bar according to our
requirement. When a group of actions is stored inside a particular command; it is
called the Stacked Menu.

MODELING OF PELTON WHEEL

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL35


Fig 4.4.1 Menu bar of pro-engineering

4.4.2 TOOL CHESTS
The Tool chests are usually located at the top, on the right side of the Main Window.
It contains Toolbars and Buttons for operation. You can customized the contains and
location of the Tool chests, using the customize dialog box.
4.4.3 NAVIGATION AREA
The Navigation Area includes the Model Tree, Layer Tree, Folder Browser, and
Connection.
4.4.4 GRAPHIC WINDOWS
Graphic Windows is the work area, where the models are drawn and modified. The
Graphic Window contains Datum Plane and Coordinate Systems for drawing
reference. We can control the view in the Graphic Window, using the Orientation
Command.
MODELING OF PELTON WHEEL

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL36

4.4.5 DASHBOARD
A Dashboard is a dialog box usually located at the bottom of the screen. It is consists
selective area that guide us through the modeling process as we select the geometry
and set our preferences, it also contains some option.
4.4.6 INFORMATION AREA
The Information contained the message area and a States Bar. The message area
displays a system message that prompts us for required information. The Status Bar
displays the necessary information wherever applicable. The following information is
usually displays
Warning and errors
Number of items selected in the current model
Available selection filters
Model regeneration status, which indicates that the model must be
regenerated
Indication that the current processes has been halted
Screen tips

4.5 MODELING OF BUCKET
In pro/engineering we should start first by revolve operation. By executing revolve
command we get sketches mode. In it we draw an elliptic arc of 180 deg according to
dimension revolve it to 90 deg with respect to is own axis.
After that we create datum plane with reference to on of flat surface
4
th of
hemispherical shape at the distance according to dimension.
Now, that we mirror the hemispherical feature about this plane and joint this two
plane by extruding ,apportion of it plate surface up to this we get a hollow bowl
which acts as a bucket inner face.

MODELING OF PELTON WHEEL

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL37


Fig 4.5 Model of bucket created in Pro/Engineer

After this we extrude a sketch with reference of this bowls upper surface. Portion
like as T thisll make our splits for bucket then create a datum plane with Angular
reference of bowls upper surface, and create a shape upper like W and extrude it
and by this cut the bowls one end and than fillet the buckets inner face where
splitters and bucket surface is matched this will make smooth curvature for following
of water. Up this our bucket is ready.



STRESS ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL
CHAPTER 5
STRESS ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED
PELTON WHEEL
5.1 INTRODUCTION
By the use of ANSYS work bench, PRO-E and other computational techniques, we
prepared the model of pelton wheel. In our present work modeling of the pelton wheel in
PRO-Engineer and stress analysis carried out in ANSYS workbench. The stress analyses
of the traditional and hooped runner carried out and compare stress level.
Models of traditional and hooped runner have same number of buckets and tip diameter
which is used in present numerical simulation, models showing in this chapter. This
model is available in our institutes laboratory.
5.2 MODELING
In a traditional runner the bucket is work as a cantilever beam subjected to the force
generated by the jet. These alternated forces lead to fatigue stresses. Due to the geometry
of the bucket, the seat of these stresses is in the connection radius between the rim and the
centre edge in the upper part of the bucket thereby generating traction stresses.
In a hooped runner the arms are worked as an embedded beam. By this type of design
decrease stress at a most failure zone and the transformation of traction stresses by
compression stresses, as the geometry of the discharge radius is inverted. The hoop is
connected with buckets on a runner where buckets are fitted.
5.3 TRADITIONAL RUNNER
Fig.5.3 shows the 3DModel of traditional runner. The tangential displacement of the
traditional runner is higher in the area where the jet pressure is applied.
STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 38

STRESS ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL


STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 39


Fig.5.3.1 Model of pelton wheel


Fig.5.3.2 Constrains given to pelton wheel
STRESS ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL
STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 40


Fig.5.3.3 Displacement of Traditional pelton wheel
Fig.5.3.3 shows this tangential displacement of traditional runner at synchronous speed.

Fig.5.3.4 Stress developed in the Traditional pelton wheel
STRESS ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL
STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 41

Fig.5.3.4 shows that the stress are localized where, the bucket are attached with the
runner. The maximum VON MISES stresses are 17.66 N / mm
2
.The Maximum stresses
are localized at the point where the jet is striking to the bucket.
5.4 ADVANCE OR HOOPED RUNNER
The design of the hooped runner is intended to achieve easy maintenance, and the
separation of functions facilitates optimization. This runner is composed of two half
hoops and buckets.
The definition of the attachment of the various elements to each other is obtained from
the stresses transmitted to the various components. The attachment of the buckets is
defined based on the centrifugal forces and the jet load. The bucket is modeled as an
Inner beam simply supported, resting on its central section and subjected to a force
generated by a pre- stressed screw on the outer side. The centrifugal forces are completely
taken up by a compound pin (hinge) fixed to the hoops. For the jet force, the Screw load
is multiplied by a lever arm effect so as to exert a contact load of the bucket to the rim
that is much higher than that of the jet. The stresses transmitted to the hoops are
tangential and symmetrical only, the attachment of the hoops to each other is therefore
simply a classical assembly using studs. To sum up, buckets are enclosed between two
hoops.
5.5 MECHANICAL CALCULATIONS
Static analyses as carried out by solid finite element calculation have confirmed that the
above hypotheses are well founded. These calculations were carried out using ANSYS
workbench version 11 software. The calculations hypotheses are based on 18 buckets
with a particularly high rated speed of 680 rpm and different jet. The large scale of the
calculation carried out has allowed all the development constraints to be integrated in a
single model and provides a mechanical model similar to the real runner.
Conical pin between bucket and hoops at the interior fixation.
supporting centre area of the bucket on the hoops under the water jet.
pre-stressing screw between bucket and hoops at the exterior fixation.

STRESS ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL
STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 42

5.5.1 STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOR


Displacements and stress results prove the validity of the concept. Calculation at
synchronous speed shows the participation of the entire hoops to support the water jet
forces. The tangential displacement of the hoops is global and higher in the area where
the jet pressure is applied. Fig. 5.1.1 shows this tangential displacement of the hoops at
synchronous speed.

Fig. 5.5.1 Tangential Displacement of the advanced pelton wheel





STRESS ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL
STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 43

5.5.2 STATIC STRESSES RESULTS


This distribution of the water jets forces on the entire hoops involves a decrease of the
stress level in the runner. The following figure shows the equivalent stress distribution
(VON MISES) in the structural parts of the runner, it means the hoops.


Fig. 5.5.2 Equivalent Stresses developed in the advanced pelton wheel

Maximum stresses are localized in the internal and external radius of the buckets
openings. The maximum VON MISES stress is equal to 10.88 N/mm
2
.


MANNUFACTURING OOF HOOP PELT T

STR
6.1
Mai
6.1.
1. T
2. T
3. S
In w
A sa
sand
then
the
6.1.
1. P
2. In
3. R
4. F
5. A
6. B
m
ESS & EXPERIM
MAN
BUCKE
in classifica
.1 BENCH
Two box ben
Three box be
Stucked ben
which we us
and casting
d mixture a
n cooled un
mold. Ther
.2 CASTIN
Place a patte
ncorporate a
Remove the
Fill the mold
Allow the m
Break away
bench
moulding
MENTAL ANALYS
NUFACT
T CASTI
ation of cast
Fig 6
MOULDIN
nch mouldin
ench mould
ch mouldin
se two box b
or a sand m
and pouring
ntil the meta
e are six ste
NG PROCE
ern in sand t
a gating sys
pattern.
d cavity with
metal to cool
the sand mo
flo
mou
SIS OF SIMPLE A
C
TURING
ING PRO
ting in fig.6
6.1 Classific
NG
ng.
ding.
ng.
bench moul
molded cast
molten liqu
al has solid
eps in this p
ESS
to create a m
stem.
h molten m
l.
old and rem
oor
ulding
AND ADVANCED
CHAPTE
G OF HO
OCESS
6.1,
cation of san
lding proces
ting is a cast
uid metal in
dified. In th
process,
mold.
metal.
move the cas
sand
mouldin
plate
mouldin
D PELTON WHE
ER 6
OOP PEL
nd mouldin
ss for castin
t part produ
nto the cavi
he last stage
sting.
g
ng
mo
EEL
LTON WWHEEL
ng process
ng this buck
uced by form
ity in the m
e the casting
pit
oulding

kets.
ming a mold
mould. The m
g is separat
machi
mould
ON WHEEL
44
L
ne
ing

d from a
mould is
ted from
E

MANUFACTURING OF HOOP PELTON WHEEL

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 45

There are two main types of sand used for molding. "Green sand" is a mixture of silica
sand, clay, moisture and other additives. The "air set" method uses dry sand bonded to
materials other than clay, using a fast curing adhesive. When these are used, they are
collectively called "air set" sand castings to distinguish these from "green sand" castings.
Two types of molding sand are natural bonded (bank sand) and synthetic (lake sand),
which is generally preferred due to its more consistent composition.

Fig 6.1.2 A metal casting poured in a sand mould
With both methods, the sand mixture is packed around a master "pattern" forming a mold
cavity. If necessary, a temporary plug is placed to form a channel for pouring the fluid to
be cast. Air-set molds often form a two-part mold having a top and bottom, termed Cope
and drag. The sand mixture is tamped down as it is added, and the final mold assembly is
sometimes vibrated to compact the sand and fill any unwanted voids in the mold. Then
the pattern is removed with the channel plug, leaving the mold cavity. The casting liquid
(typically molten metal) is then poured into the mold cavity. After the metal has solidified
and cooled, the casting is separated from the sand mold. There is typically no mold
release agent, and the mold is generally destroyed in the removal process.
The accuracy of the casting is limited by the type of sand and the molding process. Sand
castings made from coarse green sand impart a rough texture on the surface of the casting,
and this makes them easy to identify. Air-set molds can produce castings with much
MANUFACTURING OF HOOP PELTON WHEEL

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 46

smoother surfaces. Surfaces can also be ground and polished, for example when making a
large bell. After molding, the casting is covered in a residue of oxides, silicates and other
compounds. This residue can be removed by various means, such as grinding, or shot
blasting.
During casting, some of the components of the sand mixture are lost in the thermal
casting process. Green sand can be reused after adjusting its composition to replenish the
lost moisture and additives. The pattern itself can be reused indefinitely to produce new
sand molds. The sand molding process has been used for many centuries to produce
castings manually. Since 1950, partially-automated casting processes have been
developed for production lines.
6.1.3 BUCKET CASTING SPECIFICATION
Material --- Pig iron cast iron (scrap) +silicon
Furnace-----Oil fired furnace Temp----1200 c Capacity100 kg/lot.
6.1.4 MACHINING PROCESS
Grinding process-------------Amery wheel-Carbon drum 8 inch diameter
Drilling process--------------Speed 360 rpm
Electro plating process---- Chromium

Plate 1 Front and back view of Bucket used in this model

MANUFACTURING OF HOOP PELTON WHEEL

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 47


6.2 MANUFACTURING OF RUNNER
The centre part of the pelton wheel is runner which is prepared from mild steel. Runner
prepared from circular plate which is turned and faced on lathe. The hole for connecting
the bucket is drilled by vertical drilling machine. To fix the pelton wheel with the shaft of
our setup the boss is necessary which is made by welding, drilling and boring process.
The key way is made by vertical shaper machine. To give the better surface finish and
appearance the runner is coated with zinc.


Plate 2 Hooped pelton wheel

6.3 MANUFACTURING OF HOOP
Hoop is locating at runner and gives the back support to buckets. Hoop was
manufacturing from galvanize iron. In G.I. plate we got the slot with using the chisels by
creating pattern of buckets slot. To give the better surface finish hoop is coated with
chromium.

MANUFACTURING OF HOOP PELTON WHEEL

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 48

After all this parts assemble doing the balancing cause this wheel rotating higher speed.
This balancing is showing in figure. In balancing, somewhere removing the weight by
drills the holes. And somewhere increase material by nut and washer at runner.



Plate 3 Hooped pelton wheel after balancing


PERRFORMANCE EV VALUATI
We
used
run
rota
capa
imp




ESS & EXPERIM
want to co
d pelton wh
the pelton
ameter, torq
acity of pum
peller diame
MENTAL ANALYS
PER
ompare the e
heel with eig
n wheel. W
que using b
mp which i
eter is 208 m
SIS OF SIMPLE A
C
RFORMA
efficiency o
ghteen buck
We have m
break dyna
is used to ru
mm, input po
Plate 4 Tes
AND ADVANCED
CHAPTE
ANCE E
of simple an
kets as well
measured sp
amometer a
un the turb
ower is 12.5
st rig used f

D PELTON WHE
ER 7
EVALUA
nd advance
as having h
peed using
and pressur
ine having
5kw and sp
for experim
EEL
ATION
pelton whe
hoop on it. S
tachomete
re using pr
size of 85
eed of impe
eel for this w
Single jet is
r, flow rat
ressure gau
mm, head i
eller is 2880
ON
49
we have
s used to
te using
uge. The
is 44 m,
0 rpm.

ment
STRE

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 50

Pi
pg

Plate 5 Hooped runner mounted on shaft.

7.1 DATA OF PRACTICAL SETUP
Rope diameter = 20 mm = 0.02 m
Diameter of entry Pipe = 50 mm = .05 m
Break drum radius r = 150 mm = 0.15 m
Flow rate Q = 0.01 m3/sec
Pressure in entry pipe Pi = 4 kg/cm
2

The reading at a different flow rate & at a different openings have been taken and it is
given in Appendix-A
7.2 SAMPLE CALCULATION
The sample calculation for one reading is given below.
=
4
1uuu 9.81
= 4u m
A =
n
4
C/S Area of pipe

2

(Su 1u
-3
)
2
A =
n
4

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 51

u
-3
m
2
= 1.9634 1
Inlet velocity Vi =

A
=
1.963
(1010
-3)
410
-3
= 5.0932 m/sec
v
2
2g
=
5.0932
2
29.81
= 0.3305
Total head available at inlet
H =
pg
P
+
v
2
2g
=
4
10009.81
+
25.94
29.81
= 41.S267 m

= 6.867 N
Input Power = pgE
= 1uuu 9.81 1u 1u
-3
41.S267
= 4uS4.14 wott
Torque produced T = W r = 6.867 u.16 = 1.09872 N m
Power output from the turbine
P
o
=
60
Net weight apply to the dynamometer
W = (weight spring balance reading) 9.81
= (1 0.3) 9.81
= 0.7 9.81
2nN1
=
72
60
23.1411831.098
= 1S6.11S2 wott
Overall efficiency
p =
ut)
Powcr (input)
Powcr (outp

=
136.11
4054.14

= 3.36 %
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 52


H
12
Unit speed
Nu =
N

=
1183
41.32
12
= 184.021
H
Unit discharge
Qu =

12

=
1 0.0
41.32
12

.00077
Un
= 0 8
it power
Pu =
P
H
32

=
.11 136
41.32
32

.5123

= 0




RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

CHAPTER 8
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

We have done stress analysis of simple and advanced pelton wheel with the help of
ANSYS Workbench v11 and also done the practical for effect of hoop on efficiency. We
have done analysis at different speed ranging from 100 rpm to 680 rpm and also for
different flow rate ranging from 0.0033 m
3
/sec to 0.01 m
3
/sec. also by applying force
from different direction like single, two, four and six nozzle we get wide range of stress
development in pelton wheel and displacement at the tip of bucket. The data of applied
force and used flow rates are given in Appendix-A for simple and advanced pelton wheel
respectively. These results are shown by graph as following.


0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
100 200 300 400 500 600 680
E
q
.

S
t
r
e
s
s

M
a
x

(
M
P
a
)
Speed (rpm)
single two four six
Graph 8.1 Max eq. Stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.01 m
3
/sec (simple pelton wheel)



STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 53

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 54


0.00E+00
5.00E-05
1.00E-04
1.50E-04
2.00E-04
2.50E-04
3.00E-04
3.50E-04
4.00E-04
4.50E-04
100 200 300 400 500 600 680
E
q
.

S
t
r
e
s
s

M
i
n

(
M
P
a
)
Speed (rpm)
single two four six
Graph 8.2 Min eq. stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.01 m
3
/sec (simple pelton wheel)


0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
100 200 300 400 500 600 680
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

(

m
m
)
Speed (rpm)
single two four six
Graph 8.3 Max displacement v/s Speed at Q = 0.01 m
3
/sec (simple pelton wheel)
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 55


0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
100 200 300 400 500 600 680
E
q
.

S
t
r
e
s
s

M
a
x

(
M
P
a
)
Speed (rpm)
single two four six
Graph 8.4 Max eq. stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.00666 m
3
/sec (simple pelton wheel)


0.00E+00
5.00E-05
1.00E-04
1.50E-04
2.00E-04
2.50E-04
3.00E-04
3.50E-04
4.00E-04
4.50E-04
5.00E-04
100 200 300 400 500 600 680
E
q
.

S
t
r
e
s
s

M
i
n

(
M
P
a
)
Speed (rpm)
single two four six
Graph 8.5 Min eq. stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.00666 m
3
/sec (simple pelton wheel)
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 56


0
2
4
6
8
10
12
100 200 300 400 500 600 680
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

(
m
m
)
Speed (rpm)
single two four six
Graph8.6 Max displacement v/s Speed at Q = 0.00666 m
3
/sec (simple pelton wheel)


0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
100 200 300 400 500 600 680
E
q
.

S
t
r
e
s
s

M
a
x

(
M
P
a
)
Speed (rpm)
single two four six
Graph 8.7 Max eq. stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.005 m
3
/sec (simple pelton wheel)
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 57


0.00E+00
5.00E-05
1.00E-04
1.50E-04
2.00E-04
2.50E-04
3.00E-04
3.50E-04
4.00E-04
4.50E-04
5.00E-04
100 200 300 400 500 600 680
E
q
.

S
t
r
e
s
s

M
i
n

(
M
P
a
)
Speed (rpm)
single two four six
Graph 8.8 Min eq. stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.005 m
3
/sec (simple pelton wheel)


0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
100 200 300 400 500 600 680
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

(

m
m

)
Speed (rpm)
single two four six
Graph 8.9 Max displacement v/s Speed at Q = 0.005 m
3
/sec (simple pelton wheel)
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 58


0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
100 200 300 400 500 600 680
E
q
.

S
t
r
e
s
s

M
a
x

(
M
P
a
)
Speed (rpm)
single two four six
Graph 8.10 Max eq. stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.0033 m
3
/sec (simple pelton wheel)


0.00E+00
5.00E-05
1.00E-04
1.50E-04
2.00E-04
2.50E-04
3.00E-04
3.50E-04
4.00E-04
4.50E-04
5.00E-04
100 200 300 400 500 600 680
E
q
.

S
t
r
e
s
s

M
i
n

(
M
P
a
)
Speed (rpm)
single two four six
Graph 8.11 Min eq. stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.0033 m
3
/sec (simple pelton wheel)
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 59


0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
100 200 300 400 500 600 680
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

(

m
m

)
Speed (rpm)
single two four six
Graph 8.12 Max displacement v/s Speed at Q = 0.0033m
3
/sec (simple pelton wheel)


0
2
4
6
8
10
12
100 200 300 400 500 600 680
E
q
.

S
t
r
e
s
s

M
a
x

(
M
P
a
)
Speed (rpm)
single two four six
Graph 8.13 Max Stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.01 m
3
/sec (Advance pelton wheel)
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 60


0.00E+00
5.00E-05
1.00E-04
1.50E-04
2.00E-04
2.50E-04
3.00E-04
3.50E-04
100 200 300 400 500 600 680
E
q
.

S
t
r
e
s
s

M
i
n

(
M
P
a
)
Speed (rpm)
single two four six
Graph 8.14 Min Stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.01 m
3
/sec (Advance pelton wheel)


0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
100 200 300 400 500 600 680
D
i
s
p
;
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

(

m
m
)
Speed (rpm)
single two four six
Graph 8.15 Max displacement v/s Speed at Q = 0.01 m
3
/sec (Advance pelton wheel)
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 61


0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
100 200 300 400 500 600 680
E
q
.

S
t
r
e
s
s

M
a
x

(
M
P
a
)
Speed (rpm)
single two four six
Graph 8.16Max Stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.00666 m
3
/sec (Advance pelton wheel)


0.00E+00
5.00E-05
1.00E-04
1.50E-04
2.00E-04
2.50E-04
3.00E-04
3.50E-04
4.00E-04
100 200 300 400 500 600 680
E
q
.

S
t
r
e
s
s

M
i
n

(
M
P
a
)
Speed (rpm)
single two four six
Graph 8.17Min Stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.00666 m
3
/sec (Advance pelton wheel)
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 62


0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
100 200 300 400 500 600 680
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

(
m
m
)
Speed (rpm)
single two four six
Graph 8.18 Max displacement v/s Speed at Q = 0.00666 m
3
/sec (Advance pelton wheel)


0
1
2
3
4
5
6
100 200 300 400 500 600 680
E
q
.

S
t
r
e
s
s

M
a
x

(
M
P
a
)
Speed (rpm)
single two four six
Graph 8.19 Max Stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.005 m
3
/sec (Advance pelton wheel)
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 63


0.00E+00
5.00E-05
1.00E-04
1.50E-04
2.00E-04
2.50E-04
3.00E-04
3.50E-04
4.00E-04
100 200 300 400 500 600 680
E
q
.

S
t
r
e
s
s

M
i
n

(
M
P
a
)
Speed (rpm)
single two four six
Graph 8.20 Min Stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.005 m
3
/sec (Advance pelton wheel)


0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
100 200 300 400 500 600 680
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

(

m
m

)
Speed (rpm)
single two four six
Graph 8.21 Max displacement v/s Speed at Q = 0.005 m
3
/sec (Advance pelton wheel)
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 64


0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
100 200 300 400 500 600 680
E
q
.

S
t
r
e
s
s

M
a
x

(
M
P
a
)
Speed (rpm)
single two four six
Graph 8.22 Max Stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.0033 m
3
/sec (Advance pelton wheel)


0.00E+00
5.00E-05
1.00E-04
1.50E-04
2.00E-04
2.50E-04
3.00E-04
3.50E-04
4.00E-04
100 200 300 400 500 600 680
E
q
.

S
t
r
e
s
s

M
i
n

(
M
P
a
)
Speed (rpm)
single two four six
Graph 8.23 Min Stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.0033 m
3
/sec (Advance pelton wheel)
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 65


0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
100 200 300 400 500 600 680
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

(

m
m

)
Speed (rpm)
single two four six
Graph 8.24 Max displacement v/s Speed at Q = 0.0033 m
3
/sec (Advance pelton wheel)

The graph 8.1 to graph 8.24 shown above is mainly three types
(1)Max eq. stress v/s Speed at different flow rates
(2)Min eq. stress v/s Speed at different flow rates
(3)Max displacement v/s Speed at different flow rates
In that we can see that max eq. stress developed in advanced pelton wheel is less than the
simple advanced wheel and also the difference is high. Although the difference between
min eq. stress are less. And the difference between max displacements is also high.
Now the following graph shown is known as characteristics curves (or known as constant
head curves) which are mainly three types
(1) Qu (unit discharge) v/s Nu (unit speed)
(2) Pu (unit power) v/s Nu (unit speed)
(3) (efficiency) v/s Nu (unit speed)
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 66

We have done experimental analysis on both the type of pelton wheel first simple and
then advanced pelton wheel. The data of experiment viz. readings and results for simple
and advanced pelton wheel are given in Appendix-B and Appendix-C respectively. The
comparison between important parameters like speed, torque, output power and efficiency
of simple and advance pelton wheel is given in Appendix-D.
The graphs shown below (graph 8.25 to 8.36) are for advanced pelton wheel.
After that graph 8.37 to 8.41 shows comparison of efficiency of the simple and advanced
pelton wheel at different opening for same flow rate. The graphs shows that the efficiency
of the advanced pelton wheel is less than the simple pelton wheel because of hoop
attached on it.




1.50E-03
1.55E-03
1.60E-03
1.65E-03
1.70E-03
1.75E-03
1.80E-03
1.85E-03
1.90E-03
150 160 170 180 190 200 210
Qu
Nu
20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Graph 8.25 Unit discharge (Qu) v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.01 m
3
/sec
(Advance pelton wheel)

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 67


0
1
2
3
4
5
6
150 160 170 180 190 200 210
P
u
Nu
20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Graph 8.26 Unit power (Pu) v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.01 m
3
/sec
(Advance pelton wheel)

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
150 160 170 180 190 200 210

(
%
)
Nu
20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Graph 8.27 Efficiency () v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.01 m
3
/sec
(Advance pelton wheel)
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 68


1.10E-03
1.15E-03
1.20E-03
1.25E-03
1.30E-03
1.35E-03
1.40E-03
1.45E-03
1.50E-03
1.55E-03
1.60E-03
110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220
Qu
Nu
20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Graph 8.28 Unit discharge (Qu) v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.006 m
3
/sec
(Advance pelton wheel)

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
100 120 140 160 180 200 220
Pu
Nu
20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Graph 8.29 Unit power (Pu) v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.006 m
3
/sec
(Advance pelton wheel)
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 69

Graph 8.30 Efficiency () v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.006 m


3
/sec
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
100 120 140 160 180 200 220

Nu
20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
(Advance pelton wheel)

8.00E-04
8.50E-04
9.00E-04
9.50E-04
1.00E-03
1.05E-03
1.10E-03
1.15E-03
1.20E-03
110 130 150 170 190 210
Qu
Nu
20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Graph 8.31 Unit discharge (Qu) v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.005 m
3
/sec
(Advance pelton wheel)

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 70


Graph 8.32 Unit power (Pu) v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.005 m
3
/sec
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210
P
u
Nu
20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
(Advance pelton wheel)

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210


Nu
20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Graph 8.33 Efficiency () v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.005 m
3
/sec
(Advance pelton wheel)
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 71


5.30E-04
5.40E-04
5.50E-04
5.60E-04
5.70E-04
5.80E-04
5.90E-04
6.00E-04
6.10E-04
165 170 175 180 185 190 195 200 205
Qu
Nu
20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Graph 8.34 Unit discharge (Qu) v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.0033 m
3
/sec
(Advance pelton wheel)

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
165 170 175 180 185 190 195 200 205
P
u
Nu
20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Graph 8.35 Unit power (Pu) v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.0033 m
3
/sec
(Advance pelton wheel)
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 72


0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
165 170 175 180 185 190 195 200 205


Nu
20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Graph 8.36 Efficiency () v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.0033 m
3
/sec
(Advance pelton wheel)

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240

Nu
20 simple 20 advanced
Graph 8.37 Efficiency () v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.0066 m
3
/sec and 20 % opening

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 73

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250

Nu
40 simple 40 advance

Graph 8.38 Efficiency () v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.0066 m
3
/sec and 40 % opening


0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240

Nu
60 simple 60 advance
Graph 8.39 Efficiency () v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.0066 m
3
/sec and 60 % opening

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 74


0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260

Nu
80 simple 80 advance
Graph 8.40 Efficiency () v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.0066 m
3
/sec and 80 % opening


0
10
20
30
40
50
60
130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270

Nu
100 simple 100 advance
Graph 8.41 Efficiency () v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.0066 m
3
/sec and 100 % opening
CONCLUSIONS

CHAPTER 9
CONCLUSIONS
The development of hooped runner and subsequent numerical and experimental
investigation carried out on Pelton wheel during the course of this work leads to the
following conclusions.
1. The stress analysis is carried out on simple and advanced pelton wheel which shows
significant results clearly mentioned that stress developed in hooped runner is less
than simple pelton wheel. At the flow rate of 0.01 m
3
/sec the VON MISES stresses
developed in simple pelton wheel is 16.92 MPa whereas at same flow rate VON
MISES stress developed in hooped runner is 9.55 MPa which shows that reduction in
stress development is 43.35%.This means that the use of hoop, allows stresses to be
minimized and distributed more effectively.
2. The experiment carried out on advanced pelton wheel which gives characteristic
curves which shows that the influence of hoop on overall efficiency of pelton turbine
is very less.
STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 75

FUTURE SCOPE

CHAPTER 10
FUTURE SCOPE
The analysis carried out in this project is just one step towards optimization. There is
large scope of work in this subject.
Hoop optimization can be done by parametric study of hoop in which by varying
the thickness of hoop it can be achieved.
The fatigue analysis of pelton wheel can be done.
By conducting experiment Life cycle prediction of pelton wheel is also possible.

STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL 76

REFERENCES
[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pelton_wheel.
[2] Dr. R.K.Bansal, Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machine, Published By Laxmi
Publication(p) Ltd.Eighth edition 2002.
[3] Alexandre Perrig, Hydrodynamics of the free surface flow in pelton turbine
buckets, Lausanne, Epfl,2007.
[4] J. Vesely and M. Varner, A Case Study of Upgrading of 62.5MW Pelton
Turbine, CKD Blansko Strojrny a.s., Czech Republic.
[5] Heinz-Bernd Matthias, Josef Prost and Christian Rossegger, Investigation of the
Flow in Pelton Turbines and the Influence of the Casing, Austria, 11 April 1997.
[6] T. Staubli and H.P. Hauser, Flow visualization - a diagnosis tool for pelton
turbines, Switzerland , 2004.
[7] Mayse Francois, Pierre Yves Lowys and Gerard Vuillerod, Developments and
Recent Projects for Hooped Pelton Turbine. ALSTOM Power, Turkey, 4-7
November 2002.
[8] Bernard Michel, Georges Rossi, Pierre Leroy and Pierre Yves Lowys, Hooped
Pelton Runner, ALSTOM Power.
[9] Dr.S.A.Channiwala and Mr.Gaurang C. Chaudhari, Analysis, design and flow
simulation of advanced pelton wheel, SVNIT, Surat, June 2008
[10] Dr. Jagdish Lal, Hydraulic Machines, published by Metropolitan Book Co.
Privet Ltd. Sixth Edition 1975. Chapter-4, 5, 9.
[11] CADD Center, Introduction to Pro/Engineer
[12] Etienne Parkinson, Developments in numerical flow simulation applied to
Pelton turbines, VA Tech Hydro Ltd., Switzerland, Summer 2003.
[13] Hydroplan UK and Gilbert Gilkes & Gordon Ltd., Low Cost Pelton Turbine
Design and Testing, 2003.
[14] John S. Anagnostopoulos and Dimitrios E. Papantonis, Flow Modeling and
Runner Design Optimization in Turgo Water Turbines, Proceedings of World
Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, volume 22, July 2007.
[15] Yodchai Tiaple and Udomkiat Nontakaew, The Development of Bulb Turbine
for Low Head Storage Using CFD Simulation, Thailand

[16] Reiner Mack, Comet supports the design of Pelton turbines, Voith Siemens
Hydro Power Generation GmbH & Co., KG, Heidenheim Germany
APPENDIX A
Stress Analysis of Simple and Advanced Pelton Wheel

Q = 0.01 m
3
/sec
SR
NO.
Speed
(rpm)
Force
(N)
Stress
%
reduction
in stress
Deformation
% reduction
in deformation
(Simple) (Advanced) (Simple) (Advanced)
Max
(MPa)
Min
(MPa)10
-06

Max
(MPa)
Min
(MPa)10
-06

Max
(mm)
Max
(mm)
Single nozzle
1 100 269 16.92 6.38 9.5538 6.29 43.53 15.36 1.5132 90.14
2 200 269 16.97 3.05 9.556 2.57 43.68 15.42 1.5164 90.16
3 300 269 17.05 8.08 9.56 2.79 43.92 15.51 1.5216 90.18
4 400 269 17.17 1.53 9.566 5.30 44.28 15.65 1.529 90.23
5 500 269 17.31 2.33 9.574 8.81 44.69 15.82 1.5385 90.27
6 600 269 17.5 3.32 9.583 1.60 45.24 16.03 1.5503 90.32
7 680 269 17.66 4.25 9.59 2.33 45.69 16.23 1.5614 90.37
Two nozzle
8 100 134.56 8.66 6.36 4.779 5.05 44.81 7.75 0.757 90.23
9 200 134.56 8.71 3.05 4.782 1.15 45.09 7.91 0.76 90.39
10 300 134.56 8.8 8.08 4.786 2.62 45.61 7.91 0.765 90.32
11 400 134.56 8.91 1.53 4.792 6.85 46.21 8.04 0.773 90.38
12 500 134.56 9.06 2.33 4.799 1.33 47.03 8.22 0.782 90.48
13 600 134.56 9.24 3.32 4.809 2.13 47.95 8.43 0.795 90.56
14 680 134.56 9.4 4.25 4.818 2.88 48.74 8.63 0.806 90.66
Four nozzle
15 100 67.28 4.37 6.34 2.389 7.17 45.33 3.98 0.378 90.50
16 200 67.28 4.428 3.05 2.392 1.22 45.98 4.04 0.382 90.54
17 300 67.28 4.51 8.08 2.397 4.47 46.85 4.13 0.387 90.62
18 400 67.28 4.62 1.53 2.403 9.55 47.98 4.27 0.395 90.74
19 500 67.28 4.77 2.33 2.411 1.61 49.45 4.44 0.405 90.87
20 600 67.28 4.95 3.32 2.421 2.42 51.09 4.67 0.418 91.04
21 680 67.28 5.12 4.25 2.431 3.17 52.51 4.87 0.442 90.92
Six nozzle
22 100 44.86 2.91 6.33 1.593 6.30 45.25 2.71 0.252 90.70
23 200 44.86 2.96 3.05 1.596 1.90 46.08 2.77 0.255 90.79
24 300 44.86 3.046 8.08 1.6 5.43 47.47 2.87 0.261 90.90
25 400 44.86 3.16 1.53 1.606 1.05 49.17 3 0.269 91.03
26 500 44.86 3.41 2.33 1.615 1.71 52.63 3.18 0.279 91.22
27 600 44.86 3.75 3.32 1.626 2.52 56.64 3.41 0.341 90
28 680 44.86 4.07 4.25 1.636 3.27 59.80 3.62 0.44 87.84









Q = 0.0066 m
3
/sec
SR
NO.
Speed
(rpm)
Force
(N)
Stress
% reduction
in stress
Deformation
% reduction
in deformation
(Simple) (Advanced) (Simple) (Advanced)
Max
(MPa)
Min
(MPa)10
-06

Max
(MPa)
Min
(MPa) 10
-06

Max
(mm)
Max
(mm)
Single nozzle
1 100 179.23 10.729 6.52 6.188 5.86 42.32 10.222 0.98 90.41
2 200 179.23 10.78 3.14 6.191 8.85 42.56 10.279 0.983 90.43
3 300 179.23 10.863 8.25 6.195 3.16 42.97 10.374 0.988 90.47
4 400 179.23 10.981 1.40 6.2 5.64 43.53 10.508 0.996 90.52
5 500 179.23 11.13 1.76 6.209 1.17 44.21 10.681 1.005 90.59
6 600 179.23 11.32 2.46 6.218 1.96 45.07 10.894 1.017 90.66
7 680 179.23 11.48 3.21 6.22 2.71 45.81 11.093 1.029 90.72
Two nozzle
8 100 89.61 5.499 6.50 3.182 7.89 42.13 5.178 0.504 90.26
9 200 89.61 5.549 3.14 3.185 1.39 42.60 5.235 0.508 90.29
10 300 89.61 5.633 8.25 3.19 3.62 43.36 5.331 0.513 90.37
11 400 89.61 5.75 1.40 3.196 8.60 44.41 5.466 0.52 90.48
12 500 89.61 5.902 1.76 3.204 1.52 45.71 5.642 0.53 90.60
13 600 89.61 6.087 2.46 3.214 2.32 47.19 5.858 0.542 90.74
14 680 89.61 6.26 3.21 3.223 3.07 48.51 6.06 0.554 90.85
Four nozzle
15 100 44.86 2.772 6.49 1.594 6.30 42.49 2.699 0.2526 90.64
16 200 44.86 2.822 3.14 1.596 1.90 43.44 2.757 0.256 90.71
17 300 44.86 2.907 8.25 1.6 5.43 44.96 2.853 0.261 90.85
18 400 44.86 3.024 1.40 1.607 1.05 46.85 2.989 0.269 91.00
19 500 44.86 3.215 1.76 1.615 1.71 49.76 3.168 0.279 91.19
20 600 44.86 3.535 2.46 1.625 2.52 54.03 3.388 0.342 89.90
21 680 44.86 3.838 3.21 1.636 3.27 57.37 3.597 0.44 87.76
Six nozzle
22 100 29.87 2.018 6.49 1.0612 4.47 47.41 1.853 0.168 90.93
23 200 29.87 2.116 3.14 1.063 2.54 49.76 1.91 0.172 90.94
24 300 29.87 2.28 8.25 1.068 6.11 53.15 2.007 0.177 91.18
25 400 29.87 2.509 1.56 1.075 1.12 57.15 2.145 0.185 91.37
26 500 29.87 2.805 2.50 1.0833 1.78 61.37 2.325 0.236 89.84
27 600 29.87 3.167 3.66 1.095 2.59 65.42 2.549 0.342 86.58
28 680 29.87 3.505 4.73 1.106 3.34 68.44 2.761 0.442 83.99













Q = 0.005 m
3
/sec
SR
NO.
Speed
(rpm)
Force
(N)
Stress
%
reduction
in stress
Deformation
% reduction
in deformation
(Simple) (Advanced) (Simple) (Advanced)
Max
(MPa)
Min
(MPa)10
-06

Max
(MPa)
Min
(MPa)10
-06

Max
(mm)
Max
(mm)
Single nozzle
1 100 134.56 8.054 6.51 4.779 5.05 40.66 7.668 0.757 90.12
2 200 134.56 8.104 3.14 4.782 1.15 40.99 7.726 0.76 90.16
3 300 134.56 8.187 8.25 4.786 2.62 41.54 7.821 0.766 90.20
4 400 134.56 8.305 1.40 4.792 6.85 42.29 7.956 0.773 90.28
5 500 134.56 8.457 1.76 4.799 1.33 43.25 8.13 0.782 90.38
6 600 134.56 8.641 2.46 4.809 2.13 44.34 8.343 0.795 90.47
7 680 134.56 8.813 3.21 4.818 2.88 45.33 8.544 0.806 90.56
Two nozzle
8 100 67.28 4.139 6.49 2.425 7.25 41.41 3.903 0.384 90.16
9 200 67.28 4.188 3.14 2.427 1.21 42.04 3.959 0.387 90.22
10 300 67.28 4.273 8.25 2.432 4.43 43.08 4.056 0.393 90.31
11 400 67.28 4.389 1.40 2.438 9.50 44.45 4.191 0.4 90.45
12 500 67.28 4.541 1.76 2.446 1.61 46.13 4.368 0.423 90.31
13 600 67.28 4.739 2.46 2.457 2.42 48.15 4.586 0.441 90.38
14 680 67.28 5.044 3.21 2.466 3.17 51.11 4.791 0.441 90.79
Four nozzle
15 100 33.64 2.088 6.49 1.195 6.04 42.76 2.057 0.19 90.76
16 200 33.64 2.139 3.14 1.198 2.37 43.99 2.114 0.193 90.87
17 300 33.64 2.223 8.25 1.202 5.94 45.92 2.211 0.198 91.04
18 400 33.64 2.355 1.40 1.208 1.10 48.70 2.349 0.206 91.23
19 500 33.64 2.617 1.76 1.217 1.76 53.49 2.529 0.236 90.66
20 600 33.64 2.937 2.46 1.228 2.57 58.18 2.753 0.341 87.61
21 680 33.64 3.236 3.21 1.239 3.32 61.71 2.964 0.441 85.12
Six nozzle
22 100 22.41 1.556 6.48 0.7963 7.18 48.82 1.426 0.126 91.16
23 200 22.41 1.654 3.14 0.7988 2.70 51.70 1.484 0.13 91.23
24 300 22.41 1.817 8.25 0.8033 6.45 55.78 1.581 0.135 91.46
25 400 22.41 2.047 1.56 0.8099 1.16 60.43 1.72 0.149 91.33
26 500 22.41 2.343 2.50 0.819 1.82 65.04 1.902 0.236 87.59
27 600 22.41 2.706 3.66 0.831 2.62 69.29 2.129 0.343 83.88
28 680 22.41 3.044 4.73 0.843 3.37 72.30 2.344 0.443 81.10













Q = 0.0033 m
3
/sec
SR
NO.
Speed
(rpm)
Force
(N)
Stress
%
reduction
in stress
Deformation
% reduction
in deformation
(Simple) (Advanced) (Simple) (Advanced)
Max
(MPa)
Min
(MPa) 10
-06

Max
(MPa)
Min
(MPa) 10
-06

Max
(mm)
Max
(mm)
Single nozzle
1 100 89.61 5.362 6.50 3.183 7.89 40.63 5.1 0.504 90.11
2 200 89.61 5.412 3.14 3.185 1.39 41.14 5.157 0.508 90.14
3 300 89.61 5.495 8.25 3.19 3.62 41.94 5.253 0.513 90.23
4 400 89.61 5.613 1.40 3.196 8.50 43.06 5.387 0.52 90.34
5 500 89.61 5.764 1.76 3.204 1.52 44.41 5.563 0.53 90.47
6 600 89.61 5.949 2.46 3.214 2.32 45.97 5.778 0.543 90.60
7 680 89.61 6.122 3.21 3.223 3.07 47.35 5.981 0.554 90.73
Two nozzle
8 100 44.86 2.772 6.49 1.394 6.30 49.71 2.623 0.253 90.35
9 200 44.86 2.822 3.14 1.596 1.90 43.44 2.679 0.256 90.44
10 300 44.86 2.906 8.25 1.6 5.43 44.94 2.776 0.261 90.59
11 400 44.86 3.024 1.40 1.607 1.05 46.85 2.912 0.269 90.76
12 500 44.86 3.206 1.76 1.615 1.52 49.62 3.091 0.279 90.97
13 600 44.86 3.533 2.46 1.626 1.71 53.97 3.313 0.341 89.70
14 680 44.86 3.838 3.21 1.636 3.27 57.37 3.521 0.44 87.50
Four nozzle
15 100 22.41 1.405 6.48 0.7962 7.18 43.33 1.413 0.126 91.08
16 200 22.41 1.455 3.14 0.7988 2.70 45.09 1.472 0.13 91.16
17 300 22.41 1.554 8.25 0.8033 6.43 48.30 1.57 0.135 91.40
18 400 22.41 1.756 1.40 0.8099 1.16 53.87 1.709 0.15 91.22
19 500 22.41 2.018 1.76 0.819 1.82 59.41 1.892 0.236 87.52
20 600 22.41 2.339 2.46 0.831 2.62 64.47 2.12 0.343 83.82
21 680 22.41 2.639 3.21 0.843 3.37 68.05 2.336 0.443 81.03
Six nozzle
22 100 14.93 1.093 6.48 0.5306 1.21 51.45 0.998 0.08437 91.54
23 200 14.93 1.19 3.14 0.5332 2.73 55.19 1.056 0.08758 91.70
24 300 14.93 1.355 8.25 0.5378 6.61 60.30 1.155 0.0933 91.92
25 400 14.93 1.584 1.56 0.5447 1.19 65.61 1.296 0.149 88.50
26 500 14.93 1.881 2.50 0.5546 1.85 70.51 1.482 0.2368 84.02
27 600 14.93 2.244 3.66 0.5679 2.66 74.69 1.713 0.344 79.91
28 680 14.93 2.583 4.73 0.624 3.41 75.84 1.93 0.445 76.94

APPENDIX - B
Experimental Data & Results of Simple Pelton Wheel

Q = 0.01 m
3
/sec
Sr.
No.
Pr.
Gauge
reading
(kg/cm
2
)
Flow
rate
(lpm)
Weight
(kg)
spring
balance
reading
(kg)
Speed
(rpm)
Pi/2g
m
(Vi)
2
/2g
m
H
m
Power
(input)
watt
Net
Weight
(N)
Torque
(N m)
Power
(output)
(watt)

%
Unit
Speed
(Nu)
Unit
Discharge
(Qu)
10
-03

Unit
Power
(Pu)
20 % opening
1
4 600 1 0.40 1378 32 0.59 32.59 2129.01 5.90 0.94 136.13 3.36 214.36 1.56 0.51
2 4 600 2 0.90 1347 32 0.59 32.59 2129.01 10.83 1.73 244.28 6.03 209.53 1.56 0.92
3 4 600 4 1.40 1256 32 0.59 32.59 2129.01 25.55 4.09 537.36 13.25 195.38 1.56 2.02
4
4 600 5 1.59 1241 32 0.59 32.59 2129.01 33.41 5.35 694.31 17.13 193.04 1.56 2.61
5
4 600 6 1.04 1206 32 0.59 32.59 2129.01 48.61 7.78 981.79 24.22 187.60 1.56 3.70
6 4 600 7 0.61 1180 32 0.59 32.59 2129.01 62.67 10.03 1238.42 30.55 183.56 1.56 4.66
40 % opening
7 3.4 600 1 0.30 1384 24 0.59 24.59 1606.34 6.84 1.09 158.54 4.57 232.85 1.68 0.76
8 3.4 600 2 0.50 1356 24 0.59 24.59 1606.34 14.76 2.36 335.17 9.67 228.14 1.68 1.60
9 3.4 600 4 0.66 1324 24 0.59 24.59 1606.34 32.79 5.25 727.14 20.98 222.76 1.68 3.46
10
3.4 600 5 0.89 1316 24 0.59 24.59 1606.34 40.32 6.45 888.57 25.64 221.41 1.68 4.23
11 3.4 600 6 0.58 1264 24 0.59 24.59 1606.34 53.13 8.50 1124.57 32.45 212.66 1.68 5.36
12 3.4 600 7 0.63 1270 24 0.59 24.59 1606.34 62.45 9.99 1328.11 38.32 213.67 1.68 6.33
60 % opening
13
3.2 600 1 0.22 1348 22 0.59 22.59 1475.67 7.61 1.22 171.79 5.25 233.50 1.73 0.89
14 3.2 600 2 0.21 1322 22 0.59 22.59 1475.67 17.59 2.82 389.51 11.91 229.00 1.73 2.02
15 3.2 600 4 1.01 1293 22 0.59 22.59 1475.67 29.32 4.69 634.91 19.42 223.98 1.73 3.30
16
3.2 600 5 0.54 1281 22 0.59 22.59 1475.67 43.77 7.00 938.96 28.72 221.90 1.73 4.88
17 3.2 600 6 0.96 1233 22 0.59 22.59 1475.67 49.46 7.91 1021.18 31.24 213.58 1.73 5.31
18 3.2 600 7 1.26 1226 22 0.59 22.59 1475.67 56.26 9.00 1155.14 35.33 212.37 1.73 6.00
80 % opening
19
3 600 1 0.53 1320 20 0.59 20.59 1345.00 4.62 0.74 102.22 3.33 235.84 1.79 0.58
20
3 600 2 0.72 1299 20 0.59 20.59 1345.00 12.51 2.00 272.16 8.86 232.09 1.79 1.55
21 3 600 4 1.29 1265 20 0.59 20.59 1345.00 26.57 4.25 562.88 18.32 226.01 1.79 3.21
22 3 600 5 1.09 1254 20 0.59 20.59 1345.00 38.34 6.13 805.07 26.20 224.05 1.79 4.59
23 3 600 6 1.24 1211 20 0.59 20.59 1345.00 46.71 7.47 947.24 30.82 216.36 1.79 5.40
24
3 600 7 1.35 1206 20 0.59 20.59 1345.00 55.46 8.87 1120.16 36.45 215.47 1.79 6.39
100 % opening
25 2.8 600 1 0.29 1305 18 0.59 18.59 1214.33 7.01 1.12 153.11 5.32 240.98 1.85 0.96
26
2.8 600 2 0.46 1281 18 0.59 18.59 1214.33 15.07 2.41 323.27 11.24 236.55 1.85 2.04
27
2.8 600 4 0.81 1247 18 0.59 18.59 1214.33 31.27 5.00 652.92 22.69 230.27 1.85 4.11
27 2.8 600 5 1.52 1240 18 0.59 18.59 1214.33 34.16 5.47 709.43 24.66 228.98 1.85 4.47
29 2.8 600 6 1.29 1187 18 0.59 18.59 1214.33 46.25 7.40 919.36 31.96 219.19 1.85 5.79
30
2.8 600 7 1.05 1137 18 0.59 18.59 1214.33 58.36 9.34 1111.25 38.63 209.96 1.85 7.00




Q = 0.0066 m3/sec
Sr.
No.
Pr.
Gauge
reading
(kg/cm
2
)
Flow
rate
(lpm)
Weight
(kg)
Spring
balance
reading
(kg)
Speed
(rpm)
Pi/g
(m)
(Vi)
2

/2g
(m)
H
(m)
Power
(input)
(watt)
NET
Weight
(N)
Torque
(N m)
Power
(output)
watt

(%)
Unit
Speed
(Nu)
Unit
discharge
(Qu)
10
-
03

Unit
Power
(Pu)
20 % opening
1
3.2 400 1 0.07 1326 32 0.58 32.58 2129.01 9.06 1.45 201.27 9.54 232.28 1.08 1.08
2
3.2 400 2 0.65 1264 32 0.58 32.58 2129.01 13.20 2.11 279.55 13.25 221.42 1.08 1.50
3
3.2 400 4 1.09 1162 32 0.58 32.58 2129.01 28.46 4.55 553.83 26.25 203.55 1.08 2.97
4
3.2 400 5 0.91 1095 32 0.58 32.58 2129.01 40.03 6.40 734.22 34.8 191.82 1.08 3.94
5
3.2 400 6 1.21 963 32 0.58 32.58 2129.01 46.90 7.50 756.33 35.85 168.69 1.08 4.06
6
3.2 400 7 0.91 870 32 0.58 32.58 2129.01 59.73 9.55 870.30 41.25 152.40 1.08 4.67
40 % opening
7
2.4 400 1 0.30 1237 24 0.58 24.58 1606.33 6.85 1.09 141.90 8.91 249.47 1.11 1.16
8
2.4 400 2 0.64 1171 24 0.58 24.58 1606.33 13.30 2.12 260.92 16.39 236.16 1.11 2.14
9
2.4 400 4 1.23 1085 24 0.58 24.58 1606.33 27.08 4.33 492.18 30.91 218.81 1.11 4.03
10
2.4 400 5 1.12 977 24 0.58 24.58 1606.33 38.03 6.08 622.34 39.09 197.03 1.11 5.10
11
2.4 400 6 1.56 956 24 0.58 24.58 1606.33 43.49 6.95 696.37 43.74 192.80 1.11 5.71
12
2.4 400 7 1.16 828 24 0.58 24.58 1606.33 57.25 9.16 793.94 49.87 166.98 1.11 6.51
60 % opening
13
2.2 400 1 0.67 1129 22 0.58 22.58 1475.66 3.21 0.51 60.71 4.152 237.55 1.14 0.56
14
2.2 400 2 0.38 1066 22 0.58 22.58 1475.66 15.79 2.52 281.98 19.28 224.30 1.14 2.62
15
2.2 400 4 1.14 1045 22 0.58 22.58 1475.66 28.04 4.48 490.75 33.55 219.88 1.14 4.57
16
2.2 400 5 1.22 918 22 0.58 22.58 1475.66 37 5.92 568.94 38.90 193.16 1.14 5.30
17
2.2 400 6 1.72 886 22 0.58 22.58 1475.66 41.94 6.71 622.36 42.55 186.42 1.14 5.79
18
2.2 400 7 1.93 808 22 0.58 22.58 1475.66 49.67 7.94 672.10 45.95 170.01 1.14 6.26
80 & opening
19
2 400 1 0.36 1149 20 0.58 20.58 1345 6.20 0.99 119.32 8.95 253.23 1.17 1.27
20
2 400 2 0.72 1019 20 0.58 20.58 1345 12.50 2 213.45 16.01 224.58 1.17 2.28
21
2 400 4 1.52 919 20 0.58 20.58 1345 24.25 3.88 373.22 28 202.54 1.17 3.99
22
2 400 5 1.96 767 20 0.58 20.58 1345 29.73 4.75 381.98 28.65 169.04 1.17 4.08
23
2 400 6 2.03 751 20 0.58 20.58 1345 38.92 6.22 489.50 36.72 165.52 1.17 5.24
24
2 400 7 1.68 640 20 0.58 20.58 1345 52.17 8.34 559.22 41.95 141.05 1.17 5.98
100 % opening
25
1.8 400 1 0.47 1128 18 0.58 18.58 1214.32 5.19 0.83 98.07 8.15 261.64 1.21 1.22
26
1.8 400 2 0.58 1087 18 0.58 18.58 1214.32 13.92 2.22 253.41 21.05 252.13 1.21 3.16
27
1.8 400 4 1.49 1026 18 0.58 18.58 1214.32 24.53 3.92 421.49 35.02 237.98 1.21 5.26
27
1.8 400 5 1.43 925 18 0.58 18.58 1214.32 34.96 5.59 541.67 45.01 214.55 1.21 6.76
29
1.8 400 6 2 830 18 0.58 18.58 1214.32 39.18 6.26 544.63 45.25 192.52 1.21 6.79
30
1.8 400 7 1.74 793 18 0.58 18.58 1214.32 51.59 8.25 685.15 56.93 183.94 1.21 8.55









Q = 0.005 m3/sec
Sr.
No.
Pr.
Gauge
reading
(kg/cm
2
)
Flow
rate
(lpm)
Weight
(kg)
Spring
balance
reading
(kg)
Speed
(rpm)
Pi/2g
(m)
(Vi)
2

/2g
(m)
H
(m)
Power
input
(watt)
Net
weight
(N)
Torque
(N m)
Power
(output)
(watt)

(%)
Unit
Speed
(Nu)
Unit
Discharge
(Qu)
10
-
04

Unit
Power
(Pu)
20 % opening
1
3.1 300 1 0.02 1188 31 0.33 31.33 1536.76 9.51 1.52 189.32 12.32 212.24 8.93 1.07
2
3.1 300 2 0.22 1070 31 0.33 31.33 1536.76 17.42 2.7 312.26 20.32 191.16 8.93 1.78
3
3.1 300 4 0.96 965 31 0.33 31.33 1536.76 29.77 4.76 481.20 31.31 172.40 8.93 2.74
4
3.1 300 5 1.30 943 31 0.33 31.33 1536.76 36.21 5.79 571.87 37.21 168.47 8.93 3.26
5
3.1 300 6 1.52 889 31 0.33 31.33 1536.76 43.89 7.02 653.47 42.52 158.82 8.93 3.72
6
3.1 300 7 1.45 819 31 0.33 31.33 1536.76 54.40 8.70 746.16 48.55 146.31 8.93 4.25
40 % opening
7
3.2 300 1 0.28 1255 32 0.33 32.33 1585.81 6.98 1.11 146.76 9.25 220.71 8.79 0.79
8
3.2 300 2 0.37 1219 32 0.33 32.33 1585.81 15.95 2.55 325.76 20.54 214.38 8.79 1.77
9
3.2 300 4 1.41 1129 32 0.33 32.33 1585.81 25.37 4.06 479.77 30.25 198.55 8.79 2.60
10
3.2 300 5 1.30 1079 32 0.33 32.33 1585.81 36.20 5.79 654.21 41.25 189.76 8.79 3.55
11
3.2 300 6 1.42 1019 32 0.33 32.33 1585.81 44.83 7.17 765.15 48.25 179.21 8.79 4.16
12
3.2 300 7 1.48 972 32 0.33 32.33 1585.81 54.11 8.65 880.82 55.54 170.94 8.79 4.79
60 & opening
13
2.6 300 1 0.40 1136 26 0.33 26.33 1291.51 5.81 0.93 110.61 8.56 221.38 9.74 0.81
14
2.6 300 2 0.72 1110 26 0.33 26.33 1291.51 12.52 2 232.80 18.02 216.31 9.74 1.72
15
2.6 300 4 1.40 1087 26 0.33 26.33 1291.51 25.01 4 455.33 35.25 211.83 9.74 3.37
16
2.6 300 5 1.47 986 26 0.33 26.33 1291.51 34.65 5.53 571.57 44.25 192.15 9.74 4.23
17
2.6 300 6 1.38 941 26 0.33 26.33 1291.51 45.28 7.24 713.63 55.25 183.38 9.74 5.28
18
2.6 300 7 1.30 901 26 0.33 26.33 1291.51 55.85 8.9 842.78 65.25 175.58 9.74 6.23
80 % opening
19
2.2 300 1 0.51 1132 22 0.33 22.33 1095.31 4.78 0.76 90.74 8.28 239.55 10.6 0.85
20
2.2 300 2 0.82 1083 22 0.33 22.33 1095.31 11.49 1.83 208.39 19.02 229.18 10.6 1.97
21
2.2 300 4 1.46 953 22 0.33 22.33 1095.31 24.88 3.98 397.10 36.25 201.67 10.6 3.76
22
2.2 300 5 1.42 919 22 0.33 22.33 1095.31 35.02 5.60 539.02 49.21 194.47 10.6 5.10
23
2.2 300 6 1.45 884 22 0.33 22.33 1095.31 44.58 7.13 659.97 60.25 187.06 10.6 6.25
24
2.2 300 7 1.47 836 22 0.33 22.33 1095.31 54.18 8.66 758.55 69.25 176.91 10.6 7.18
100 % opening
25
2 300 1 0.52 1106 20 0.33 20.33 997.21 4.61 0.73 85.40 8.56 245.29 11.1 0.93
26
2 300 2 0.87 1092 20 0.33 20.33 997.21 11.04 1.76 201.98 20.25 242.18 11.1 2.20
27
2 300 4 1.49 1025 20 0.33 20.33 997.21 24.54 3.92 421.36 42.25 227.32 11.1 4.59
27
2 300 5 1.32 891 20 0.33 20.33 997.21 36 5.76 537.29 53.87 197.60 11.1 5.86
29
2 300 6 1.40 878 20 0.33 20.33 997.21 45.08 7.21 662.93 66.47 194.24 11.1 7.23
30
2 300 7 1.42 830 20 0.33 20.33 997.21 54.70 8.75 760.42 76.25 184.07 11.1 8.29








Q = 0.0033 m3/sec
Sr.
No.
Pr.
Gauge
reading
(kg/cm2)
Flow
rate
(lpm)
Weight
(kg)
Spring
balance
Reading
(kg)
Speed
(rpm)
Pi/2g
(m)
(Vi)2
/2g
(m)
H
(m)
Power
(input)
(watt)
Net
Weight
(N)
Torque
(N m)
Power
(output)
(watt)

(%)
Unit
Speed
(Nu)
Unit
Discharge
(Qu)
10
-
04

Unit
Power
(Pu)
20 % opening
1
3.8 200 1 0.51 1496 38 0.14 38.14 1234.83 4.72 0.75 118.39 9.58 242.22 5.39 0.50
2
3.8 200 2 0.72 1398 38 0.14 38.14 1234.83 12.54 2 293.76 23.78 226.35 5.39 1.24
3
3.8 200 4 1.27 1338 38 0.14 38.14 1234.83 26.71 4.27 598.62 48.47 216.64 5.39 2.54
4
3.8 200 5 1.42 1185 38 0.14 38.14 1234.83 35.06 5.61 695.93 56.35 191.86 5.39 2.95
5
3.8 200 6 1.30 1162 38 0.14 38.14 1234.83 46.03 7.36 895.84 72.54 188.14 5.39 3.80
6
3.8 200 7 1.45 1128 38 0.14 38.14 1234.83 54.41 8.70 1028 83.25 182.64 5.39 4.36
40 % opening
7
3.6 200 1 0.45 1404 36 0.14 36.14 1170.08 5.38 0.86 126.72 10.83 233.53 5.54 0.58
8
3.6 200 2 0.77 1369 36 0.14 36.14 1170.08 11.97 1.91 274.46 23.45 227.71 5.54 1.26
9
3.6 200 4 1.28 1294 36 0.14 36.14 1170.08 26.65 4.26 577.60 49.36 215.23 5.54 2.65
10
3.6 200 5 1.42 1202 36 0.14 36.14 1170.08 35.09 5.62 706.44 60.37 199.93 5.54 3.25
11
3.6 200 6 1.41 1175 36 0.14 36.14 1170.08 45 7.20 885.62 75.68 195.44 5.54 4.07
12
3.6 200 7 1.49 1115 36 0.14 36.14 1170.08 54.02 8.64 1008.73 86.21 185.46 5.54 4.64
60 % opening
13
3.4 200 1 0.33 1312 34 0.14 34.14 1105.34 6.55 1.04 143.93 13.02 224.53 5.70 0.72
14
3.4 200 2 0.53 1297 34 0.14 34.14 1105.34 14.41 2.30 313.04 28.32 221.96 5.70 1.56
15
3.4 200 4 1.31 1283 34 0.14 34.14 1105.34 26.34 4.21 566.12 51.21 219.56 5.70 2.83
16
3.4 200 5 1.39 1188 34 0.14 34.14 1105.34 35.38 5.66 703.99 63.69 203.31 5.70 3.52
17
3.4 200 6 1.44 1113 34 0.14 34.14 1105.34 44.71 7.15 833.39 75.39 190.47 5.70 4.17
18
3.4 200 7 1.49 1068 34 0.14 34.14 1105.34 53.98 8.63 965.62 87.36 182.77 5.70 4.83
80 % opening
19
3.2 200 1 0.38 1323 32 0.14 32.14 1040.59 6.05 0.96 134.17 12.89 233.35 5.87 0.73
20
3.2 200 2 0.61 1276 32 0.14 32.14 1040.59 13.62 2.18 291.18 27.98 225.06 5.87 1.59
21
3.2 200 4 1.08 1168 32 0.14 32.14 1040.59 28.56 4.57 558.69 53.69 206.01 5.87 3.06
22
3.2 200 5 1.09 1142 32 0.14 32.14 1040.59 38.31 6.12 732.68 70.41 201.42 5.87 4.02
23
3.2 200 6 1.43 1109 32 0.14 32.14 1040.59 44.78 7.16 831.75 79.93 195.60 5.87 4.56
24
3.2 200 7 1.51 1032 32 0.14 32.14 1040.59 53.78 8.60 929.47 89.32 182.02 5.87 5.1
100 % opening
25
3 200 1 0.53 1307 30 0.14 30.14 975.85 4.56 0.73 99.92 10.24 238.05 6.07 0.60
26
3 200 2 0.78 1287 30 0.14 30.14 975.85 11.93 1.90 257.23 26.36 234.41 6.07 1.55
27
3 200 4 1.45 1246 30 0.14 30.14 975.85 25.01 4 521.95 53.48 226.94 6.07 3.15
27
3 200 5 1.18 1131 30 0.14 30.14 975.85 37.37 5.98 707.96 72.54 205.99 6.07 4.27
29
3 200 6 1.40 1079 30 0.14 30.14 975.85 45.06 7.21 814.34 83.45 196.52 6.07 4.92
30
3 200 7 1.56 1007 30 0.14 30.14 975.85 53.29 8.52 898.75 92.1 183.41 6.07 5.43

APPENDIX - C
Experimental Data & Results of Advanced Pelton Wheel

Q = 0.01 m
3
/sec
Sr.
No.
Pr.
Gauge
reading
(kg/cm
2
)
Flow
rate
(lpm)
Weight
(kg)
spring
balance
reading
(kg)
Speed
(rpm)
Pi/g
(m)
(Vi)
2

/2g
(m)
H
(m)
Power
(input)
(Watt)
Weight
(N)
Torque
(N m)
Power
(output)
(Watt)

(%
Unit
Speed
( Nu)
Unit
Discharge
(Qu)
10
-03

Unit
Power
(Pu)
20 % opening
1
4 600 1 0.3 1183 40 1.32 41.32 4054.15 6.86 1.09 136.11 3.35 184.02 1.56 0.51
2
4 600 2 0.55 1154 40 1.32 41.32 4054.15 14.22 2.27 275.03 6.78 179.51 1.56 1.03
3
4 600 4 1.1 1046 40 1.32 41.32 4054.15 28.44 4.55 498.59 12.29 162.71 1.56 1.87
4
4 600 5 1.2 1031 40 1.32 41.32 4054.15 37.27 5.96 643.96 15.88 160.37 1.56 2.42
5
4 600 6 1.45 1021 40 1.32 41.32 4054.15 44.63 7.14 763.58 18.83 158.82 1.56 2.87
6
4 600 7 1.7 980 40 1.32 41.32 4054.15 51.99 8.31 853.72 21.05 152.44 1.56 3.21
40 % opening
7
3.4 600 1 0.3 1189 34 1.32 35.32 3465.55 6.86 1.09 136.80 3.94 200.04 1.68 0.65
8
3.4 600 2 0.5 1163 34 1.32 35.32 3465.55 14.71 2.35 286.74 8.27 195.67 1.68 1.36
9
3.4 600 4 1 1114 34 1.32 35.32 3465.55 29.43 4.70 549.31 15.85 187.42 1.68 2.61
10
3.4 600 5 1.2 1106 34 1.32 35.32 3465.55 37.27 5.96 690.80 19.93 186.08 1.68 3.29
11
3.4 600 6 1.5 1079 34 1.32 35.32 3465.55 44.14 7.06 798.08 23.02 181.53 1.68 3.80
12
3.4 600 7 1.7 1060 34 1.32 35.32 3465.55 51.99 8.31 923.42 26.64 178.34 1.68 4.39
60 % opening
13
3.2 600 1 0.3 1153 32 1.32 33.32 3269.35 6.86 1.09 132.66 4.05 199.72 1.73 0.68
14
3.2 600 2 0.55 1129 32 1.32 33.32 3269.35 14.22 2.27 269.07 8.23 195.56 1.73 1.39
15
3.2 600 4 1.1 1083 32 1.32 33.32 3269.35 28.44 4.55 516.23 15.79 187.59 1.73 2.68
16
3.2 600 5 1.15 1071 32 1.32 33.32 3269.35 37.76 6.04 677.74 20.73 185.52 1.73 3.52
17
3.2 600 6 1.5 1048 32 1.32 33.32 3269.35 44.14 7.06 775.16 23.70 181.53 1.73 4.02
18
3.2 600 7 1.65 1016 32 1.32 33.32 3269.35 52.48 8.39 893.43 27.32 175.99 1.73 4.64
80 % opening
19
3 600 1 0.25 1125 30 1.32 31.32 3073.15 7.35 1.17 138.68 4.51 200.99 1.79 0.79

20
3 600 2 0.55 1106 30 1.32 31.32 3073.15 14.22 2.27 263.59 8.57 197.60 1.79 1.50
21
3 600 4 1.05 1055 30 1.32 31.32 3073.15 28.93 4.63 511.55 16.64 188.49 1.79 2.91
22
3 600 5 1.1 1044 30 1.32 31.32 3073.15 38.25 6.12 669.24 21.77 186.52 1.79 3.81
23
3 600 6 1.4 1026 30 1.32 31.32 3073.15 45.12 7.22 775.75 25.24 183.31 1.79 4.42
24
3 600 7 1.7 996 30 1.32 31.32 3073.15 51.99 8.31 867.66 28.23 177.95 1.79 4.94
100 % opening
25
2.8 600 1 0.35 1110 28 1.32 29.32 2876.95 6.37 1.02 118.59 4.12 204.97 1.85 0.74
26
2.8 600 2 0.5 1088 28 1.32 29.32 2876.95 14.71 2.35 268.24 9.32 200.90 1.85 1.68
27
2.8 600 4 1 1037 28 1.32 29.32 2876.95 29.43 4.70 511.34 17.77 191.49 1.85 3.21
27
2.8 600 5 1.1 1030 28 1.32 29.32 2876.95 38.25 6.12 660.26 22.95 190.19 1.85 4.15
29
2.8 600 6 1.35 1002 28 1.32 29.32 2876.95 45.61 7.29 765.84 26.61 185.02 1.85 4.82
30
2.8 600 7 1.6 977 28 1.32 29.32 2876.95 52.97 8.47 867.17 30.14 180.41 1.85 5.46




Q = 0.0066 m3/sec
Sr.
No.
Pr.
Gauge
reading
(kg/cm
2
)
Flow
rate
(lpm)
Weight
(kg)
spring
balance
reading
(kg)
Speed
(rpm)
Pi/g
(m)
(Vi)
2

/2g
(m)
H
(m)
Power
(input)
(Watt)
Weight
(N)
Torque
(N m)
Power
(output)
(Watt)

(%)
Unit
Speed
(Nu)
Unit
Discharge
(Qu)
10
-03

Unit
Power
(Pu)
20 % opening
1
3.2 400 1 0.1 1131 32 0.58 32.58 2129.01 8.829 1.41 167.31 7.85 198.12 1.08 0.89
2
3.2 400 2 0.3 1071 32 0.58 32.58 2129.01 16.677 2.66 299.26 14.05 187.61 1.08 1.60
3
3.2 400 4 0.7 952 32 0.58 32.58 2129.01 32.373 5.17 516.37 24.25 166.77 1.08 2.77
4
3.2 400 5 0.7 885 32 0.58 32.58 2129.01 42.18 6.74 625.50 29.37 155.03 1.08 3.36
5
3.2 400 6 1.25 778 32 0.58 32.58 2129.01 46.59 7.45 607.42 28.53 136.28 1.08 3.26
6
3.2 400 7 0.9 660 32 0.58 32.58 2129.01 59.84 9.57 661.74 31.08 115.61 1.08 3.55
40 % opening
7
2.4 400 1 0.2 1038 24 0.58 24.58 1606.33 7.848 1.25 136.49 8.49 209.33 1.11 1.11
8
2.4 400 2 0.4 982 24 0.58 24.58 1606.33 15.69 2.51 258.25 16.07 198.04 1.11 2.11
9
2.4 400 4 0.75 916 24 0.58 24.58 1606.33 31.88 5.10 489.32 30.46 184.73 1.11 4.01
10
2.4 400 5 0.8 827 24 0.58 24.58 1606.33 41.20 6.59 570.91 35.54 166.78 1.11 4.68
11
2.4 400 6 1.45 783 24 0.58 24.58 1606.33 44.63 7.14 585.58 36.45 157.91 1.11 4.80
12
2.4 400 7 1 650 24 0.58 24.58 1606.33 58.86 9.41 641.03 39.90 131.08 1.11 5.25
60 % opening
13
2.2 400 1 0.7 979 22 0.58 22.58 1475.66 2.94 0.47 48.27 3.27 205.99 1.14 0.44
14
2.2 400 2 0.3 908 22 0.58 22.58 1475.66 16.67 2.66 253.71 17.19 191.05 1.14 2.36
15
2.2 400 4 0.9 856 22 0.58 22.58 1475.66 30.41 4.86 436.16 29.55 180.11 1.14 4.06
16
2.2 400 5 0.6 745 22 0.58 22.58 1475.66 43.16 6.90 538.79 36.51 156.75 1.14 5.01
17
2.2 400 6 1.5 713 22 0.58 22.58 1475.66 44.14 7.06 527.37 35.73 150.02 1.14 4.91
18
2.2 400 7 1 598 22 0.58 22.58 1475.66 58.86 9.41 589.75 39.96 125.82 1.14 5.49
80 % opening
19
2 400 1 0.25 960 20 0.58 20.58 1344.99 7.35 1.17 118.34 8.79 211.58 1.17 1.26
20
2 400 2 0.45 809 20 0.58 20.58 1344.99 15.20 2.43 206.10 15.32 178.30 1.17 2.20
21
2 400 4 0.9 726 20 0.58 20.58 1344.99 30.41 4.86 369.92 27.50 160.01 1.17 3.96
22
2 400 5 0.6 648 20 0.58 20.58 1344.99 43.16 6.90 468.64 34.84 142.81 1.17 5.01
23
2 400 6 1.5 626 20 0.58 20.58 1344.99 44.14 7.02 463.02 34.42 137.97 1.17 4.95
24
2 400 7 1.1 529 20 0.58 20.58 1344.99 57.87 9.26 513.00 38.14 116.59 1.17 5.49
100 % opening
25
1.8 400 1 0.3 939 18 0.58 18.58 1214.32 6.86 1.09 108.03 8.89 217.80 1.21 1.34
26
1.8 400 2 0.35 898 18 0.58 18.58 1214.32 16.18 2.58 243.54 20.05 208.29 1.21 3.03
27
1.8 400 4 1 837 18 0.58 18.58 1214.32 29.43 4.70 412.72 33.98 194.14 1.21 5.15
27
1.8 400 5 0.7 756 18 0.58 18.58 1214.32 42.18 6.74 534.32 44.00 175.35 1.21 6.66
29
1.8 400 6 1.6 732 18 0.58 18.58 1214.32 43.16 6.90 529.39 43.59 169.79 1.21 6.60
30
1.8 400 7 1.2 620 18 0.58 18.53 1214.32 56.89 9.10 591.06 48.67 143.81 1.21 7.37








Q = 0.005 m3/sec
Sr.
No.
Pr.
Gauge
reading
(kg/cm
2
)
Flow
rate
(lpm)
Weight
(kg)
spring
balance
reading
(kg)
Speed
(rpm)
Pi/g
(m)
(Vi)
2

/2g
(m)
H
(m)
Power
(input)
(Watt)
Weight
(N)
Torque
(N m)
Power
(output)
(Watt)

(%)
Unit
Speed
(Nu)
Unit
Discharge
(Qu)
10
-04

Unit
Power
(Pu)
20 % opening
1
3.1 300 1 0.3 938 31 0.33 31.33 1536.76 6.86 1.09 107.92 7.02 167.57 8.93 0.61
2
3.1 300 2 0.45 877 31 0.33 31.33 1536.76 15.20 2.43 223.43 14.53 156.68 8.93 1.27
3
3.1 300 4 1 755 31 0.33 31.33 1536.76 29.43 4.70 372.29 24.25 134.88 8.93 2.12
4
3.1 300 5 1.1 733 31 0.33 31.33 1536.76 38.25 6.12 469.87 30.57 130.95 8.93 2.67
5
3.1 300 6 1.3 704 31 0.33 31.30 1536.76 46.10 7.37 543.86 35.39 125.77 8.93 3.10
6
3.1 300 7 1.6 634 31 0.33 31.33 1536.76 52.97 8.47 562.73 36.61 113.26 8.93 3.20
40 % opening
7
3.2 300 1 0.25 1056 32 0.33 32.33 1585.81 7.357 1.17 130.17 8.20 185.71 8.79 0.70
8
3.2 300 2 0.45 1030 32 0.33 32.33 1585.81 15.20 2.43 262.41 16.54 181.14 8.79 1.42
9
3.2 300 4 1.2 960 32 0.33 32.33 1585.81 27.46 4.32 441.82 27.86 168.83 8.79 2.40
10
3.2 300 5 1.4 929 32 0.33 32.33 1585.81 35.31 5.65 549.71 34.66 163.38 8.79 2.99
11
3.2 300 6 1.45 914 32 0.33 32.30 1585.81 44.63 7.14 683.55 43.10 160.74 8.79 3.71
12
3.2 300 7 1.6 897 32 0.33 32.30 1585.81 52.97 8.47 796.16 50.20 157.75 8.79 4.33
60 % opening
13
2.6 300 1 0.25 986 26 0.33 26.33 1291.51 7.35 1.17 121.55 9.41 192.15 9.74 0.89
14
2.6 300 2 0.45 952 26 0.33 26.33 1291.51 15.20 2.43 242.54 18.77 185.52 9.74 1.79
15
2.6 300 4 1 898 26 0.33 26.33 1291.51 29.43 4.70 442.80 34.28 175.00 9.74 3.27
16
2.6 300 5 1.25 881 26 0.33 26.33 1291.51 36.78 5.88 543.03 42.04 171.69 9.74 4.01
17
2.6 300 6 1.4 843 26 0.33 26.33 1291.51 45.12 7.22 637.38 49.35 164.28 9.74 4.71
18
2.6 300 7 1.65 816 26 0.33 26.33 1291.51 52.45 8.39 717.56 55.56 159.02 9.74 5.31
80 % opening
19
2.2 300 1 0.25 943 22 0.33 22.33 1095.31 7.35 1.17 116.24 10.61 199.55 10.6 1.10
20
2.2 300 2 0.5 917 22 0.33 22.33 1095.31 14.71 2.35 226.08 20.64 194.05 10.6 2.14
21
2.2 300 4 1.2 848 22 0.33 22.33 1095.31 27.46 4.39 390.27 35.63 179.45 10.6 3.69
22
2.2 300 5 1.25 834 22 0.33 22.33 1095.31 36.78 5.88 514.06 46.93 176.48 10.6 4.87
23
2.2 300 6 1.45 809 22 0.33 22.33 1095.31 44.63 7.14 605.03 55.23 171.19 10.6 5.73
24
2.2 300 7 1.6 771 22 0.33 22.33 1095.31 52.97 8.47 684.33 62.47 163.15 10.6 6.48
100 % opening
25
2 300 1 0.35 917 20 0.33 20.33 997.21 6.37 1.02 97.97 9.82 203.37 11.1 1.06
26
2 300 2 0.55 903 20 0.33 20.33 997.21 14.22 2.27 215.21 21.58 200.26 11.1 2.34
27
2 300 4 1.2 836 20 0.33 20.33 997.21 27.46 4.39 384.75 38.58 185.40 11.1 4.19
27
2 300 5 1.25 806 20 0.33 20.33 997.21 36.78 5.88 496.80 49.81 178.75 11.1 5.41
29
2 300 6 1.4 780 20 0.33 20.33 997.21 45.12 7.22 589.75 59.14 172.98 11.1 6.43
30
2 300 7 1.6 755 20 0.33 20.33 997.21 52.97 8.47 670.12 67.20 167.44 11.1 7.31








Q = 0.0033 m3/sec
Sr.
No.
Pr.
Gauge
reading
(kg/cm
2
)
Flow
rate
(lpm)
Weight
(kg)
spring
balance
reading
(kg)
Speed
(rpm)
Pi/g
(m)
(Vi)
2

/2g
(m)
H
(m)
Power
(input)
(Watt)
Weight
(N)
Torque
(N m)
Power
(output)
(Watt)

(%)
Unit
Speed
(Nu)
Unit
Discharge
(Qu)
10
-04

Unit
Power
(Pu)
20 % opening
1
3.8 200 1 0.3 1246 38 0.14 38.14 1234.83 6.86 1.09 143.36 11.60 201.74 5.39 0.60
2
3.8 200 2 0.45 1205 38 0.14 38.14 1234.83 15.20 2.43 306.99 24.86 195.10 5.39 1.30
3
3.8 200 4 0.85 1128 38 0.14 38.14 1234.83 30.90 4.94 584.03 47.29 182.64 5.39 2.47
4
3.8 200 5 1.2 1080 38 0.14 38.14 1234.83 37.27 5.96 674.56 54.62 174.86 5.39 2.86
5
3.8 200 6 1.5 1054 38 0.14 38.14 1234.83 44.14 7.06 779.59 63.13 170.65 5.39 3.30
6
3.8 200 7 1.6 1046 38 0.14 38.14 1234.83 52.97 8.47 928.41 75.18 169.36 5.39 3.94
40 % opening
7
3.6 200 1 0.2 1205 36 0.14 36.14 1170.08 7.84 1.25 158.45 13.54 200.43 5.54 0.72
8
3.6 200 2 0.5 1180 36 0.14 36.14 1170.08 14.71 2.35 290.93 24.86 196.27 5.54 1.33
9
3.6 200 4 1 1125 36 0.14 36.14 1170.08 29.43 4.70 554.74 47.41 187.12 5.54 2.55
10
3.6 200 5 1.4 1100 36 0.14 36.14 1170.08 35.31 5.65 650.89 55.62 182.96 5.54 2.99
11
3.6 200 6 1.65 1090 36 0.14 36.14 1170.08 42.67 6.82 779.35 66.60 181.30 5.54 3.58
12
3.6 200 7 1.7 1066 36 0.14 36.14 1170.08 51.99 8.31 928.64 79.36 177.31 5.54 4.27
60 % opening
13
3.4 200 1 0.2 1162 34 0.14 34.14 1105.34 7.84 1.25 152.79 13.82 198.86 5.70 0.76
14
3.4 200 2 0.55 1139 34 0.14 34.14 1105.34 14.22 2.27 271.46 24.55 194.92 5.70 1.36
15
3.4 200 4 1.1 1094 34 0.14 34.14 1105.34 28.44 4.55 521.47 47.17 187.22 5.70 2.61
16
3.4 200 5 1.4 1083 34 0.14 34.14 1105.34 35.31 5.65 640.83 57.97 185.34 5.70 3.21
17
3.4 200 6 1.65 1054 34 0.14 34.14 1105.34 42.67 6.82 753.61 68.17 180.37 5.70 3.77
18
3.4 200 7 1.7 1033 34 0.14 34.14 1105.34 51.99 8.31 899.89 81.41 176.78 5.70 4.51
80 % opening
19
3.2 200 1 0.3 1134 32 0.14 32.14 1040.59 6.86 1.09 130.47 12.53 200.01 5.87 0.71
20
3.2 200 2 0.5 1110 32 0.14 32.14 1040.59 14.71 2.35 273.67 26.29 195.78 5.87 1.50
21
3.2 200 4 1.05 1063 32 0.14 32.14 1040.59 28.93 4.63 515.43 49.53 187.49 5.87 2.82
22
3.2 200 5 1.2 1057 32 0.14 32.14 1040.59 37.23 5.96 660.20 63.44 186.43 5.87 3.62
23
3.2 200 6 1.45 1034 32 0.14 32.14 1040.59 44.65 7.14 773.30 74.31 182.37 5.87 4.24
24
3.2 200 7 1.75 1011 32 0.14 32.14 1040.59 51.52 8.24 872.42 83.83 178.32 5.87 4.78

100 % opening
25
3 200 1 0.25 1118 30 0.14 30.14 975.85 7.35 1.17 137.82 14.12 203.62 6.07 0.83
26
3 200 2 0.5 1098 30 0.14 30.14 975.85 14.71 2.35 270.71 27.74 199.98 6.07 1.63
27
3 200 4 1.1 1057 30 0.14 30.14 975.85 28.44 4.55 503.83 51.63 192.51 6.07 3.04
27
3 200 5 1.2 1046 30 0.14 30.14 975.85 37.27 5.96 653.33 66.94 190.51 6.07 3.94
29
3 200 6 1.45 1018 30 0.14 30.14 975.85 44.63 7.14 761.33 78.01 185.41 6.07 4.60
30
3 200 7 1.7 995 30 0.14 30.14 975.85 51.99 8.31 866.79 88.82 181.22 6.07 5.23

APPENDIX - D
Experimental Analysis of Simple & Advanced Pelton Wheel

Q = 0.01 m
3
/sec
Sr. No.
Speed
( rpm )
% diff
Speed
Torque
( N m )
% diff
Torque
Power (output)
( watt )
% diff
Power
(output)
Efficiency

% diff
Efficiency
Simple Adva. Simple Adva. Simple Adva. Simple Adva.
20 % opening
1
1378 1183 14.15 0.94 1.09 -15.49 136.13 136.11 0.01 3.36 3.35 0.01
2
1347 1154 14.33 1.73 2.27 -31.01 244.28 275.03 -12.59 6.03 6.78 -12.59
3
1256 1046 16.72 4.09 4.55 -11.31 537.36 498.59 7.21 13.25 12.29 7.21
4
1241 1031 16.92 5.35 5.96 -11.50 694.31 643.96 7.25 17.13 15.88 7.25
5
1206 1021 15.34 7.78 7.14 8.20 981.79 763.58 22.23 24.22 18.83 22.23
6
1180 980 16.95 10.03 8.31 17.13 1238.42 853.72 31.06 30.55 21.05 31.06
40 % opening
7
1384 1189 14.09 1.09 1.09 0.40 158.54 136.80 13.71 4.57 3.94 13.71
8
1356 1163 14.23 2.36 2.35 0.49 335.17 286.74 14.45 9.67 8.27 14.45
9
1324 1114 15.86 5.25 4.70 10.43 727.14 549.31 24.46 20.98 15.85 24.46
10
1316 1106 15.96 6.45 5.96 7.61 888.57 690.80 22.26 25.64 19.93 22.26
11
1264 1079 14.64 8.50 7.06 16.94 1124.57 798.08 29.03 32.45 23.02 29.03
12
1270 1060 16.54 9.99 8.31 16.83 1328.11 923.42 30.47 38.32 26.64 30.47
60 % opening
13
1348 1153 14.47 1.22 1.09 10.48 171.79 132.66 22.78 5.25 4.05 22.78
14
1322 1129 14.60 2.82 2.27 19.36 389.51 269.07 30.92 11.91 8.23 30.92
15
1293 1083 16.24 4.69 4.55 3.01 634.91 516.23 18.69 19.42 15.79 18.69
16
1281 1071 16.39 7.00 6.04 13.75 938.96 677.74 27.82 28.72 20.73 27.82
17
1233 1048 15.00 7.91 7.06 10.78 1021.18 775.16 24.09 31.24 23.70 24.09
18
1226 1016 17.13 9.00 8.39 6.80 1155.14 893.43 22.66 35.33 27.32 22.66


80 % opening
19
1320 1125 14.77 0.74 1.17 -58.14 102.22 138.68 -35.67 3.33 4.51 -35.67
20
1299 1106 14.86 2.00 2.27 -13.40 272.16 263.59 3.15 8.86 8.57 3.15
21
1265 1055 16.60 4.25 4.63 -8.91 562.88 511.55 9.12 18.32 16.64 9.12
22
1254 1044 16.75 6.13 6.12 0.22 805.07 669.24 16.87 26.20 21.77 16.87
23
1211 1026 15.28 7.47 7.22 3.39 947.24 775.75 18.10 30.82 25.24 18.10
24
1206 996 17.41 8.87 8.31 6.36 1120.16 867.66 22.54 36.45 28.23 22.54
100 % opening
25
1305 1110 14.94 1.12 1.02 9.01 153.11 118.59 22.55 5.32 4.12 22.55
26
1281 1088 15.07 2.41 2.35 2.53 323.27 268.24 17.02 11.24 9.32 17.02
27
1247 1037 16.84 5.00 4.70 6.05 652.92 511.34 21.68 22.69 17.77 21.68
27
1240 1030 16.94 5.47 6.12 -11.96 709.43 660.26 6.93 24.66 22.95 6.93
29
1187 1002 15.59 7.40 7.29 1.49 919.36 765.84 16.70 31.96 26.61 16.70
30
1137 977 14.07 9.34 8.47 9.29 1111.25 867.17 21.96 38.63 30.14 21.96

Q = 0.0066 m3/sec
Sr. No.
Speed
( rpm )
% diff
Speed
Torque
( N m )
% diff
Torque
Power (output)
( watt )
% diff
Power
(output)
Efficiency
% diff
Efficiency
Simple Adva. Simple Adva. Simple Adva. Simple Adva.
20 % opening
1 1326 1131 14.71 1.45 1.41 2.78 201.28 167.31 16.88 9.54 7.86 17.62
2 1264 1071 15.27 2.11 2.67 -26.36 279.55 299.27 -7.05 13.25 14.06 -6.09
3 1162 952 18.07 4.55 5.18 -13.75 553.83 516.38 6.76 26.25 24.25 7.60
4 1095 885 19.18 6.41 6.75 -5.37 734.22 625.50 14.81 34.80 29.38 15.57
5 963 778 19.21 7.50 7.46 0.59 756.37 607.42 19.69 35.85 28.53 20.42
6 870 660 24.14 9.56 9.57 -0.13 870.31 661.75 23.96 41.25 31.08 24.65
40 % opening
7 1237 1038 16.09 1.10 1.26 -14.96 141.91 136.49 3.82 8.91 8.50 4.68
8 1171 982 16.14 2.13 2.51 -17.90 260.93 258.26 1.02 16.39 16.08 1.92
9 1085 916 15.58 4.33 5.10 -17.67 492.19 489.32 0.58 30.92 30.46 1.48
10 977 827 15.35 6.09 6.59 -8.28 622.35 570.92 8.26 39.10 35.54 9.09
11 956 783 18.10 6.96 7.14 -2.59 696.37 585.59 15.91 43.75 36.45 16.67
12 828 650 21.50 9.16 9.42 -2.83 793.94 641.04 19.26 49.88 39.91 19.99
60 % opening
13 1129 979 13.29 0.51 0.47 8.53 60.72 48.27 20.49 4.15 3.27 21.21
14 1066 908 14.82 2.53 2.67 -5.65 281.98 253.72 10.02 19.28 17.19 10.83
15 1045 856 18.09 4.49 4.87 -8.54 490.75 436.17 11.12 33.56 29.56 11.92
16 918 745 18.85 5.92 6.91 -16.70 568.95 538.80 5.30 38.91 36.51 6.15
17 886 713 19.53 6.71 7.06 -5.20 622.36 527.38 15.26 42.56 35.74 16.03
18 808 598 25.99 7.95 9.42 -18.53 672.10 589.75 12.25 45.96 39.97 13.04
80 % opening
19 1149 960 16.45 0.99 1.18 -18.92 119.33 118.35 0.82 8.95 8.80 1.72
20 1019 809 20.61 2.00 2.43 -21.42 213.45 206.11 3.44 16.01 15.32 4.31
21 919 726 21.00 3.88 4.87 -25.51 373.22 369.93 0.88 28.00 27.50 1.78
22 767 648 15.51 4.76 6.91 -45.22 381.98 468.65 -22.69 28.66 34.84 -21.58
23 751 626 16.64 6.23 7.06 -13.37 489.50 463.03 5.41 36.73 34.43 6.26
24 640 529 17.34 8.35 9.26 -10.92 559.23 513.01 8.26 41.96 38.14 9.09
100 % opening
25 1128 939 16.76 0.83 1.10 -32.41 98.08 108.04 -10.16 8.15 8.90 -9.16
26 1087 898 17.39 2.23 2.59 -16.28 253.42 243.54 3.90 21.06 20.06 4.76
27 1026 837 18.42 3.92 4.71 -20.00 421.50 412.73 2.08 35.03 33.99 2.96
27 925 756 18.27 5.59 6.75 -20.65 541.68 534.33 1.36 45.01 44.00 2.25
29 830 732 11.81 6.27 6.91 -10.22 544.64 529.40 2.80 45.26 43.60 3.67
30 793 620 21.82 8.25 9.10 -10.24 685.15 591.07 13.73 56.94 48.67 14.51






Q = 0.005 m3/sec
Sr. No.
Speed
(rpm)
% diff
Speed
Torque
(N m)
% diff
Torque
Power(output)
(Watt)
% diff
Power
(output)
Efficiency

% diff
Efficiency
Simple Adva. Simple Adva. Simple Adva. Simple Adva.
20 % opening
1
1188 938 21.04 1.52 1.09 28.41 189.33 107.92 43.00 12.32 7.02 43.00
2
1070 877 18.04 2.79 2.43 12.85 312.27 223.43 28.45 20.32 14.53 28.45
3
965 755 21.76 4.76 4.70 1.35 481.21 372.29 22.63 31.31 24.25 22.63
4
943 733 22.27 5.79 6.12 -5.63 571.88 469.87 17.84 37.21 30.57 17.84
5
889 704 20.81 7.02 7.37 -4.94 653.48 543.86 16.77 42.52 35.39 16.77
6
819 634 22.59 8.70 8.47 2.69 746.17 562.73 24.58 48.55 36.61 24.58
40 % opening
7
1255 1056 15.86 1.12 1.17 -4.72 146.76 130.17 11.30 9.25 8.20 11.30
8
1219 1030 15.50 2.55 2.43 4.83 325.76 262.41 19.45 20.54 16.54 19.45
9
1129 960 14.97 4.06 4.32 -6.40 479.77 441.82 7.91 30.25 27.86 7.91
10
1079 929 13.90 5.79 5.65 2.47 654.22 549.71 15.97 41.25 34.66 15.97
11
1019 914 10.30 7.17 7.14 0.48 765.15 683.55 10.66 48.25 43.10 10.66
12
972 897 7.72 8.66 8.47 2.17 880.82 796.16 9.61 55.54 50.20 9.61
60 % opening
13
1136 986 13.20 0.93 1.17 -25.76 110.62 121.55 -9.88 8.57 9.41 -9.88
14
1110 952 14.23 2.00 2.43 -21.27 232.80 242.54 -4.18 18.03 18.77 -4.18
15
1087 898 17.39 4.00 4.70 -17.44 455.34 442.80 2.75 35.26 34.28 2.75
16
986 881 10.65 5.54 5.88 -6.17 571.57 543.03 4.99 44.26 42.04 4.99
17
941 843 10.41 7.25 7.22 0.35 713.64 637.38 10.68 55.26 49.35 10.68
18
901 816 9.43 8.94 8.39 6.12 842.79 717.56 14.86 65.26 55.56 14.86
80 % opening
19
1132 943 16.70 0.77 1.17 -52.76 90.75 116.24 -28.10 8.29 10.61 -28.10
20
1083 917 15.33 1.84 2.35 -27.83 208.39 226.08 -8.49 19.03 20.64 -8.49
21
953 848 11.02 3.98 4.39 -10.27 397.10 390.27 1.72 36.25 35.63 1.72
22
919 834 9.25 5.60 5.88 -4.93 539.03 514.06 4.63 49.21 46.93 4.63
23
884 809 8.48 7.13 7.14 -0.10 659.98 605.03 8.33 60.25 55.23 8.33
24
836 771 7.78 8.67 8.47 2.30 758.56 684.33 9.79 69.25 62.47 9.79
100 % opening
25
1106 917 17.09 0.74 1.02 -38.25 85.41 97.97 -14.71 8.56 9.82 -14.71
26
1092 903 17.31 1.77 2.27 -28.45 201.98 215.21 -6.55 20.25 21.58 -6.55
27
1025 836 18.44 3.93 4.39 -11.77 421.37 384.75 8.69 42.25 38.58 8.69
27
891 806 9.54 5.76 5.88 -2.06 537.29 496.80 7.54 53.88 49.81 7.54
29
878 780 11.16 7.21 7.22 -0.09 662.93 589.75 11.04 66.48 59.14 11.04
30
830 755 9.04 8.75 8.47 3.24 760.42 670.12 11.87 76.25 67.20 11.87





Q = 0.0033 m3/sec
Sr. No.
Speed
(rpm)
% diff
Speed
Torque
(N m)
% diff
Torque
Power (output)
(Watt)
% diff
Power
(output)
Efficiency

% diff
Efficiency
Simple Adva. Simple Adva. Simple Adva. Simple Adva.
20 % opening
1
1496 1246 16.71 0.76 1.09 -44.16 118.39 143.36 -21.09 9.59 11.60 -21.09
2
1398 1205 13.81 2.01 2.43 -21.04 293.76 306.99 -4.51 23.79 24.86 -4.51
3
1338 1128 15.70 4.27 4.94 -15.57 598.63 584.03 2.44 48.48 47.29 2.44
4
1185 1080 8.86 5.61 5.96 -6.22 695.93 674.56 3.07 56.36 54.62 3.07
5
1162 1054 9.29 7.37 7.06 4.15 895.85 779.59 12.98 72.55 63.13 12.98
6
1128 1046 7.27 8.71 8.47 2.72 1028.00 928.41 9.69 83.25 75.18 9.69
40 % opening
7
1404 1205 14.17 0.86 1.25 -44.96 126.72 158.45 -25.04 10.83 13.54 -25.04
8
1369 1180 13.81 1.92 2.35 -22.68 274.47 290.93 -6.00 23.46 24.86 -6.00
9
1294 1125 13.06 4.26 4.70 -10.21 577.60 554.74 3.96 49.36 47.41 3.96
10
1202 1100 8.49 5.62 5.65 -0.62 706.45 650.89 7.86 60.38 55.62 7.86
11
1175 1090 7.23 7.20 6.82 5.29 885.63 779.35 12.00 75.69 66.60 12.00
12
1115 1066 4.39 8.64 8.31 3.86 1008.73 928.64 7.94 86.21 79.36 7.94
60 % opening
13
1312 1162 11.43 1.05 1.25 -19.26 143.93 152.79 -6.16 13.02 13.82 -6.16
14
1297 1139 12.18 2.31 2.27 1.56 313.05 271.46 13.28 28.32 24.55 13.28
15
1283 1094 14.73 4.22 4.55 -7.93 566.13 521.47 7.89 51.22 47.17 7.89
16
1188 1083 8.84 5.66 5.65 0.21 703.99 640.83 8.97 63.69 57.97 8.97
17
1113 1054 5.30 7.15 6.82 4.67 833.40 753.61 9.57 75.40 68.17 9.57
18
1068 1033 3.28 8.64 8.31 3.80 965.63 899.89 6.81 87.36 81.41 6.81
80 % opening
19
1323 1134 14.29 0.97 1.09 -12.49 134.18 130.47 2.76 12.89 12.53 2.76
20
1276 1110 13.01 2.18 2.35 -7.79 291.18 273.67 6.01 27.98 26.29 6.01
21
1168 1063 8.99 4.57 4.63 -1.31 558.70 515.43 7.74 53.69 49.53 7.74
22
1142 1057 7.44 6.13 5.96 2.77 732.68 660.20 9.89 70.41 63.44 9.89
23
1109 1034 6.76 7.17 7.14 0.36 831.76 773.30 7.03 79.93 74.31 7.03
24
1032 1011 2.03 8.60 8.24 4.24 929.47 872.42 6.14 89.32 83.83 6.14
100 % opening
25
1307 1118 14.46 0.73 1.17 -60.17 99.93 137.82 -37.92 10.24 14.12 -37.92
26
1287 1098 14.69 1.91 2.35 -23.06 257.23 270.71 -5.24 26.36 27.74 -5.24
27
1246 1057 15.17 4.00 4.55 -13.69 521.95 503.83 3.47 53.49 51.63 3.47
27
1131 1046 7.52 5.98 5.96 0.34 707.96 653.33 7.72 72.55 66.94 7.72
29
1079 1018 5.65 7.21 7.14 0.98 814.35 761.33 6.51 83.45 78.01 6.51
30
1007 995 1.19 8.53 8.31 2.55 898.76 866.79 3.56 92.10 88.82 3.56