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CPCCBC5001A Apply Building Codes and standards to the construction process for medium-rise construction projects V 2 June 2010

Part3
Contents

Unit 3 Classify Buildings ........................................................................................................... 2 The nature of a building according to use and arrangement is determined. .......................... 2 The BCA requirements for multiple classifications are identified and interpreted. .............. 2 3.1 The range of criteria that will ensure construction methods comply with the performance requirements of the BCA is determined. .......................................................... 2 Unit 4 Analyse and apply a range of solutions to a construction problem for compliance with the BCA. .................................................................................................................................... 3 Alternative solutions to a design or construction problem that will comply with the requirements of the BCA are discussed and proposed in accordance with company policies and procedures. ...................................................................................................................... 3 Performance-based solutions are identified and documented in accordance with the requirements of the BCA. ...................................................................................................... 7 Assessment methods referenced in the BCA to determine whether a building solution complies with performance requirements or Deemed-to-Satisfy (DTS) Provision of the BCA are analysed and applied. .............................................................................................. 7 The relevant documentation is identified and completed in accordance with the requirements of the BCA. ...................................................................................................... 9 Apply fire protection requirements. ..................................................................................... 11 Passive and active fire control elements required by the BCA and other legislation are identified. ............................................................................................................................. 11 The level of fire resistance required for the construction of various medium-rise buildings is determined. ....................................................................................................................... 16 BCA requirements with respect to passive and active fire protection to medium-rise buildings are identified and applied. .................................................................................... 17

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CPCCBC5001A Apply Building Codes and standards to the construction process for medium-rise construction projects V 2 June 2010

Unit3ClassifyBuildings
We have already mentioned the classification of buildings according to the BCA and how it relates to the sections and parts of the BCA and relevant Australian Standards In this section we will look more closely at classifying buildings based on its use, size and application as well as how multiple applications are identified. Thenatureofabuildingaccordingtouseandarrangementisdetermined. TheBCArequirementsformultipleclassificationsareidentifiedandinterpreted. Multi classifications can occur when the one building has two or more uses. The BCA outlines where multiple classification occurs Reading Read section A3.3 Multiple classification and A3.4 Parts with more than one classification and answer the following questions When must building be classified separately? Does each part classified separately have to meet the requirements of that classification? 3.1Therangeofcriteriathatwillensureconstructionmethodscomplywiththe performancerequirementsoftheBCAisdetermined. As a builder/project manager, you need to ensure that construction methods meet the requirements of the BCA. Failure to meet these requirements may result in legal action against you and you builders license. As a professional building practitioner, you are expected to be accurate in your judgment of the requirements of BCA. In previous units we discussed how to determine performance requirements and DTS provisions from the BCA. In this section you will learn how to determine the criteria of construction methods to comply with the performance requirements of the BCA. Lets look at the requirements for access and egress for medium-rise construction in a unit block of three stories including a car park underground. Refer to section D of the BCA. The objective, functional statements and performance requirements are stated.

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CPCCBC5001A Apply Building Codes and standards to the construction process for medium-rise construction projects V 2 June 2010

Unit4Analyseandapplyarangeofsolutionstoaconstruction problemforcompliancewiththeBCA.
As a builder/project manager, you need to ensure that construction methods meet the requirements of the BCA. Failure to meet these requirements may result in legal action against you and you builders license. As a professional building practitioner, you are expected to be accurate in your judgment of the requirements of BCA. In previous units we discussed how to determine performance requirements and DTS provisions from the BCA. In this section you will learn how to determine the criteria of construction methods to comply with the performance requirements of the BCA. Lets look at the requirements for access and egress for medium-rise construction in a unit block of three stories including a car park underground. Refer to section D of the BCA. The objective, functional statements and performance requirements are stated. Alternativesolutionstoadesignorconstructionproblemthatwillcomplywiththe requirementsoftheBCAarediscussedandproposedinaccordancewithcompany policiesandprocedures. As has been mentioned, the first step in using the BCA is to choose the means by which the building proposal will achieve compliance with the BCA. This will be by either: A deemed-to-satisfy solution; or An alternative solution; or A mixture of deemed-to-satisfy and alternative solutions. Deemed to Satisfy (DTS) provisions is the prescriptive solution that accompanies the BCA, which is deemed to meet the BCA performance requirements. They generally consist of the technical provisions of the previous BCA and contain many of the traditional construction methods that are commonly used. A building solution that meets the DTS provisions needs no further assessment for compliance with the performance requirements. The term alternative solution is a building solution that complies with the performance requirements by means other than the DTS provisions. Examples of this approach may include the use of differing methodologies or approaches such as those in fire engineering. Another example is the use of other international construction codes that differ from the Australian Standards referenced in the BCA DTS provisions. To ensure that an alternative solution, when using a building solution, meets the performance requirements, it must be assessed according to one or more of the specified assessment methods outlined in BCA Clause A0.9. The nature of the assessment method to be used will vary depending on the complexity of the alternative solution.

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CPCCBC5001A Apply Building Codes and standards to the construction process for medium-rise construction projects V 2 June 2010 Evidence of Suitability BCA Clause A2.2 allows the following evidence (in some cases subject to conditions) to be submitted in support of a proposal that a material, form of construction or design meets a performance requirement or a deemed-to-satisfy provision: i) A report from a Registered Testing Authority. ii) A current Certificate of Accreditation or Certificate of Conformity. iii) A certificate from a professional engineer. iv) A current certificate issued by a product certification body that has been accredited by the Joint Accreditation System of Australia and New Zealand (JAS-ANZ). v) A current Scientific Services Laboratory (SSL) Product Listing Data Sheet. vi) Any other form of documentary evidence that adequately demonstrates suitability for use. Deemed-to-satisfy or Assessment method? This Assessment Method involves a comparative analysis that would demonstrate (at minimum) at least equivalence with or as good as the DTS Provisions. This is achieved by assessing a DTS solution using an analytical methodology to determine a benchmark. An Alternative Solution can then be subject to the same analytical methodology to determine whether the Alternative Solution achieves the benchmark set by the DTS solution. The validation of an Alternative Solution by comparing it with the DTS Provisions is generally not an easy task. This is because, as outlined earlier, some of the DTS Provisions have been developed over time, based upon industry practices and traditional forms of construction. Therefore, the comparison of an Alternative Solution with the DTS Provisions may not be appropriate. In many cases the DTS Provisions are not quantifiable due to the above factors, thus preventing the validation of the Alternative Solution. Where this occurs, a degree of overlap occurs with the Expert Judgement Assessment Method, as a subjective opinion or judgement is required to be made by an expert in regards to the equivalence of an Alternative Solution with the DTS Provisions. Verification Methods A verification method is defined in the BCA as a test, inspection, calculation or other method that determines whether a building solution complies with the relevant performance requirements. It provides a methodology under which a building solution can be assessed, and includes a benchmark or predetermined acceptable criteria that the solution must achieve.

There are two types of verification methods specified in Clause A0.9: i) The verification methods contained in the BCA ii) Other verification methods as the appropriate authority accepts for determining compliance to the performance requirements. The verification methods contained in the BCA are CV1 and CV2 and are used for measuring radiant heat flux as part of assessing matters associated with fire spread between buildings. Other verification methods by definition allow almost any methodology or procedure to be used to verify an alternative solution, subject to that method being suitable and used in the appropriate way. An example, may be an overseas design standard or even, an Australian Standard covering design methodologies eg AS 3600 concrete structures. Expert Judgement who is an expert? The BCA defines an expert for the purposes of making expert judgement. The BCA definition of expert judgement is the judgement of a person who has the qualifications and Page 4 of 17

CPCCBC5001A Apply Building Codes and standards to the construction process for medium-rise construction projects V 2 June 2010 experience to determine whether a building solution complies with the BCA performance requirements or DTS provisions. In some instances, there can be a degree of overlap between expert judgement and other assessment methods. This is particularly the case with: i) The acceptance of documentary evidence complying with: ii) BCA Clause A2.2(a)(iii) - other appropriately qualified persons: and iii) Clause A2.2(a)(vi) - other documentary evidence; and iv) Comparative assessment with the DTS Provisions Prior to accepting an opinion or report using expert judgement as an assessment method, it is necessary to determine whether the person providing the report or opinion is an expert and can provide the necessary expert judgement. To determine if the report or opinion can be accepted, it would be necessary to assess the experts qualifications and experience relevant to the matter that needs consideration. If the person providing the report or opinion is considered by the approval authority to be appropriate to provide expert judgement, an approval authority can accept a report or opinion that concludes that a building component, material, design or system satisfies the relevant BCA performance requirements. Some problems can be associated with alternative solutions. The reading is from an article dated February 2003. By John Rakic. Read the article which relates to fire resistance of solid core doors and alternative solution to the DTS provisions. Is there a good argument for the problems related to generic interpretations?

The problem with tight fitting doors The use of performance-based alternative solutions and the practice of fire safety engineering has recently been under debate, including the issue of unit entry doors for sole occupancy apartments in high-rise residential buildings. Alternative solutions are resulting in the replacement of traditional fire-rated doors with an alternative door specification, often that of a self-closing and so-called tight fitting solid core door. These specific alternative solutions are based on the assumption that the automatic sprinkler system and other associated fire safety sub systems will, in fact, allow occupants to exit through the adjacent corridor before the onset of unsafe or untenable conditions. But will they? There is a possibly a serious misunderstanding in terms of the fire resistance and smoke leakage performance of a tight fitting solid core door and this door solution is not appropriate for life safety consideration, even in a sprinkler-controlled fire scenario. Fire safety practitioners, fire safety engineers, building surveyors and other interested parties need to understand the implications of moving outside the safety net of the deemed to satisfy requirements of the Building Code of Australia (BCA). In short, they need to specify products with proven performance, remembering that alternative solutions are meant to be performance-based designs. They cannot rely on products such as so-called tight fitting solid core doors especially when there is published information suggesting inadequate Page 5 of 17

CPCCBC5001A Apply Building Codes and standards to the construction process for medium-rise construction projects V 2 June 2010 performance. The cost for a door with acceptable performance criteria may, in fact, be comparable to that of the so-called tight fitting solid core doors, especially if the gaps or clearances are in fact defined in the specification and need to be carefully adhered to by the door installation company. It is not a true cost to look only at the cost of the materials. The installation cost also has a significant bearing on the overall cost. The BCA deemed to satisfy requirements for a so-called tight fitting and solid core door do not provide any associated definitions and this in itself is a problem for industry. Firstly, what is a solid core door? There is no definition in the BCA and there is no appropriate Australian Standard either. I have heard on many occasions that the timber door standards AS2688, AS2689 and AS1909 have definitions for solid core doors but they do not. It is my view that the term solid core door has evolved to differentiate against a hollow core door which is a door filled with a cellular, honeycomb type cardboard core. Doors typically available in Australia and referred to as solid core doors are doors constructed of solid core substrates that may include, for example, blockboard, particleboard or solid MDF. Some laminated cores incorporating MDF with a polystyrene infill to keep their weight down are being termedsemi-solid doors. Without an adequate BCA definition, the use solid core may mean different things to different people, and in terms of their relative performance in terms of fire resistance and resistance to smoke leakage in fire conditions (including sprinkler-controlled scenarios), will vary considerably. Secondly, what is the definition of tight fitting? Again, there is no definition in the BCA for this term. There are a number of areas of the door where clearances or door gaps can be, and should be, measured and these include the clearance around the door, (both the perimeter clearance and the clearance at the door bottom/threshold) and the gap or clearance between the frames doorstop and the face of the door leaf itself. One must be practical about the concept of installing and maintaining thetight fitting door, even if the definitions are given in a subsequent amendment of the BCA. Tight fitting installation practices are hard to control in the first place, and in practice, doors may settle on their hinges after commissioning, and the perimeter and frame doorstop clearances will change with general wear and tear of the door in service, and with thermal conditions in the building (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) not to mention issues with changes in floor finishes. Even with a tight fitting door and with an improved definition, and assuming clearances can be maintained, credible published research suggests that the performance of this type of door in relation to smoke spread should be of serious concern. Should a so-called tight fitting solid core door be in the BCA in the first place and why did it get there?

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Performancebasedsolutionsareidentifiedanddocumentedinaccordancewith therequirementsoftheBCA. There are several means by which an approval authority can assess whether a building solution, complies with the BCA. These are referred to as assessment methods and include the following (i) The use of clause A2.2 of the BCA. This clause allows the following evidence (in some cases subject to conditions) to be submitted in support of a proposal that a material, form of construction or design meets a performance requirement or a deemed-to-satisfy provisions) a report from a Registered Testing Authority. ii) a current Certificate of Accreditation or Certificate of Conformity. iii) a certificate from a professional engineer. iv) a current certificate issued by a product certification body that has been accredited by the Joint Accreditation System of Australia and New Zealand (JAS-ANZ). v) a current Scientific Services Laboratory (SSL) Product Listing Data Sheet. vi) any other form of documentary evidence that adequately demonstrates suitability for use.

AssessmentmethodsreferencedintheBCAtodeterminewhethera buildingsolutioncomplieswithperformancerequirementsorDeemed toSatisfy(DTS)ProvisionoftheBCAareanalysedandapplied.


Under the old BCA 90, assessing building applications was a relatively simple exercise as the various components of a design were prescribed and rigid. However using performance requirements under the BCA, the consent authority must now exercise professional judgement in assessing a proposal. In some instances this may be beyond the level of expertise of the assessing officer. It is therefore the applicants responsibility to provide sufficient information to the authority to allow an accurate assessment of a design to be made. The key to expediting this process is determining exactly what is sufficient information. In order to do this, the applicant, needs to meet with the approval authority to discuss the proposal and the approval process. This stage of the overall process is referred to as prelodgement consultation and it is considered to be essential for a successful application under the performance provisions of the BCA Pre-lodgement discussions are also beneficial to the approval authority for they have an opportunity to gain an appreciation of a proposal at a conceptual stage rather than being required to determine the propriety of a design after it is fully developed. They also have an opportunity to establish the credentials of any experts proposed to be used by the applicant. At the completion of these discussions the applicant should be aware of the views of the approval authority and the extent and content of required support documentation. The viability of proceeding with a proposal can be subsequently assessed with an enhanced degree of knowledge and confidence.

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CPCCBC5001A Apply Building Codes and standards to the construction process for medium-rise construction projects V 2 June 2010 To assist both the applicant and the approval authority, there are a number of support mechanisms available which can aid the assessment process.

These mechanisms include: registered testing authority reports, NBTC, CSIRO, NATA, BRANZ, etc; certificates of conformity or accreditation, ABCB or State Authorities; professional certification, appropriately qualified structural or fire engineer; JAS-ANZ product certification; SSL product listing, or any other form of documentary evidence The use of any of these mechanisms can either relieve the approval authority of the need to make a decision, or they can assist in convincing the authority of the propriety of an alternative solution. While many of these mechanisms are currently known to designers, it may assist to review some basic principles which should be applied to any submissions. In general terms, submissions should have the following characteristics: Clarity the approval authority needs to be able to understand what is being proposed, and why it is being proposed, in order to consider the consequences of the design. While these matters may be obvious to the designer, the authority may not have the same specific knowledge as the designer and therefore a clear description of the proposal is essential. Simplicity the designer should be able to demonstrate that the proposal is a suitable method of meeting the performance requirement without being unduly excessive. In some instances, compliance with performance requirements may be achieved by other aspects of design. For example, sprinklers are required to be provided in buildings where necessary. If it can be satisfactorily demonstrated by the applicant that it is not necessary to install sprinklers, then compliance with the performance requirement has been achieved. Validity the reasons for introducing the innovative design should be provided. These may be purely design related however, it is appropriate to have economic considerations as valid reasons for alternative solutions as this was one of the fundamental purposes for the introduction of BCA 96. Substantiation the applicant is required to demonstrate to the approval authority that the proposal can be technically supported. There are many methods of substantiating design criteria, or alternative solutions, including some of the support mechanisms referred to previously. Additionally, computer technology is used extensively to substantiate alternative solutions under BCA 96, particularly the application of appropriate fire engineering software. The fundamental objective in developing submissions in support of alternative solutions should be to leave no doubt. If you leave doubt, your application could be refused. In some instances it would be beneficial for designers to seek some preliminary professional advice (a second opinion on what you propose and how you can support this proposal), prior to discussing a proposal with the consent authority.

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Therelevantdocumentationisidentifiedandcompletedinaccordancewiththe requirementsoftheBCA. Performance based solutions can only be achieved by three ways. 1. Compliance with the Deemed to Satisfy Provisions 2. Formulating an alternate solution 3. A combination of both We have seen how the performance requirements are identified through the DTS provisions and how an alternate solution is created and verified through expert judgment. How are the performance requirements verified once the project has been completed? A building certifier can produce a verification certificate that the building complies with the BCA. Building certifiers A building certifier/surveyor is a building professional who performs building surveying and certification work on building structures. Building certifiers/surveyors may assess building plans for compliance with the Building Code of Australia Standards, and approve building plans and the inspection of building work for compliance with codes and local government planning requirements. Building certifiers need to be licensed under each State they operate in. Once the building has been inspected, a certifier can provide a letter declaring the building conforms to the requirements of the BCA according to the class. The next figure shows how a building is certified by a certifier.

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CPCCBC5001A Apply Building Codes and standards to the construction process for medium-rise construction projects V 2 June 2010
31 July 2006 The General Manager Department of Planning GPO Box 39, SYDNEY NSW 2001 Dear Sir/Madam, Re: Hill Grandstand at Sydney Cricket Ground Building Code of Australia Capability Statement Our company has been appointed as the Building Regulations Consultants for the re-development of the Hill Grandstand at the Sydney Cricket Ground. We have undertaken a preliminary assessment of the architectural drawings (Nos. A1010 to A1016 and A4000 dated 24 July 2006) against the deemed-to-satisfy (DTS) provisions of the Building Code of Australia (BCA). Building Description: The Hill Grandstand will be connected with the adjacent Churchill Stand to the east and the southern end of the OReilly Stand. These Grandstands form one (1) united building and must comply with the requirements of the BCA as a single building. The Grandstand will accommodate seating for approx. 12,372 persons over three (3) tier levels. A new entrance forecourt is included providing new turnstiles and vehicular access with escalators to a raised podium at the lower concourse level (level 3). All levels from 2 to 5 are served by 2 passenger lifts, a goods lift and 2 escalators. Pedestrian access/egress to the Hill Grandstand will be primarily via existing entry points adjacent to the Churchill stand off Driver Avenue. Additional pedestrian entry/egress will be provided via the adjacent Fox Studios site to the south of the SCG. The following BCA Parameters will apply to the re-development of Hill Grandstand at the SCG. These include: Building Use: Sporting Venue Class of Occupancy: 7a and 9b Type of Construction: Type A Rise in Storeys: Five (5) Storeys Contained: Five (5) Floor Area Greater than 8,000m2 Effective Height: Less than 25.0 Level Use Classification Level 2 (Ground) Car park, loading dock and back of house areas. 7a & 9b Level 3 (lower concourse) Public seating area and food service 9b Level 4 (Corporate areas) Public seating area, function areas and food service 9b Level 5 & 6 (Upper concourse) Public seating area 9b All public accessible areas of the Grandstand will be designed and constructed to comply with the place of public entertainment provisions of the BCA. The proposed re-development of the Hill Grandstand must comply with the relevant performance requirements of the BCA. Compliance can be achieved with the BCA by: (a) Complying with the Deemed-to-Satisfy (DTS) Provisions; or (b) Formulating an Alternative Solution which (i) complies with the performance requirements; or (ii) is shown to be at least equivalent to the DTS provisions; or (c) A combination of the above. I wish to advise our assessment has indicated compliance with the BCA will be achieved by a combination of compliance with the DTS provisions together with the documentation of alternative solutions in accordance with Clause A0.5 of the BCA, suitably prepared by an Accredited Fire Safety Engineer to achieve compliance with the performance standards of the BCA. Utilising the performance requirements of the BCA, the re-development of the Hill Grandstand will be subject to a performance based analysis in respect to perimeter fire brigade access, crowd safety and movement during evacuation phase, and smoke hazard management in consultation with the NSW Fire Brigade. After a review of the architectural plans, it is considered that compliance can be readily achieved with the Building Code of Australia. In summary, I wish to confirm that matters pertaining to compliance with the Building Code of Australia (BCA) will be suitably addressed prior to the Certification of Crown Development under Section 116G of the Environmental and Planning and Assessment Act 1979. Should you require further assistance or clarification please do not hesitate to contact the undersigned at your convenience. Yours sincerely Associate Director Accredited Certifier Grade 1 (BSAP)

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CPCCBC5001A Apply Building Codes and standards to the construction process for medium-rise construction projects V 2 June 2010

Applyfireprotectionrequirements.
Fire protection in buildings are an important part of the BCA. Section C of the BCA outlines the objectives of fire resistance The object of this section is to a) safeguard people from illness or injury due to a fire in a building: and b) safeguard occupants from illness or injury while evacuating a building during a fire: and c) facilitate the activities of emergency services personnel; and d) avoid the spread of fire between buildings; and e) protect other properties from physical damage caused by structural failure of a building as a result of fire. (BCA Section C01)

PassiveandactivefirecontrolelementsrequiredbytheBCAandotherlegislation areidentified. Make sure that you are familiar with the Glossary of terms before going any further. Fire The state of combustion in which inflammable material burns, producing heat, flames and often smoke. Fire Separation The use of a wall, that divides a storey or building, to resist the spread of fire or smoke. Fire Resistance Level (FRL) The grading period given in minutes for Structural Adequacy (ability to maintain load); Integrity (ability to prevent passage of flames and hot gases); and Insulation (ability to maintain surface temperature). It is expressed as 90/90/90. Building fire safety takes into account: safe egress (exit) from the building for occupants; facilities for fighting fire within buildings; prevention of spread of fire to adjoining properties; and access and egress for fire fighting personnel. The characteristics of each type of classification are linked to life safety as each of these classes has certain features that impact on an occupant's safe egress. Effective building fire safety must take into account characteristics of the persons who can be expected to occupy the building including:

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The various classes take into account the variable characteristics of occupants, thus the many differing requirements for types of building. For example, the egress capabilities of an aged care wing of a hospital would differ greatly to that of an office where most employees would be able to exit the building without any assistance. A further example of this is a primary school where the majority of occupants (children) would require direct supervision to escape as compared to a warehouse whose employees would not require the same level of supervision for egress. Characteristics of the building The Building Code also takes into account other essential issues which can affect the performance of the building, such as the construction characteristics of the building. All buildings fall into three classifications of construction, being Type A, B & C. Type A is the form of construction with the highest fire resistant requirements, while type C has the lowest. The relationship between occupancy class, type of construction, and number of storeys is illustrated by the following chart.

In addition to the type of construction used, many other components are required by the Building Code as the building size and complexity increases. Two examples are hose-reels and emergency lighting. The requirements for hose-reels and their locations vary, being dependent on the classification and size of the building. The requirements for emergency lighting are related to the classification of the building and the amount of floor area. Active and passive fire control elements The features within a building can be broken down into passive and active systems for building fire safety. Passive systems are the permanent fixtures of the building such as fire rated floors, ceilings, walls, fire-isolated exits and columns. Active systems are services and equipment such as exit signs, emergency lighting, hydrants, hose-reels, smoke control, sprinklers, smoke and heat detectors, voice alarms, and fire indicator panels. The combination of these creates the Fire Safety Package for a building. By looking at a model building an overview of the workings of the passive and active systems within the building can be made. For the purposes of this example, we will look at a class 5 (office) Page 12 of 17

CPCCBC5001A Apply Building Codes and standards to the construction process for medium-rise construction projects V 2 June 2010 multi-storey building. This will illustrate the functions of the various components of the building. It is important to note at this point that the Passive and Active systems within a building can be designed in many different ways to achieve the same objectives required for the structure. A fire starts at 12.00am on the third floor at a power point under a large desk in an archives section and quickly ignites files and assorted boxes stored under the desk. The archives section is vacant from 12.00am to 1.00pm due to the lunch break of the Archives Officer. For the purposes of the exercise, the assessment will be of a building without sprinklers. Active fire systems detect fire The smoke detection system would detect the smoke plume from the fire within 2 - 5 minutes of the fire starting. It is important to realise that detection of fire by the building occupants' senses of sight, smell and hearing are quite often the first form of detection. With the smoke detector alarm system engaged a general alarm will be raised. Smoke detectors can be located in the return air ducts of the air conditioning or at ceiling level dispersed throughout the building. This alarm can include direct alarm to brigade as well as to the whole building. The alarm would alert Fire Wardens within the building who would stand-by at their designated phones. The Fire Warden of the Floor where the incident began would investigate the fire and if able to, start fighting the fire. If not able to control fire the warden will begin evacuation of the floor and, in conjunction with other wardens, evacuate the building if necessary.

Passive systems Fire Resistance Level Fire Resistance Level (FRL) is the grading period given in minutes (expressed for example as 90/90/90) for: structural adequacy (ability to maintain load); integrity (ability to prevent passage of flames and hot gases); and insulation (ability to maintain surface temperature). The building itself has now initiated alarm. This then leads onto all the fire systems within the building acting in unison. The floor upon which the fire is burning has a 120/120/120 FRL (2 hours Fire Resistance Level). This is a grading in minutes in which it would maintain its structural adequacy, integrity and insulation. Structural adequacy is the ability to maintain stability and load-bearing capacity; integrity is the ability to resist the passage of flames and gases; and insulation is the ability to maintain surface temperature. Any surrounding structural members of the building would also have similar ratings. The exit stairs would have a 180/120/120 rating providing safe access for occupants for a two hour period. The exit stairs are referred to as fire isolated which means the stairs have a fire resisting shaft (including walls and roof). The passive members of the fire systems prevent the spread of the fire to adjoining floors and allow safe egress whilst ensuring the structure does not collapse or allow the spread of smoke.

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CPCCBC5001A Apply Building Codes and standards to the construction process for medium-rise construction projects V 2 June 2010 Active systems Air conditioning unit changes to exhaust mode The first detection of the fire sets a number of active systems in motion in the building. The air conditioning unit for the floor with the fire will alter its operation. The unit will go into a full exhaust mode drawing air from the floor. All other floors in the building will change to full return air mode. This ensures that a negative air pressure is maintained on the floor with the fire, drawing smoke out, and a positive air pressure is maintained on all other floors preventing the penetration of smoke. Depending on the design configuration chosen for the building stairwell, pressurisation may commence (see illustration below). Air is forced into the stairwell, creating a positive pressure, and preventing the penetration of smoke into the escape stairs. Emergency lighting and exit signs At this stage emergency lighting and exit signs provide sufficient illumination for safe evacuation of the building. The exit signs include directional signs indicating the path to exits for occupants. The lift system cannot be used for escape in a fire and a warning sign is displayed stating so for all occupants. The fire brigade only can override the lifts for use in access for the fighting of the fire and for the purpose of evacuating people with disabilities. Fire fighting equipment Facilities installed for the fire brigade to assist in the fighting of the fire include fire hydrants, hose-reels, extinguishers and the lift as a stretcher evacuation facility if designated as such.

The following event lines provide an insight into the sequence in which various events occur within the building. The first Event line illustrates the relationship between the development of a building fire, the progressive reduction of tenability and ability of occupants to escape.

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The second Event line illustrates the relationship between: the Fire; the Passive systems; the Active systems; and the People (occupant movement), and the sequence of events.

In summary, Passive fire systems are those that prevent fire from spreading or protect persons by holding back the fire until evacuation can occur. Active fire systems are those that can actively fight the fire or put the fire out or warn before it spreads such as a sprinkler system of fire hydrants etc.

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CPCCBC5001A Apply Building Codes and standards to the construction process for medium-rise construction projects V 2 June 2010 Theleveloffireresistancerequiredfortheconstructionofvariousmediumrise buildingsisdetermined. To determine the fire resistance requirements for medium rise construction, you need to interpret Section C, D and E of the BCA Section C determines the fire resistance for C1 Fire resistance and stability C2 Compartmentation and separation C3 Protection of openings Section D Access and Egress D1 Provision for escape D2 Construction of exits D3 Access for people with disabilities Section E Services and equipment E1 Firefighting equipment E2 Smoke hazard management E3 Lift installation E4 Emergency lighting, exit signs and warning systems. By analyzing the performance requirements we can then determine what is necessary depending on the class of building.

So far we have determined the performance requirements for a particular class of building for fire resistance. We now need to have a look at the DTS provisions to determine fire resistance details. Section C1 Fire resistance and stability. Section C1.1 determines the type of fire resisting construction required Table C1.1 Determines the type of construction required which then determines the fireresistant classification. In other words the level of risk. The level of risk depends upon the rise in stories and the class of building.

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Self assessment not assessed 1. Look at table C1.1 and determine type of fire-resisting construction for the following Circle the correct answer Class 2 of two stories = Class 5 of 1 storey =

A A

B B

C C

D D

2. How is the rise in stories determined? (C1.2) 3. What happens in the case of multiple classifications? (C1.3, C1.4) 4. What are the concessions for class 2.3 or 9c buildings?

BCArequirementswithrespecttopassiveandactivefireprotectiontomediumrise buildingsareidentifiedandapplied. DTS provisions for Passive fire resistance These requirements are outlines in section C and D of the BCA Section C refers to the safeguard of persons when a fire occurs by slowing or preventing the fire from spreading.

Attempt Assessment Event 3 and 4

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