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0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 The Digital Abstraction 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0


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Reading: Chapter 5 of A&L

6.002x

CIRCUITS AND ELECTRONICS

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Review
l Discretize matter by observing lumped matter discipline

Lumped Circuit Abstraction

l Analysis tool kit


KVL/KCL, composition, node, superposition, Thvenin, Norton
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In this Sequence
Discretize value Digital abstraction

Interestingly, we will see shortly that the tools learned in the previous three lectures are sufficient to analyze simple digital circuits

But first, why digital? In the past


Analog signal processing R1 +V 1 R2 +V 2
+

R1 +V 1 R2 +V 2
Shorthand notation (from node method)

V0

V0
-

V1

and V2 might represent the outputs of two sensors, for e.g.

Why digital?
Analog signal processing R1 +V 1 R2 + V2
V0

The above is an adder circuit.


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Noise Problem with Analog


t
V0

+V 1

+ V2 t Receiver: huh?

Noise hampers our ability to distinguish between small differences in value e.g. between 3.1V and 3.2V.

Idea: Value Discretization (or lumped values)


Restrict values to be one of two

like two digits

0 and 1

Why is this discretization useful?

Digital System
sender VS
5 V 0 1 0 HIGH 2.5 V 0V
LOW

receiver VR
0 1 0 5V

2.5 V 0V

Digital System
With noise
sender VS VR receiver

VS
0 1 0 0.2 V 5V 2.5 V 0V

VR
0 1 0 2.5 V 0V
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5V

Digital System

Vs
0 1 0 5V 2.5 V 0V

Better noise immunity Lots of noise margin For 1: noise margin 5 V to 2.5 V = 2.5 V For 0: noise margin 0V to 2.5 V = 2.5 V
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The Big Picture


The world
The EECS playground (lump matter)
Linear circuits Digital land (lump value)

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Digital System Sender-Receiver Contract


noise sender VS
VN

VR

receiver

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Voltage Thresholds and Logic Values


5V

sender

receiver

But, but, but What about 2.5V?

0V

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Hmmm Idea! Create no mans land or forbidden region


5V

sender

receiver

Remember, we can do so with impunity because it is our choice as to what discipline we agree on in our digital playground

0V

Does this work?

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No Mans Land or Forbidden Region


5V

1: VH 3V

1 sender
3V 2V

forbidden region

V H

1 receiver 0 0: V L 2V

Wheres the noise margin? What if the sender sent 1:

VH

V L

0
0V
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Hold the Sender to Tougher Standards!


5V

sender

receiver

0V

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Noise Margins
5V 1 sender 0
V 0H

1 noise margin: 0 noise margin: 1


Together, the VOH, VIH, VOL, VIL thresholds define a discipline or standard that digital devices follow so they can talk to each other

Noise margins

V IH V IL

receiver 0

V 0L

0V

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Noise Immunity
sender 0 1 0
5V V 0H V V V IH IL

0L 0V

t
0 1 0 1

receiver

5V V 0H V V V IH IL

0L 0V

Digital systems follow static discipline: if inputs to the digital system meet valid input thresholds, then the system guarantees its outputs will meet valid output thresholds.
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Processing Digital Signals


Recall, we have only two values

1,0

Map naturally to logic: T, F Can also represent numbers What is 1011? Check Chapter 5.6 of A&L
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Processing Digital Signals


Boolean Logic If X is true and Y is true Then Z is true, else Z is false.

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Processing Digital Signals

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What is the Output Of This Gate?


X t Y t Z t
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X Y Z = X Y

Combinational Gate Abstraction


n Adheres to static discipline n Outputs are a function of X Y Z

inputs alone.

Digital logic designers do not have to care about what is inside a gate.
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Logic Gates
X Y Z AND gate

X Y
0 0 1 1

0 1 0 1

0 0 0 1

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Another Gate Example


If (A is true) OR (B is true) then C is true else C is false

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Digital Circuits
Implement: output = A + B C

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Representing Numbers

Numbers larger than 1 can be represented using multiple binary digits and coding, much like using multiple decimal digits to represent numbers greater than 9.

The binary number 101 has decimal value:

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A Two-Bit Adder Circuit

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Logic Gates
X Y Z AND gate

X Y
0 0 1 1

0 1 0 1

0 0 0 1

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Another Gate Example


If (A is true) OR (B is true) then C is true else C is false

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Digital Circuits
Implement: output = A + B C

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Representing Numbers

Numbers larger than 1 can be represented using multiple binary digits and coding, much like using multiple decimal digits to represent numbers greater than 9.

The binary number 101 has decimal value:

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A Two-Bit Adder Circuit

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Demo

Z = X Y X Y Z

Z
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