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## 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 The Digital Abstraction 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0

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Reading: Chapter 5 of A&L

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## CIRCUITS AND ELECTRONICS

0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 00 1

Review
l Discretize matter by observing lumped matter discipline

## l Analysis tool kit

KVL/KCL, composition, node, superposition, Thvenin, Norton
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In this Sequence
Discretize value Digital abstraction

Interestingly, we will see shortly that the tools learned in the previous three lectures are sufficient to analyze simple digital circuits

## But first, why digital? In the past

Analog signal processing R1 +V 1 R2 +V 2
+

R1 +V 1 R2 +V 2
Shorthand notation (from node method)

V0

V0
-

V1

## and V2 might represent the outputs of two sensors, for e.g.

Why digital?
Analog signal processing R1 +V 1 R2 + V2
V0

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## Noise Problem with Analog

t
V0

+V 1

+ V2 t Receiver: huh?

Noise hampers our ability to distinguish between small differences in value e.g. between 3.1V and 3.2V.

## Idea: Value Discretization (or lumped values)

Restrict values to be one of two

0 and 1

## Why is this discretization useful?

Digital System
sender VS
5 V 0 1 0 HIGH 2.5 V 0V
LOW

0 1 0 5V

2.5 V 0V

Digital System
With noise
sender VS VR receiver

VS
0 1 0 0.2 V 5V 2.5 V 0V

VR
0 1 0 2.5 V 0V
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5V

Digital System

Vs
0 1 0 5V 2.5 V 0V

Better noise immunity Lots of noise margin For 1: noise margin 5 V to 2.5 V = 2.5 V For 0: noise margin 0V to 2.5 V = 2.5 V
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## The Big Picture

The world
The EECS playground (lump matter)
Linear circuits Digital land (lump value)

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noise sender VS
VN

VR

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5V

sender

0V

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## Hmmm Idea! Create no mans land or forbidden region

5V

sender

Remember, we can do so with impunity because it is our choice as to what discipline we agree on in our digital playground

0V

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## No Mans Land or Forbidden Region

5V

1: VH 3V

1 sender
3V 2V

forbidden region

V H

1 receiver 0 0: V L 2V

VH

V L

0
0V
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5V

sender

0V

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Noise Margins
5V 1 sender 0
V 0H

## 1 noise margin: 0 noise margin: 1

Together, the VOH, VIH, VOL, VIL thresholds define a discipline or standard that digital devices follow so they can talk to each other

Noise margins

V IH V IL

V 0L

0V

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Noise Immunity
sender 0 1 0
5V V 0H V V V IH IL

0L 0V

t
0 1 0 1

5V V 0H V V V IH IL

0L 0V

Digital systems follow static discipline: if inputs to the digital system meet valid input thresholds, then the system guarantees its outputs will meet valid output thresholds.
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## Processing Digital Signals

Recall, we have only two values

1,0

Map naturally to logic: T, F Can also represent numbers What is 1011? Check Chapter 5.6 of A&L
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## Processing Digital Signals

Boolean Logic If X is true and Y is true Then Z is true, else Z is false.

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X t Y t Z t
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X Y Z = X Y

## Combinational Gate Abstraction

n Adheres to static discipline n Outputs are a function of X Y Z

inputs alone.

Digital logic designers do not have to care about what is inside a gate.
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Logic Gates
X Y Z AND gate

X Y
0 0 1 1

0 1 0 1

0 0 0 1

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## Another Gate Example

If (A is true) OR (B is true) then C is true else C is false

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Digital Circuits
Implement: output = A + B C

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Representing Numbers

Numbers larger than 1 can be represented using multiple binary digits and coding, much like using multiple decimal digits to represent numbers greater than 9.

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Logic Gates
X Y Z AND gate

X Y
0 0 1 1

0 1 0 1

0 0 0 1

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## Another Gate Example

If (A is true) OR (B is true) then C is true else C is false

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Digital Circuits
Implement: output = A + B C

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Representing Numbers

Numbers larger than 1 can be represented using multiple binary digits and coding, much like using multiple decimal digits to represent numbers greater than 9.

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Demo

Z = X Y X Y Z

Z
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