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SAP SCM 5.

0 Add-On
Transportation Management (TM)

ADDON.NDAPOVS

Release 500
SAP Online Help 29.08.2006

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SAP SCM 5.0 Add-On Transportation Management (TM)........................................................ 7


Transportation Management.................................................................................................. 8
Master Data and Settings................................................................................................. 11
Integration of Master Data ............................................................................................ 12
Integration of Transaction Data .................................................................................... 14
TP/VS-Specific Customizing Settings in SAP R/3 ........................................................ 15
TP/VS-Specific Customizing Settings in SAP APO ...................................................... 17
Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS) ..................................................... 18
Supported Processes ................................................................................................... 20
Returns Planning....................................................................................................... 21
SNP Stock Transport Order Planning ....................................................................... 23
Dynamic Route Determination from the ERP System .............................................. 25
Master Data for TP/VS.................................................................................................. 27
TP/VS Resources...................................................................................................... 28
Vehicle Resource .................................................................................................. 29
Compartment ..................................................................................................... 31
Examples of Compartments .............................................................................. 32
Trailer..................................................................................................................... 36
Means-of-Transport Combination.......................................................................... 37
TP/VS-Relevant Transportation Lane Settings ......................................................... 39
Cost Profile................................................................................................................ 41
Example of a Cost Function .................................................................................. 43
Capacity Decrease ................................................................................................ 44
Definition of Schedules ............................................................................................. 45
Maintaining Itineraries ........................................................................................... 47
Maintaining Schedule Validity ............................................................................... 48
Maintaining Schedules .......................................................................................... 49
Definition of Transportation Zone Hierarchies .......................................................... 51
Definition of Transshipment Hierarchies ................................................................... 53
Consolidation ................................................................................................................ 55
Consolidation Strategy .............................................................................................. 56
Order Split Based on Freight Units............................................................................... 57
Split Rule ................................................................................................................... 59
Dimensions and Units of Measurement ................................................................ 61
Example of Proportional Split ................................................................................ 63
Manual Creation of Freight Units .............................................................................. 65
Interactive Planning ...................................................................................................... 67
Planning View ........................................................................................................... 69
Using the Planning Boards .................................................................................... 72

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Displaying Routes for Shipments .......................................................................... 73


Maintaining Shipments Manually .............................................................................. 75
Maintaining Multimodal Shipments Manually............................................................ 77
Manual Order Combining .......................................................................................... 79
Changing Delivery Dates/Times in SAP R/3 from TP/VS ......................................... 81
Status Overview ........................................................................................................ 83
Optimization .................................................................................................................. 84
Optimization Data...................................................................................................... 86
Total Costs ................................................................................................................ 87
Initial Solution............................................................................................................ 88
Executing Interactive Optimization............................................................................ 89
Editing the Optimization Profile................................................................................. 91
Demand Horizon and Planning Horizon in Optimization........................................... 92
Constraints for Optimization...................................................................................... 94
Definition of Windows................................................................................................ 97
Date Constraints for Delivery Date........................................................................ 99
Dynamic Route Determination.................................................................................... 101
Route Determination Profile .................................................................................... 104
Simulation of Dynamic Route Determination .......................................................... 106
Definition of Compatibilities ........................................................................................ 107
Condition..................................................................................................................... 109
Transportation Service Provider Selection ................................................................. 111
Strategies ................................................................................................................ 114
Strategy Determination........................................................................................ 117
Cost Calculation for Continuous Moves .............................................................. 118
Business Share ....................................................................................................... 119
Check Against Transportation Allocations .............................................................. 120
Settings for the Check Against Transportation Allocations ................................. 122
Definition of Transportation Lanes .......................................................................... 125
Optimization as Part of TSP Selection.................................................................... 126
Upgrade of TSP Selection Parameters................................................................... 127
Planned Shipment Release ........................................................................................ 128
Collaborative Transportation Planning ....................................................................... 129
Monitoring of Shipment Tenderings ........................................................................ 134
Delivery and Shipment Deletion ................................................................................. 136
Control Rule ................................................................................................................ 137
Planning in the Background........................................................................................ 139
Additional Functions ................................................................................................... 140
Error Handling/Monitoring ....................................................................................... 141
Monitoring of VS Alerts ........................................................................................... 143

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Editing Field Contents ............................................................................................. 146


Authorizations in TP/VS .......................................................................................... 148
Transfer of Planned Shipments to SAP R/3................................................................... 149
Transportation and Shipment Scheduling in TP/VS ................................................... 150
Monitor for OLTP Publications.................................................................................... 152
Transportation Management in EWM ................................................................................ 154
Shipment ........................................................................................................................ 155
Freight Document........................................................................................................... 157
Creation of Freight Documents ...................................................................................... 158
Integration of TM with the Loading Process................................................................... 160
Printer and Form Determination in Transportation Management................................... 161
Authorizations in Transportation Management .............................................................. 162
Ocean Carrier Booking................................................................................................... 163
Performing Ocean Carrier Booking ............................................................................ 165
Monitoring and Tracking Using SAP EM .................................................................... 166
Printer and Form Determination for Ocean Carrier Booking ...................................... 168

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SAP SCM 5.0 Add-On Transportation Management


(TM)
Purpose
SAP SCM 5.0 Add-On TM enhances an SCM system in the following areas:

● Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS)

● Transportation Management (TM) in Extended Warehouse Management (EWM)

Introductory Notes
You must install the SAP SCM 5.0 Add-On TM. For more information, see Installation Note
974250.

Integration
The Add-On adds the following subcomponent to the SCM-APO-VS component:

● SCM-APO-VS-CT Compartments and Trailers


The Add-On adds the following subcomponent to the SCM-EWM-TM component:

● SCM-EWM-TM-OB Ocean Carrier Booking

Features
Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS):
The following new functions are available in TP/VS:

● Planning with compartments [Seite 31] (see also Examples of Compartments [Seite
32])

● Planning with trailers [Seite 36]

● Definition of means-of-transport combinations [Seite 37]

● Definition of decreasing capacities [Seite 44]


The following sections have been changed as a result of these new functions:

● Vehicle Resource [Seite 29]

● Cost Profile [Seite 41]

● Dynamic Route Determination [Seite 101]

● Constraints for Optimization [Seite 94]

● Initial Solution [Seite 88]

● Condition [Seite 109]

TM in Extended Warehouse Management (EWM):


In TM in EWM, you can now book capacity on a ship for sea transportation. You can use SAP
Event Management (SAP EM) to track the individual steps in this process. For more
information, see Ocean Carrier Booking [Seite 163].

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Transportation Management
Purpose
You use this process to plan, optimize, and execute the complete transportation process
between companies in a detailed manner. You execute transportation planning in SAP
Advanced Planning and Optimization (SAP APO) using the component Transportation
Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS). The orders (sales orders, purchase orders, returns, or
stock transport orders) and deliveries that you have created in SAP R/3 and transferred to
SAP APO using SAP APO Core Interface (CIF) form the basis for planning. The result of
TP/VS planning are planned shipments that you transfer to SAP R/3 after planning is
complete. There you use the SAP R/3 component Logistics Execution (LE) for transportation
execution.

■ To monitor your shipments, you can connect SAP Event Management


(SAP EM).

■ To evaluate the transportation process, you can connect SAP Business


Information Warehouse (SAP BW).

Prerequisites
● You have SAP APO and SAP R/3 4.6C or higher. You can use SAP R/3 4.6B after
consultation with SAP.

● You have already executed the steps described under Master Data and Settings [Seite
11].

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Process Flow
Transportation
Transportation Planner
Service Provider

R/3 APO
EDI

Plan shipments
Transfer orders manually or using
(e.g. sales orders, the optimizer
purchase orders,
stock transport
orders) and deliveries
Check planning
situation

Select
transportation
service provider

Determine and
correct deadline
differences

Release
planned shipments

Tender planned Accept or reject


shipments (optional) planned shipments

System creates Check and trigger


deliveries and delivery generation
shipments and transfer
planned shipments

Execute
shipments
(picking, loading,
settlement…)

1. You transfer the transaction data [Seite 14], that is, orders and deliveries, from SAP R/3
to SAP APO.
2. You execute transportation planning in TP/VS. When doing this you assign the orders
and deliveries to vehicle resources [Seite 29]. The system uses this assignment to
generate planned shipments automatically. When creating planned shipments the
system takes various constraints into account, for example, vehicle capacities and
deadlines.
You can execute transportation planning manually [Seite 75] or you can use the TP/VS
optimizer [Seite 84].
3. You check the planning situation. Interactive planning offers planning boards where you
can display all planning objects (orders, resources, and planned shipments) in a
graphical format. You can also continue to manually process planned shipments that
the optimizer has created.

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4. You can then assign the required transportation service provider to your planned
shipments. To do this you select transportation service providers [Seite 111], either
manually or in the background.
5. You can determine and rectify deadline differences between sales orders or deliveries
and the corresponding shipments in the following ways:

○ If you plan planned shipments for sales orders, you can use backorder
processing [Extern] from the SAP APO component Global Availability Check
(GATP) to check the deadlines for these sales orders.

○ If you plan planned shipments for deliveries, you can change delivery
deadlines in SAP R/3 [Seite 81] from within TP/VS.
6. When you have finished planning, you release the planned shipments. Released
planned shipments are fixed, that is, you can no longer change them manually.
Releasing [Seite 128] a planned shipment is a prerequisite for tendering the shipments
to an external transportation service provider (collaborative transportation planning
[Seite 129]).
7. If you have already assigned a transportation service provider to your planned
shipments and have set up cooperative transportation planning for this transportation
service provider, the system sends a tender to this transportation service provider when
the planned shipments are released. The transportation service provider can accept or
reject the planned shipments that have been tendered or suggest a change to the
deadline.
8. After planning has been completed, you trigger the generation of deliveries in SAP R/3
within TP/VS, either manually or in the background. As a result, deliveries are
automatically generated in SAP R/3 for the orders for which planned shipments exist.
9. You check in TP/VS either manually or in the background if deliveries have been
created in SAP R/3 for all the orders for which planned shipments have been created.
Only if this is the case can you transfer the planned shipments to SAP R/3.
10. You transfer [Seite 149] the planned shipments to SAP R/3 either manually or in the
background.The shipments are created automatically in SAP R/3.
11. You use the SAP R/3 component Logistics Execution (LE) for transportation execution.
In the case of sales orders, this covers picking, loading, and freight cost processing, for
example. Moreover, you can print shipping documents and perform dangerous goods
checks where appropriate. For more information about transportation execution, see
the documentation for the component Logistics Execution (LE).

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Master Data and Settings


Purpose
In this process you create the master data required for transportation management [Seite 8]
and make the Customizing settings.

Prerequisites
You have integrated SAP R/3 and SAP APO [Extern].

Process Flow
Master Data and Settings in SAP R/3
...

1. You make the TP/VS-specific Customizing settings [Seite 15].


2. You define the master data for the transportation management process and transfer it
to SAP APO using SAP APO Core Interface (CIF). For more information, see
Integration of Master Data [Seite 12].

Master Data and Settings in SAP APO


...
...

1. You make the TP/VS-specific Customizing settings [Seite 17].


2. You define the TP/VS-specific master data [Seite 27]. You need this data in addition to
the master data transferred from SAP R/3.
3. If you want to monitor alerts, define a VS alert profile [Extern].
4. If you want to use geocoding, connect a geocoding program to SAP APO. For more
information, see Geocoding [Extern].

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Integration of Master Data


Purpose
In this process you create the master data required for transportation management [Seite 8] in
SAP R/3 and you transfer this data to SAP Advanced Planning and Optimization (SAP APO)
using SAP APO Core Interface (CIF).

Process
...

1. You create the following master data in SAP R/3:

○ Customers

○ Materials

○ Vendors (for inbound delivery processes)

○ Plants
Make sure that you specify an address, since geocoding [Extern] in SAP APO
uses the address data (country and region) defined in SAP R/3.
In SAP R/3 Customizing you assign a node type to the plant, for example, a
plant or distribution center. To do this, choose Production → Distribution
Resource Planning (DRP) → Basic Settings → Maintain assignment of node
type – plant. By doing this you define the location type in SAP APO to which the
plant defined in SAP R/3 corresponds.

○ Shipping points
Shipping points are mapped in SAP APO as locations of the type Shipping Point
and are taken into account as source locations for transportation planning in the
Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS) component. You can use
shipping points to filter orders in the optimization profile.
If you want to use shipping points as source locations in TP/VS, you have to set
the Use Shipping Point as Source Location indicator in Customizing for TP/VS
under Basic Settings → Basic Settings for Vehicle Scheduling.

Shipping points are integrated in the CIF integration model as of SAP ERP
Central Component 6.0.

○ Transportation zones
If you want to transfer a large number of customers, you create transportation
zones in which you group multiple customers. The transportation zone is
mapped as a location in SAP APO with the location type 1005 (transportation
zone). You assign the customers to the transportation zone using a hierarchy
[Seite 51].

○ Service provider (freight forwarder)


First you create the service provider. To do so, in SAP R/3 choose Logistics →
Logistics Execution → Master Data → Partner → Service Agent → Create.
You then assign this service provider to an account group from the SAP R/3
vendor master. To do so, in SAP R/3, choose Integration with
Other SAP Components → Advanced Planning and Optimization →
Application-Specific Settings and Enhancements → Settings and Enhancements
for Shipments → Assign Vendor Account Group to APO Location Type.

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Alternatively, you can call the table CIFVENTYPE in the Data Browser
(transaction SE16).
i. You choose an account group for SAP R/3.

You can use the account group 0005 (Freight Forwarder) that has been
predefined by SAP. Alternatively, you can define your own account
groups in SAP R/3 Customizing.
ii. Choose TSP (1020) as the location type for SAP APO.
2. You transfer the master data to SAP APO.
3. You check the data that has been transferred in SAP APO.

See also:
Integration of Master Data [Extern]

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Integration of Transaction Data


Purpose
In this process you create the transaction data, for example orders, required for transportation
management [Seite 8] in SAP R/3 and transfer it to SAP APO using SAP APO Core Interface
(CIF).

Prerequisites
You have created the master data [Seite 12] required for transportation management in SAP
R/3.

Process Flow
...

1. You create stocks. From the SAP Easy Access screen choose Logistics → Materials
Management → Inventory Management → Goods Movement → MIGO → Goods
Movement.
2. You create an order, for example, a standard order. From the SAP Easy Access screen
choose Logistics → Sales and Distribution → Sales → Order → Create. Note the order
number.
3. You create an active integration model that contains, for example, the availability check,
sales orders, and warehouse stock and transfer this data to SAP APO.
4. You check the data that is transferred to SAP APO, for example, the stock and order for
the material, in the PP/DS product view [Extern].

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TP/VS-Specific Customizing Settings in SAP R/3


Use
The following section describes the TP/VS-specific Customizing settings in SAP R/3 that you
must make for transportation management [Seite 8]. For more information about the individual
activities, see the Implementation Guide (IMG).

Activities
...

1. You define the transportation relevance. You can only create shipments in SAP R/3 for
transportation-relevant deliveries.
You use the delivery item type and the delivery type to define the transportation
relevance of inbound and outbound deliveries under Logistics Execution →
Transportation → Shipments → Maintain Transportation Relevance.
You also define a transportation-relevant route in the case of outbound deliveries.
i. You define a route under Sales and Distribution → Basic Functions →
Routes.
ii. You define this route as being relevant to transportation under Logistics
Execution → Transportation → Shipments → Maintain Transportation
Relevance.
2. You define the following number ranges under Logistics Execution → Transportation →
Shipments → Define Number Ranges for Shipments:

○ An external number range for the planned shipments that you create in SAP
APO that agrees with the internal number range in SAP APO.

○ A number range for the shipments that are automatically created in SAP R/3
after the transfer.
3. You define shipment types that are relevant, for example, for determining the number
ranges under Logistics Execution → Transportation → Shipments → Define Shipment
Types.
Set the indicators Do Not Adopt Stages and No Legs to Be Determined.
To transfer your planned shipments to SAP R/3 and to be able to create shipments
there, you must assign the shipment types in SAP APO Customizing for the component
Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS) under Interfaces → Determine
Shipment Type.
4. You define transportation planning points under Enterprise Structure → Definition →
Logistics Execution → Maintain Transportation Planning Point.
You then assign a shipping point and shipping type for determining the transportation
planning point to these transportation planning points. Choose Logistics Execution →
Transportation → Interfaces → Transportation Planning Point Determination.

You use the transportation planning point in the integration model to define
which planned shipments are to be transferred to SAP APO.
5. You define packaging materials (optional).

The means of transport in SAP APO correspond to the packaging materials.

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a. You create a material with material type VERP (packaging) in the material
master. Choose Logistics → Materials Management → Material Master →
Material → Create (Special) → Packaging.
b. You assign the packaging material type V100 and the packaging material
category Means of Transport to this material in Customizing. Choose Logistics –
General → Handling Unit Management → Basics → Define Packaging Material
Types.
c. In SAP APO you assign a means of transport to the packaging material defined
in SAP R/3. Choose Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS) →
Interfaces → Maintain Mapping Table for Vehicles.

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TP/VS-Specific Customizing Settings in SAP APO


Use
The following section describes the TP/VS-specific Customizing settings in SAP APO that you
must make for transportation management [Seite 8]. For more information about the individual
activities, see the Implementation Guide (IMG).

Activities
Basic Settings for TP/VS in SAP SCM and SAP APO Customizing
...

1. You define a distribution definition with the publishing types Shipment and Delivery
under Integration with SAP Components → Integration of SAP SCM and SAP APO →
Basic Settings for Data Transfer → Publication → Maintain Distribution Definition.
You use the distribution definition to define to which logical systems the data is
distributed during the transfer of planned shipments from SAP APO.
2. You define means of transport under Master Data → Transportation Lane → Maintain
Means of Transport.

You can also create means of transport in the SAP APO master data under
Master Data → Transportation Lane → Maintain Means of Transport.
3. You define the availability and item of standard optimizers for SAP APO and the access
to these optimizers under Basis Settings → Optimization → Basic Functions →
Maintain Master Data for Optimization Server.

Settings in TP/VS Customizing


...
...

1. You make the following basic settings:

○ Basis settings

○ Number ranges

○ Hierarchies (transportation zone hierarchies [Seite 51] and transshipment


hierarchies [Seite 53])

○ Transportation modes (only relevant for automatic shipment generation)

○ Transportation groups
2. You create an optimization profile [Seite 91] and a cost profile [Seite 41].

You can also call these profiles from the area menu in SAP APO.
3. You define filters and sort profiles for backorder processing.

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Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling


(TP/VS)
Purpose
You use the component Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS) to plan and
optimize shipments for orders (sales orders, purchase orders, returns, and stock transport
orders) and deliveries. To do this you assign the orders and deliveries for which you plan
shipments to vehicles. You can take various restrictions into account, for example, requested
delivery dates or transportation capacities when assigning the vehicles. The result of TP/VS
planning is the creation of planned shipments.
TP/VS supports various processes [Seite 20] such as outbound delivery, inbound delivery,
and cross-docking.
You use TP/VS as part of transportation management [Seite 8].

Integration
Task System
Create orders and deliveries for the SAP R/3
shipments that you want to plan
Execute the shipments SAP R/3 component Logistics Execution (LE)
Backorder processing SAP APO component Global Availability Check
(GATP)
Evaluate the transportation management SAP Business Information
process Warehouse (SAP BW)
Monitor transportation execution SAP Event Management (SAP EM)

Features
● Interactive planning [Seite 67]
You use interactive planning to plan shipments for your orders and deliveries and to
process them manually. You can use the planning view [Seite 69] with its various
planning boards [Seite 72] for interactive planning.

● Optimization [Seite 84]


You use optimization to optimize the planning of shipments on the basis of costs and to
determine optimal delivery sequences and transportation dates/times. You can also
start optimization from interactive planning or schedule it in the background. You can
continue to process optimization results in interactive planning.

● Transportation service provider selection (TSP selection) [Seite 111]


You use the TSP selection to assign transportation service providers to your planned
shipments, either manually or automatically. In the case of automatic assignment, the
system assigns the transportation service providers on the basis of a transportation
service provider profile, in which you define criteria for the assignment, for example,
costs or priority. You can either trigger the automatic TSP selection automatically or
schedule it in the background.

● Releasing planned shipments [Seite 128]


You use the release to fix your planned shipments after you have finished planning.
You cannot change released planned shipments manually or in optimization. The
release is also a perquisite for transportation tendering.

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● Transportation tendering (collaborative transportation planning) [Seite 129]


You use transportation tendering to tender your planned shipments to external
transportation service providers using EDI or the Internet. The transportation service
provider can react to the tender in various ways: accept the offer, reject the offer, or
suggest a deadline change.

● Monitoring exceptional situations


If problems occur during planning, TSP selection, or transportation tendering, you can
display and rectify them using interactive planning (see Monitoring VS Alerts [Seite
143]).

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Supported Processes
Use
The following table shows you the processes that the component Transportation
Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS) supports:
Process Description
Outbound delivery A manufacturer sends goods, for example, for a sales order, to a goods
recipient.
You create planned shipments in TP/VS. Unlike in the ERP system, you
can create planned shipments in TP/VS with which both sales orders
and purchase orders are delivered.
Delivery A goods recipient takes receipt of the goods that a vendor has
delivered, for example for a purchase order.
You create planned shipments in TP/VS. Unlike in the ERP system, you
can create planned shipments in TP/VS with which both sales orders
and purchase orders are delivered.
Stock transfer Goods or products are transported from one location to another. These
locations can be plants or distribution centers.
You can plan stock transport orders from SNP [Seite 23], for example.
Cross-docking Goods are moved to another vehicle at a transshipment location
[Extern].
The following restrictions exist when using optimization:

● Orders can be transferred a maximum of two times. You can,


however, map transshipment processes with more than two
transshipment locations in manual multilevel planning [Seite 77].

● Optimization determines exactly one itinerary for each order, that


is, it does not currently offer any alternative itineraries via other
transshipment locations. You can model alternative itineraries by
defining compatibilities.

● If optimization creates an interlinked planned shipment from


multiple planned shipments, the ERP system does not currently
recognize that these shipments are connected, unlike SAP
Advanced Planning and Optimization (SAP APO).
For more information, see Definition of Transshipment Hierarchies
[Seite 53].
Returns A customer sends goods back to the manufacturer because they are
damaged, for example.
For more information, see Returns Planning [Seite 21].
Dynamic route determination When you enter sales orders in the ERP system, the system
automatically performs transportation planning and scheduling. You can
also use dynamic route determination in TP/VS.

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Returns Planning
Purpose
This process allows you to plan not only sales orders and purchase orders in Transportation
Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS), but also returns that you have created in SAP R/3
Sales and Distribution and their return deliveries. This process can also be used for return
shipments of empties. In this case, the aim in planning and optimizing the shipments in TP/VS
is to ship returns back to the supplying plant on the return leg of a journey. That is, to plan
outbound deliveries and returns in one outbound shipment.
Planning returns and returns deliveries in TP/VS corresponds to planning sales orders. The
system treats returns like outbound deliveries, although they are actually inbound deliveries.
The source and target location are opposite for returns: The goods recipient is the goods
issuer of the returns (source location), the supplying plant is the receiving plant (target
location), and the shipping point is the goods receiving point. The deliver date/time for returns
is the good receipt date/time in the plant.

Prerequisites
● System requirements:

○ SAP R/3 4.6B or higher

● Active integration models for sales orders are available in SAP R/3 for the relevant
materials/plants.

● In the Customizing for SAP R/3, you have activated the transfer of returns and returns
deliveries to the relevant SAP APO system (Integration with Other SAP Components
→ Advanced Planning and Optimization → Application-Specific Settings and
Enhancements → Settings and Enhancements for Sales Orders → Set up Transfer of
Returns to SAP APO).

● In the optimization profile in TP/VS, you have selected the ATP categories BZ (SD
returns) and BY (SD returns deliveries) and have defined the receiving plant as the
target location.

Process Flow
...

1. First you create the returns in SAP R/3. When you save, the returns are automatically
transferred to SAP APO and represented as freight units in TP/VS. In the same way as
for sales orders, you plan and optimize the returns in TP/VS and then transfer them
back to SAP R/3 together with the planned shipments, where the returns deliveries and
shipments are created automatically.
There is no function similar to backlog processing for returns and returns deliveries.
2. In SAP R/3, you then process the shipments created by TP/VS. You process the
shipments in the same way as subsequent documents for sales orders.
3. You post the goods receipt for the returns deliveries in SAP R/3.
4. Later, you delete the shipments and returns deliveries in TP/VS in the same way as you
would do for sales orders.
5. If you change returns in the SAP R/3 system, then the freight units are updated in
TP/VS in the same way as for sales orders planning. This is valid for the following kinds
of changes:

○ Creating or deleting document items

○ Changing document data, for example goods recipients, plants, quantities, or


dates

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This causes existing shipments to become invalid. If you create, change, or delete
returns deliveries in SAP R/3 (manually or in collective processing) with reference to
returns, then the freight units are adjusted accordingly in TP/VS.

Further Information

● We recommend that, for returns in SAP R/3, you leave the shipping scheduling
inactive (as in the standard Customizing).

● The SAP APO product availability check can take into account returns or their returns
deliveries as receipt elements. You can define these in ATP check control
Customizing. To do this, include the ATP category BZ (SD returns) and/or BY (SD
returns deliveries) in the scope of the check.
However, returns do not affect transportation allocation, that is, they do not reduce the
withdrawal quantity and are therefore not taken into account by the system during the
check against transportation allocations.

● SAP APO displays returns and their returns deliveries in the product view. However,
they are not considered as receipt elements in production planning (PP).
Returns and their returns deliveries do not have a negative effect on supply network
planning (SNP), capable-to-match (CTM) planning, or demand planning (DP).
Returns and their returns deliveries are saved as receipt elements at the plant
(location) but are not generally saved as issue elements with the customer. Thus
returns do not flow into requirements planning for vendor-managed inventory (VMI)
customers.

Restrictions on the SAP R/3 Side

● Consignment and returnable packaging in returns


SAP R/3 does not support returns for consignment stock or returnable packaging. In
these processes, the stock is near to the customer and is not relevant for TP/VS or own
shipments. At most, the stock is relevant for shipments at the customer location, which
the freight forwarder might execute.
The standard Customizing does not support collections from consignment stock and
returnable packaging stock. However, you can support these processes by deviating
from the standard Customizing and foregoing the (requirements relevance and)
availability check for consignment or returnable packaging stock.

● Sales orders with returns items


Planning returns in TP/VS is only supported for return items in returns. That is, return
items can be permitted in repair orders or other sales orders, but these are not
transferred to SAP APO. Note however that the reverse also applies: Only return items
may be permitted in returns.

● External plant in return items (as of SAP R/3 4.7)


SAP R/3 supports the planning of returns in TP/VS only for return items with a plant in
your own SAP R/3 system. As of SAP R/3 4.7, you can create a sales document item
for a plant in another SAP R/3 system (from which the item is then delivered or
received). Planning returns in TP/VS is not possible for return items with this kind of
external plant.

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SNP Stock Transport Order Planning


Purpose
You can also use stock transport orders from Supply Network Planning (SNP) as a planning
basis in Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS).

Prerequisites
● You have created deployment stock transfers in SNP.

● In the Customizing for Supply Network Planning, you have defined under Basic
Settings → Configure Transfer to OLTP Systems, that deployment stock transfers
[Extern] or TLB shipments [Extern] should be transferred to SAP R/3 and how this
should occur.

Process Flow
...

1. You transfer deployment stock transfers from SNP to SAP R/3. SAP R/3 maps these as
stock transport orders. You can then use the stock transport orders transferred to SAP
APO for planning in TP/VS.
2. Alternatively you can generate TLB shipments in the Transport Load Builder (TLB) from
the deployment stock transfers. The system groups together several deployment stock
transfers to practical freight units. The aim in this is to fill the means of transport to its
maximum capacity and at the same time not fall short of the minimum capacity. You
then transfer the TLB shipments to SAP R/3, where they are mapped as stock transport
orders. You can then use the stock transport orders transferred to SAP APO for
planning in TP/VS. In this case, the deployment stock transport orders are not
transferred to SAP R/3, or they are transferred as purchase requisitions (depending on
your settings in the Customizing for Supply Chain Management).

You can also process SNP stock transfers directly in the Transport Load Builder
(TLB) (that is, without using deployment). For additional information, see SAP
Note 514947.

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APO
SAP R/3 SAP APO TP/VS SAP APO SNP

Deployment
SNP / TLB
stock transfer

VS

Stock transport TLB:


order GATP
Grouping into TLB
shipments (optional)
tendering.

Planning of
stock transfer
orders

See also:
Transport Load Builder [Extern]
Deployment [Extern]

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Dynamic Route Determination from the ERP


System
Purpose
In this process, transportation planning and scheduling is performed automatically when you
create or change sales orders in the ERP system. Dynamic route determination is performed
as part of Global Available-to-Promise (Global ATP Check) [Extern].
For more information about the purposes and functions of dynamic route determination, see
Dynamic Route Determination [Seite 101]. For more information about the interaction
between dynamic route determination and the global ATP check, see Scheduling with
Dynamic Route Determination [Extern].

Prerequisites
See Dynamic Route Determination [Seite 101].

Process
...

1. You create your sales order in the ERP system.

You can also perform dynamic route determination for the following document
types:

■ Scheduling agreements without releases

■ Quotations
However, for quotations you can only use dynamic route determination
for scheduling purposes (in other words, only in simulation mode without
saving the shipment proposals).

■ Rush orders (sales orders with immediate delivery)


However, here the system does not perform a quantity split.
2. In the Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS) component, freight units are
created automatically from the items and schedule lines in the sales order. If you have
met the prerequisites for the order split, an order split [Seite 57] is performed
automatically.
3. TP/VS determines a suitable route determination profile [Seite 104] for each freight unit.
If TP/VS does not find a route determination profile for an item in the sales order, it
cannot schedule the entire sales order. It terminates dynamic route determination and
does not confirm any items in the document.
4. TP/VS automatically determines shipment proposals and the relevant dates/times. The
settings that you make in the route determination profile determine whether the system
displays the results. If the system is not to display the results, it uses the best result in
accordance with the sorting that was chosen in the route determination profile. When
the system displays the results, you can edit the shipment proposals and dates/times
manually.
5. If the results are displayed, you trigger the global ATP check for the sales order in the
results view in SAP Advanced Planning and Optimization (SAP APO). If the results are
not displayed, the system automatically performs the global ATP check. If the global
ATP check does not confirm the quantities for the material staging date determined by
dynamic route determination, it automatically performs forward scheduling with a new

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dynamic route determination. This only applies if you plan on the basis of ATP-
confirmed quantities.

If you create or change individual sales order items, the global ATP check is
performed automatically for these items. Dynamic route determination is
performed automatically for the entire document. We recommend that you then
manually trigger dynamic route determination and the global ATP check again
for the entire sales order. Otherwise, inconsistencies can occur between the
shipping dates/times in the sales order and in the shipment proposal.
The global ATP check transfers the data to the ERP system.
6. You save the sales order in the ERP system. The sales order is automatically
transferred to SAP APO. If you have not activated the simulation mode, the shipments
that were determined are saved in TP/VS and are displayed in the planning view. There
you can process them further. If you have activated the simulation mode, the shipments
are neither saved nor displayed.

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Master Data for TP/VS


Definition
Master data that is used in the Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS)
component.

Use
You use the following master data in TP/VS:

● TP/VS resources [Seite 28]

● Transportation lanes (see TP/VS-Relevant Transportation Lane Settings [Seite 39])

● Cost profile [Seite 41]

● Schedules [Seite 45]

● Transportation zone hierarchies [Seite 51]

● Transshipment hierarchies [Seite 53]

You must manually assign master data that you create directly in SAP APO to
the active model (model 000). This applies to resources, schedules, and
hierarchies. For more information on models and planning versions, see Supply
Chain Model, Planning Version, and Supply Chain Engineer [Extern].

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TP/VS Resources
Definition
Resources that are used in the Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS)
component.

Use
You use the following resources in TP/VS:

● Vehicle resources
You use vehicle resources to transport orders or freight units [Extern]. For more
information, see Vehicle Resource [Seite 29].

● Loading resources (inbound/outbound)


You use loading resources for loading and unloading vehicles, taking into account the
resource capacity. Possible loading resources:

○ Forklift

○ A plant with a certain number of docks

○ Workers
To define loading resources, you must first define a single resource or a multiresource
with resource category H (handling unit) in the resource master and then assign it in
the location master. Optimization [Seite 84] takes loading resources into account as
constraints.

● Resources maintained at opening times


You use these resources to model when a plant is available for loading/unloading. To
define these resources, you must first define opening times in the resource master. You
then assign a resource in the location master, usually a calendar resource.

You cannot define unscheduled breaks for vehicle resources, loading


resources, or opening times. For more information about creating breaks, see
Creating Capacity Variants [Extern].

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Vehicle Resource
Definition
Resource that is used in the Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS) component.

Use
You use vehicle resources as planning objects in TP/VS. Vehicle resources map the capacity
and availability of vehicles that you want to use for transportation.

■ You cannot define the available capacity for this resource type
dependent on time.

■ However, you can define a time-dependent availability using shift


sequences.
You can choose up to eight dimensions and units of measurement to describe the capacity
(Weight and Volume are predefined by default). Only if these correspond to the dimensions
and units of measurement that you have defined in a split rule [Seite 59] can the optimizer
take into account the vehicle capacity. For more information, see Dimensions and Units of
Measurement [Seite 61].

■ If you want to check the capacity using the dimensions, set the Finite
Planning indicator.

■ In manual planning, you can overload the capacity of a resource.

Integration
To be able to define vehicle resources, you must have defined means of transport [Extern].
The following figure represents the relationship between vehicle resources, means of
transport, and transportation modes.

Transport Transport
Transportationmode
Mode: Transportation
mode Mode:
Sea Road
„Sea“ „Street“

Transport Method Transport Method


Means of Transport: Means of Transport:
„steamer“ „caravel“
Container Ship Cargo Ship

Vehicle Resource:
Vehicle
Vehicle
Vehicle
Resource:
“Bounty”
„Bounty“ “Santa
„Santa Maria“Maria”

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The vehicle resource is a concrete means of transport, for example, the ship “Santa Maria”.
Means of transport are classes of vehicle resources, for example, a container ship or cargo
ship. You assign a means of transport to each vehicle resource. The transportation mode
specifies how the goods are transported, for example, as a sea shipment. You assign
transportation modes to means of transport.

You define modes of transportation in Customizing. They must agree with the
modes of transport that you have defined in the ERP system.

Schedule Vehicles
In TP/VS you can plan with schedule vehicles [Extern], in other words, vehicle resources with
a schedule. To do this, you must set the Schedule indicator for the means of transport that
you want to assign to the vehicle resource. You can then assign this vehicle resource to a
schedule. For more information about schedules, see Definition of Schedules [Seite 45].

■ Only if you have assigned a means of transport suitable for schedules to


a vehicle resource after creating a shipment, can this vehicle resource
also be used for other shipments for the duration of the transportation.

■ The optimizer does not consider opening times at the locations which the
schedule vehicle visits as constraints.

Your Own Vehicle Resources


You define your own vehicle resources using the means of transport by specifying that it is
your own means of transport. You then assign this means of transport to your vehicle
resource You can assign your own vehicle resource to a depot location.

Trailer
You can define vehicle resources that cannot move by themselves. For more information, see
Trailer [Seite 36].

Vehicle Combination
You can combine vehicle resources to make vehicle combinations. For more information, see
Means-of-Transport Combination [Seite 37].

Compartment
You can divide the loading space of a vehicle resource into compartments [Seite 31].

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Compartment
Definition
Part of the loading space of a vehicle resource (vehicle or trailer).

Use
You use compartments for the following, for example:

● You have to separate two freight units on a truck since they contain refrigerated goods
and fruit.

● You want to transport diesel and super fuel in one tanker.

Structure
You define compartments by using compartment types. You can define a fixed number of
compartments per vehicle resource (vehicle or trailer).
For each compartment, you can define a capacity per dimension [Seite 61]. The capacity
consumption within a compartment is linear. By defining steps, you can model a capacity
consumption on the basis of the step. This is recommended if the compartment has a door or
if you want to work with movable partitions, for example.
The relationship between the total capacity of the vehicle resource and the total capacity of all
assigned compartments determines whether the individual compartments are fixed or flexible.
This is not an attribute of the compartment. A vehicle resource with fixed compartments
means that the total capacity of all assigned compartments is the same as the total capacity
of the vehicle resource. A vehicle resource with flexible compartments means that the total
capacity of all assigned compartments is greater than the total capacity of the vehicle
resource. For more information, see Examples of Compartments [Seite 32].
The system takes into account compartments in the optimizer [Seite 84] and in multilevel
planning.

Integration
● You define compartment types in Customizing for Transportation Planning/Vehicle
Scheduling (TP/VS). You use the compartment type to define the capacity of the
compartment, possible steps, and a compartment profile [Extern], for example. In the
compartment profile, you specify the number and type of compartments that a means
of transport is to have. You then assign this compartment profile to the means of
transport. For more information, see the Implementation Guide (IMG) for TP/VS under
Trailers and Compartments → Define Compartment Type.

● To be able to work with compartments, you must have set the Activate Comps
indicator in Customizing for TP/VS. For more information, see the IMG for TP/VS
under Trailers and Compartments → Activate Trailers and Compartments.

● You have defined a number range for the handling unit Compartment Type. For more
information, see the IMG for TP/VS under Basic Settings → Define Number Range for
HU Compartment Type.

● You have assigned packaging materials to means of transport and compartment types.
For more information, see the IMG for TP/VS under Interfaces → Maintain Mapping
Table for Vehicles/Compartment Type.

● You can define compatibilities and incompatibilities [Seite 107] for compartments.

● Dynamic route determination [Seite 101] does not support compartments.

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Examples of Compartments
Fixed Compartments
Vehicle Capacity: 15 m3

1: CT X 2: CT X 3: CT X
Max. Cap.: 5 m3 Max. Cap.: 5 m3 Max. Cap.: 5 m3

Legend:
CT = Compartment Type

In this example, the vehicle resource comprises three compartments with the compartment
type X. Each compartment has a maximum capacity of 5 m3. The total capacity of the vehicle
resource is 15 m3.

Flexible Compartments (Without Steps)


Vehicle Capacity: 15 m3

1: CT X 2: CT X
Max. Cap.: 10 m3 Max. Cap.: 10 m3

Legend:
CT = Compartment Type

In this example, the vehicle resource comprises two compartments with the compartment type
X. Each compartment has a maximum capacity of 10 m3. The total capacity of the vehicle
resource is 15 m3, in other words, you are not allowed to load more than 15 m3 onto the
vehicle resource.

Flexible Compartments (with Steps)


Vehicle Capacity: 15 m3

1: CT X
Max. Cap.: 15 m3
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3

Settings for Compartment Type X


Step Capacity Linear
1 5 m3 No
2 10 m3 No
3 15 m3 No

Legend:
CT= Compartment Type

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In this example, the vehicle resource comprises one compartment with the compartment type
X. The compartment has a maximum capacity of 15 m3. The total capacity of the vehicle
resource is 15 m3. The compartment has three steps (5 m3, 10 m3, and 15 m3).
This means the following for the compartment:

● Zero consumption is not possible for the compartment. That means if you do not load
this compartment, it still consumes a capacity of 5 m3.

● Each load that is greater than or equal to 0 m3 but less than or equal to 5 m3 results in
a capacity consumption of 5 m3. That means if you load this compartment with 3 m3,
for example, it still consumes a capacity of 5 m3.

● Each load that is greater than 5 m3 but less than or equal to 10 m3 results in a capacity
consumption of 10 m3.

● Each load that is greater than 10 m3 but less than or equal to 15 m3 results in a
capacity consumption of 15 m3.

In a realistic scenario, you would define a second compartment, for example, a


flexible compartment without steps.

Flexible Compartments (Zero Consumption Is Not Possible)


Vehicle Capacity: 15 m3

1: CT X 2: CT Y
Max. Cap.: 10 m3 Max. Cap.: 10 m3
Step 1

Settings for Compartment Type X


Step Capacity Linear
1 5 m3 No

Legend:
CT = Compartment Type

In this example, the vehicle resource comprises two compartments. Compartment 1 has
compartment type X, compartment 2 has compartment type Y. Each compartment has a
maximum capacity of 10 m3. The total capacity of the vehicle resource is 15 m3. Compartment
1 has a door and a step (5 m3). Compartment 2 does not have any steps.
This means the following for the two compartments:
Compartment 1:

● Zero consumption is not possible for the compartment. That means if you do not load
this compartment, it still consumes a capacity of 5 m3.

● Each load that is greater than or equal to 0 m3 but less than or equal to 5 m3 results in
a capacity consumption of 5 m3.

● Each load x that is greater than 5 m3 but less than or equal to 10 m3 results in a
capacity consumption of x m3.

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Compartment 2:
Each load x m3 results in a capacity consumption of x m3 (linear capacity consumption).

Flexible Compartments (Zero Consumption Is Possible)


Example 1
Vehicle Capacity: 15 m3

1: CT X 2: CT Y
Max. Cap.: 10 m3 Max. Cap.: 15 m3
Step 1 Step 2

Settings for Compartment Type X


Step Capacity Linear
1 0 m3 No
2 5 m3 No

Legend:
CT = Compartment Type

In this example, the vehicle resource comprises two compartments. Compartment 1 has
compartment type X and a maximum capacity of 10 m3. Compartment 2 has compartment
type Y and a maximum capacity of 15 m3. The total capacity of the vehicle resource is 15 m3.
Compartment 1 has two steps (0 m3 and 5 m3). Compartment 2 does not have any steps.
This means the following for the two compartments:
Compartment 1:

● Zero consumption is possible for the compartment. That means if you leave this
compartment empty, it does not consume any capacity.

● Each load that is greater than 0 m3 but less than or equal to 5 m3 results in a capacity
consumption of 5 m3. This compartment might be a refrigerated part with a door, for
example. As soon as you load one frozen pizza, you have to turn on the refrigerated
part. The second compartment has to start behind the door.

● Each load x that is greater than 5 m3 but less than or equal to 10 m3 results in a
capacity consumption of x m3 (due to the maximum capacity).
Compartment 2:
Each load x m3 results in a capacity consumption of x m3 (linear capacity consumption).

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Example 2
Step 4 (Y) Step 3 (Y) Step 2 (Y) Step 1 (Y)

Vehicle Capacity: 15 m3

1: CT X 2: CT Y
Max. Cap.: 10 m3 Max. Cap.: 15 m3
Step 1 (X) Step 2 (X) Step 3 (X) Step 4 (X)

Settings for Compartment Type X Settings for Compartment Type Y


Step Capacity Linear Step Capacity Linear
1 0 m3 No 1 5 m3 Yes
2 5 m3 No 2 7 m3 No
3 8 m3 Yes 3 10 m3 Yes
4 10 m3 No 4 15 m3 No

Legend:
CT = Compartment Type

In this example, the vehicle resource comprises two compartments. Compartment 1 has
compartment type X and a maximum capacity of 10 m3. Compartment 2 has compartment
type Y and a maximum capacity of 15 m3. The total capacity of the vehicle resource is 15 m3.
Compartment 1 has four steps (0 m3, 5 m3, 8 m3, and 10 m3). Compartment 2 also has four
steps (5 m3, 7 m3, 10 m3, and 15 m3). There are two doors.
This means the following for the two compartments:
Compartment 1:

● Zero consumption is possible for the compartment.

● Each load that is greater than 0 m3 but less than or equal to 5 m3 results in a capacity
consumption of 5 m3.

● Each load x that is greater than 5 m3 but less than or equal to 8 m3 results in a capacity
consumption of x m3 (linear capacity consumption since you have set the Linear
indicator for this step).

● Each load that is greater than 8 m3 but less than or equal to 10 m3 results in a capacity
consumption of 10 m3.
Compartment 2:

● Each load x that is greater than 0 m3 but less than or equal to 5 m3 results in a capacity
consumption of x m3 (linear capacity consumption since you have set the Linear
indicator for this step).

● Each load that is greater than 5 m3 but less than or equal to 7 m3 results in a capacity
consumption of 7 m3.

● Each load x that is greater than 7 m3 but less than or equal to 10 m3 results in a
capacity consumption of x m3 (linear capacity consumption since you have set the
Linear indicator for this step).

● Each load that is greater than 10 m3 but less than or equal to 15 m3 results in a
capacity consumption of 15 m3.

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Trailer
Definition
Vehicle resource that cannot move by itself.

Use
You can couple trailers to vehicles. As a result, you create vehicle combinations. For more
information, see Means-of-Transport Combination [Seite 37].

Integration
● You define trailers by defining a vehicle resource and then setting the Passive indicator
for the relevant means of transport in the means of transport definition. To do so, on
the SAP Easy Access screen, choose Advanced Planning and Optimization → Master
Data → Transportation Lane → Maintain Means of Transport.

● To be able to work with trailers, you must have set the Activate Trailer indicator in
Customizing for Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS). For more
information, see the Implementation Guide (IMG) for TP/VS under Trailers and
Compartments → Activate Trailers and Compartments.

● In Customizing for TP/VS, you can define a coupling duration and an uncoupling
duration for your trailers. For more information, see the IMG for TP/VS under Trailers
and Compartments → Define Coupling/Uncoupling Duration.
The system creates a coupling activity and an uncoupling activity for each trailer that is
assigned to a shipment.
The system generates the coupling activity after the loading activities that you use to
load freight units onto the trailer, in other words, directly before the transportation
activity for the assigned vehicle.
The system schedules the uncoupling activity if a trailer is no longer to be moved by the
same vehicle in the next stage. If the system has assigned an empty trailer to a stage,
it schedules the coupling activity directly before the transportation activity and the
uncoupling activity directly after the transportation activity.
The compatibilities and incompatibilities [Seite 107] as well as the means-of-transport
combinations that you have defined determine whether or not a trailer can be coupled
to a vehicle. In multilevel planning, you can override these settings manually.
You cannot couple trailers to schedule vehicles.

● The system takes into account trailers in the optimizer [Seite 84] and in multilevel
planning.

● You cannot define schedules for trailers.

● Dynamic route determination [Seite 101] does not support trailers.

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Means-of-Transport Combination
Definition
Grouping of multiple means of transport.

Use
You use means-of-transport combinations to model vehicle combinations. A vehicle
combination is a grouping consisting of one vehicle and at least one trailer that move
together. You can use one means-of-transport combination to map multiple vehicle
combinations (see Example section).

Structure
When you define a means-of-transport combination, you define the following:

● Means of transport that the combination is to consist of, in other words, those means of
transport that are permitted for the combination

A means-of-transport combination must consist of one active means of transport


(vehicle) and at least one passive means of transport (trailer).

● Number of individual means of transport within the combination

● Total capacity of the means-of-transport combination

The total capacity is the maximum loading capacity (without the tare weight of
the vehicle and trailers).

● Attributes
You use attributes to define compatibilities and incompatibilities.

Integration
● You define means-of-transport combinations in Customizing for Transportation
Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS). For more information, see the Implementation
Guide (IMG) for TP/VS under Trailers and Compartments → Define Means-of-
Transport Combination.

● If the vehicle is not to have its own capacity, you must set the No Capacity indicator for
the relevant means of transport. To do so, on the SAP Easy Access screen, choose
Advanced Planning and Optimization → Master Data → Transportation Lane →
Maintain Means of Transport.

● You can define compatibilities and incompatibilities [Seite 107] for means-of-transport
combinations.

Example
The following table shows which vehicle resources and means of transport you have defined
and which assignments you have made:
Vehicle Resource Means of Transport
TRUCK1 (Vehicle) MTRTRUCK

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TRUCK2 (Vehicle) MTRTRUCK


TRAILER1 (Trailer) MTRTRAILER
TRAILER2 (Trailer) MTRTRAILER
You can model the following vehicle combinations with a means-of-transport combination
1TRAIL consisting of both means of transport:

● TRUCK1 + TRAILER1

● TRUCK2 + TRAILER2

● TRUCK1 + TRAILER2

● TRUCK2 + TRAILER1

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TP/VS-Relevant Transportation Lane Settings


To be able to work with the Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS) component,
you have to define transportation lanes. The following describes the settings relevant to
TP/VS only. For general information about the definition of transportation lanes in SAP
Advanced Planning and Optimization (SAP APO), see Transportation Lane [Extern].
Transportation lanes for TP/VS are specified by the following:

● Means of transport

● Transportation service provider (TSP)

Means of Transport
The following describes the most important parameters:

● Means of transport costs and transportation costs


You need means of transport costs and transportation costs for the optimization [Seite 84].
You only have to define them if you have specified in the cost profile [Seite 41] that the
optimization is to take into account the costs defined for the transportation lane.

The units for the transportation costs in all the transportation lanes that are
included in optimization must have the same dimension.

● Transportation duration and transportation distance


You can define the transportation duration and transportation distance manually or
have the system calculate them automatically.

○ Calculated by the system: The system calculates the transportation duration


and transportation distance on the basis of the geographical coordinates, the
actual distance to aerial distance factor, and the average speed of the means of
transport. The geographical coordinates are shipped with the system. You
define the actual distance to aerial distance factor and the average speed when
you create means of transport.
To calculate the transportation duration and transportation distance, first call the
Means of Transport detail screen, and then choose Generate Proposal. If you
want to change the average speed or the actual distance to aerial distance
factor, you can branch directly to the transaction for changing means of
transport by choosing Parameters in the top right corner.
By connecting the Geographic Information System (GIS) to the Internet Graphic Server (IGS),
you can calculate the exact transportation duration and transportation distance. For more
information, see Duration Time and Distance Determination for Means of Transport [Extern].

○ Manually: Enter the transportation duration and transportation distance


manually for the transportation lane and then set the indicators for fixed
transportation duration and fixed transportation distance. In this case, the
system only takes into account the values entered manually, in other words, the
Generate Proposal button has no effect.

● Control indicator
Set the Detld Planning control indicator. TP/VS only takes into account the
transportation lane if this indicator is set.

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Transportation Service Provider


To be able to use the automatic transportation service provider selection [Seite 111] (TSP
selection), you have to assign the TSPs to means of transport.

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Cost Profile
Definition
Profile that contains costs and constraints [Seite 94] for transportation planning.

Use
When you select a cost profile in the optimization profile, the system takes into account the
relevant costs and constraints during optimization [Seite 84]. If you do not define costs for a
particular means of transport, the optimizer assumes that this means of transport is not
relevant to this cost profile. The optimizer only considers vehicles for which you have defined
costs for the corresponding means of transport.
When you select a cost profile in the route determination profile, the system takes into
account the relevant costs during dynamic route determination [Seite 101]. The system simply
performs a check for the constraints (wait time and maximum length of stay).

The costs that you define in the cost profile are not actual costs, but instead they
represent a theoretical value.

Structure
You can define the following costs and constraints in the cost profile:

● Location-relevant costs
You can define the following penalty costs for each location:

○ Earliness costs (per day)

○ Lateness costs (per day)

○ Costs for non-delivery per order


You can use windows for pickup and delivery [Seite 97] to define the time as of which
earliness and lateness costs are incurred. You can use cost factors to weight earliness
costs and lateness costs per means of transport (see below).

● Transportation-relevant costs
These are fixed transportation costs that are incurred once for each vehicle used in the
optimization run or the route determination run. They are independent of the actual
transportation (in other words, transportation service provider, distance, and so on).

● Dimension-relevant costs
These are variable transportation costs per unit for the following dimensions:

○ Time

○ Distance

○ Stop-offs

○ Transported quantity per distance


These costs refer to the consumption of the dimensions of a vehicle (including empty
runs) during the optimization run or route determination run.

● Costs for the transportation lane

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These are variable transportation costs per unit and means of transport.
The values that are displayed on this tab page, for example, start location and
destination location as well as means of transport costs come from the transportation
lane.

● Load costs
These are penalty costs that you define for each means of transport and load. You can
use cost functions to model load costs.

● Cost functions
You can define piecewise linear cost functions for a combination of means of transport
and load in a certain unit of measurement (load unit).
For more information, see the following example [Seite 43].

You can assign only one unit of measurement within a dimension to each cost
function. This does not apply to units of measurement without a dimension.

● Cost factors for earliness and lateness costs


You can use these cost factors to weight the earliness and lateness costs that you
have defined for each location on the basis of the means of transport. The optimizer or
route determination multiplies these cost factors by the relevant earliness costs or
lateness costs for each means of transport. The following cost factors are available:

○ Cost factor for early pickup

○ Cost factor for late pickup

○ Cost factor for early delivery

○ Cost factor for late delivery

● Wait time
You can define a wait time [Extern] for each location and means of transport.

● Maximum length of stay


You can define a maximum length of stay [Extern] for each location and means of
transport. You can use the maximum length of stay to minimize idle times at start and
destination locations. The optimizer takes into account this duration when planning
loading and unloading activities.

● Capacity decrease
You can define the capacity decrease [Seite 44] for each means of transport,
dimension, and number of stop-offs.

To define cost profiles, on the SAP Easy Access screen, choose Advanced
Planning and Optimization → Master Data → Application-Specific Master Data
→ Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling → Maintain Vehicle Scheduling
Costs.

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Example of a Cost Function


TRUCK001 with means of transport TRUCK has a maximum loading capacity of 2500 cubic
meters. Your company has the following business requirement: each truck is to the leave the
plant as full as possible. If this is not possible, the load must be at least 2000 cubic meters
(minimum load). The following figure shows how you can use a cost function to map this
business requirement:
Load Costs

Penalty 1500
Costs

1000

Penalty Costs
(Minimum 500
Load)

Load
(Cubic
Minimum Maximum Meters)
Load Loading
(2000) Capacity (2500)

You define two segments in the cost profile for this cost function:

● For the first segment, you define penalty costs of 1500 and a load of 0 cubic meters.
This means that if TRUCK001 leaves the plant with a load of less than 2000 cubic
meters, the optimizer calculates penalty costs of 1500.

● For the second segment, you define penalty costs of 500 and a load of 2000 cubic
meters. You also define a slope of 1.000-. This means that if TRUCK001 leaves the
plant with a load of between 2000 and 2500 cubic meters, the optimizer calculates
penalty costs between 500 and 0 in accordance with the slope (decreasing in intervals
of one unit for each additional cubic meter loaded on the truck).

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Capacity Decrease
Use
When you transport goods for multiple customers on a vehicle resource (vehicle or trailer), in
other words, when the transportation covers multiple stop-offs on the way from the start
location to the destination location, you can use partitions to separate the goods. However,
this results in a reduction of the total capacity of the vehicle resource since each partition
consumes capacity itself. You can use this function to define how the capacity is to decrease.

■ This function refers only to the capacity of the vehicle resource. It is


independent of compartments [Seite 31] that you have defined for the
vehicle resource.

■ You cannot define decreasing capacities for schedule vehicles.

■ Dynamic route determination does not support decreasing capacities.

Features
Fixed value
You can define a fixed value or a percentage by which the capacity is to decrease for each
additional stop-off.
The system continues to reduce the capacity for the optimizer until one of the following
conditions is met:

● The total capacity is consumed, in other words, it is zero.

● The maximum number of stop-offs defined for the means of transport has been
reached (Dimension tab page in the cost profile).

● The maximum number of stop-offs defined for the cost profile has been reached
(Capacity Decrease tab page in the cost profile).

Individual values
You can define a value by which the capacity is to decrease for a specific number of stop-offs.
If you do not define a value for a certain number of stop-offs, the capacity remains the same.

Note that in both cases the capacity decrease refers to the capacity that the
vehicle resource has before the transportation, in other words, the capacity with
which you can load the vehicle resource at the start location.

Activities
Define the capacity decrease in the cost profile on the Capacity Decrease tab page.

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Definition of Schedules
Purpose
Using schedules you can define fixed, periodically recurring departure times. Schedules are
used in planning and are taken into account by the optimizer.
You define schedules in the master data for the Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling
(TP/VS) component.

Prerequisites
● You have maintained one or more means of transport [Extern] in Customizing.

● You have maintained locations [Extern] in the location master data.

● The locations are connected by transportation lanes [Extern].

Process Flow
...

1. You define an itinerary [Seite 47]. First choose the means of transport that will be used
to transport the product and then define the locations and the sequence in which they
should be visited.
2. You define the validity period [Seite 48], (the period for which the schedule is valid).
You restrict the period to particular valid days by then assigning it to a calendar.
3. You define the actual schedule connection [Seite 49]. First you assign the previously
defined data (itinerary, validity) to the schedule and then assign a vehicle to it. You then
define the exact data of the schedule connection, that is, a departure day and a
departure time or a periodical departure time. The departure times relate to the start
location of the selected itinerary.

Note the following when using schedules in the optimizer:

■ The system generally estimates loading/unloading times of 0 for


schedule vehicles.

■ The travel times maintained in the schedule and in the transportation


lanes are always valid for the resource assigned to the schedule.
Example
Schedule A->B->C: Departure from location A at 10:00 a.m.
Duration A->B: 3 hours
Duration B->C: 2 hours
Arrival at B at 13:00, arrival at C at 15:00

■ The time zone of the start location is valid throughout. Breaks maintained
additionally for the resource are ignored by the system and can lead to
errors. Therefore do not maintain breaks for schedule vehicles.

■ This also applies to calendars containing non-workdays. Therefore, only


define calendars with seven workdays a week for schedule vehicles
[Extern].

■ Opening times maintained for schedule-relevant locations which do not


correspond to the arrival/departure times can lead to a situation in which

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the schedule vehicles cannot be used. Therefore, do not maintain


opening times for schedule-relevant locations.

We recommend using forward scheduling in multilevel planning when using


schedules.

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Maintaining Itineraries
Use
In the itinerary, you define the means of transport, the locations to be visited, and the
sequence in which they should be visited. In this maintenance view, you can display detailed
information on the selected means of transport and locations.

Prerequisites
● You have maintained one or more means of transport [Extern] in Customizing.

● You have maintained locations [Extern] in the location master data.

● The locations are connected by transportation lanes [Extern].

Procedure
...

1. On the SAP Easy Access screen, choose Advanced Planning and Optimization →
Master Data → Application-Specific Master Data → Master Data for Transportation
Planning/Vehicle Scheduling → Schedules → Maintain Itinerary. The Itinerary: Initial
Screen appears.
2. Using the input help (F4), select an itinerary and choose Display or Change, or enter a
description of your choice in the Itinerary field and choose Create. The Change
Itinerary or Display Itinerary screen appears. The description you select appears as the
itinerary.
3. Choose a means of transport using the input help (F4). You can maintain additional
means of transport in the Supply Chain Cockpit. After you have selected the means of
transport key, the description of the means of transport appears next to the field.

You can display more details about the selected vehicle via the Parameters
pushbutton.
4. In the Location column, specify the locations at which the means of transport is to call.
The Item column shows the locations maintained in numerical order. You can add or
delete locations via Insert row or Delete row. The item description changes
automatically. You must define at least two locations for each itinerary.

You can display more details on a location by branching directly from the current
screen to the location master. Position the cursor on a location and choose
Display Location.
5. Choose Save.
6. Choose Back.

You can assign a model to an existing itinerary. Choose Extras → Assign model
from the menu on the Itinerary: Initial Screen. In the next screen select the
model(s) you want to assign to the itinerary. Save the assignment. To assign a
model to an itinerary, you must have maintained transportation lanes for the
selected model.

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Maintaining Schedule Validity


Use
You define the period for which the schedule is valid. You restrict the period to particular valid
days by assigning the period to a calendar.

Procedure
...

1. On the SAP Easy Access screen, choose Advanced Planning and Optimization →
Master Data → Application-Specific Master Data → Master Data for Transportation
Planning/Vehicle Scheduling → Schedules → Maintain Schedule Validity Period. The
Change View "Validity Area": Overview screen appears.
2. Choose New Entries. The New Entries: Overview of Added Entries maintenance view
appears.
3. In the Validity field, enter a description for the period for which the schedule should be
valid.
4. In the Calendar field, use the input help (F4) to select a calendar, which should form the
basis of the validity period.
5. Enter the start and end of the validity period in the Valid from and Valid to fields. If you
do not want to restrict the end of the validity period, enter 31.12.9999 in the Valid to
field.
6. Choose Save. You can now make more entries or choose Back to return to the Change
View "Validity Area": Overview screen. This screen displays all of the validities that
have been maintained. You can make subsequent changes to the calendar and the
validity period for the validities maintained.
7. Choose Save if you made changes in this view; choose Back to leave the maintenance
view.

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Maintaining Schedules
Use
You define schedules by creating a schedule connection, which you assign to the data you
maintained previously (itinerary, validity). You then specify the concrete departure time for this
schedule connection. This relates to the start location in the itinerary.

Prerequisites
● You have maintained one or more itineraries [Seite 47].

● You have maintained validities for schedules [Seite 48].

Procedure
...

1. On the SAP Easy Access screen, choose Advanced Planning and Optimization →
Master Data → Application-Specific Master Data → Master Data for Transportation
Planning/Vehicle Scheduling → Schedules → Maintain Schedule. The Schedule:
Initial Screen appears.
2. Enter a description of your choice in the Schedule Connection field.
3. Choose Create. The Change Schedule screen appears.
4. Choose a validity period using the input help (F4). You can change the validity area by
choosing the Date button.
5. Use the input help (F4) to choose an itinerary. In the Itinerary dialog box, you have the
following selection possibilities:

○ Itinerary for a model

○ Itinerary via locations

○ Itinerary for a schedule connection


6. Use the input help (F4) to choose a vehicle.

Choose the Parameters button to display additional details about the:

■ Itinerary

■ Means of transport

■ Schedule-based vehicle
7. Now maintain the exact details for the schedule connection: You have the following
options:

○ Choose a departure day and the departure time

○ Maintain a periodic departure time; the corresponding departure days are


determined using the calendar

You have entered 10:00 and 16:00 (no departure day). The validity is based on
a calendar that only contains weekdays. By choosing Generate, the system
generates the schedule connection according to the selected validity and based

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on the calendar. This means that the system creates a departure for each
weekday at 10:00 and 16:00 starting from the current date.
8. Choose Save.

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Definition of Transportation Zone Hierarchies


Purpose
You need a transportation zone hierarchy to model transportation zones. In the transportation
zone hierarchy, you assign several locations, for example customers, to a transportation
zone.
Using transportation zones has the advantage that you can reduce the number of
transportation lanes that need to be processed.
For each transportation zone, you have to create the following two transportation lanes:

● A transportation lane between the source location and the transportation zone
(reference transportation lane)

● A transportation lane for transportation zone to itself, that is, you enter the same
transportation zone as both the source and destination location (intrazone lane)
The optimizer creates all of the other transportation lanes during the optimization run (runtime
lanes):

● All of the transportation lanes between the source location and every customer within
the transportation zone (based on the reference transportation lane)

● All of the transportation lanes between the individual customers within the
transportation zone (based on the intrazone lane)

W hat you create: W hat the optimizer generates:

Source location

Reference
transportation lane

3 locations in the
transportation zone

Intra-zone lane that


represents the
transportation lanes within
the transportation zone

1 location that
represents the
transportation zone

The costs that the optimizer takes into account depend on the settings you make in the cost
profile. If you enter in the cost profile that the system should use the costs defined for the
transportation lane, the optimizer takes into account the costs defined for the reference
transportation lane or intrazone lane.
The optimizer also calculates the actual distance and duration of runtime generated
transportation lanes on the basis of the values that you define for the reference transportation
lane or intrazone lane.

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● Reference transportation lane: The calculation is either based on the "actual distance
to aerial distance" defined for the means of transport, or the manually defined distance
and duration.

● Intrazone lane: The calculation is based on the "actual distance to aerial distance"
factor for the means of transport.

Process
...

1. You create a two-level location hierarchy structure in Customizing. Choose Master Data
→ Hierarchy → Define Hierarchy Structure.
2. In Customizing, enter this structure as the transportation lane hierarchy structure.
Select Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS) → Basic Settings →
Maintain Transportation-Relevant Hierarchy.
3. You create a hierarchy for this structure. To do so, on the SAP Easy Access screen,
choose Advanced Planning and Optimization → Master Data → Hierarchy → Maintain
Hierarchy.
4. Assign the hierarchy to active model 000. To do this, on the SAP Easy Access screen,
choose Advanced Planning and Optimization → Master Data → Hierarchy → Maintain
Hierarchy.
5. There are two ways to assign the locations to your hierarchy:

○ You can implement the hierarchy manually in the SAP APO master data. To do
this, hang the relevant locations into the hierarchy (transportation zone as level
1 node, customer as sub-node on level 2).

○ You can assign the customers to a transportation zone in SAP R/3 and then
transfer the customers to SAP APO. SAP APO creates the transportation zone
automatically and generates the corresponding hierarchy entries. You can edit
the hierarchy manually in the SAP APO master data. Choose Master Data →
Hierarchy → Define Hierarchy.

See also:
Transportation Lane [Extern]

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Definition of Transshipment Hierarchies


Purpose
You use transshipment hierarchies (service provider hierarchies) to model transshipment
processes. You create the nodes for transshipment locations and then assign the source and
destination locations or transportation zones to the transshipment locations.
You use transshipment processes to map interlinked shipments in which one or more orders
are transferred from on vehicle to another on the way from the source location to the target
location. The vehicles can be assigned to different means of transport and transportation
modes, for example transfer from a truck to a ship. These shipments are described as
multimodal shipments. You can create interlinked and multimodal shipments either with the
optimizer [Seite 84], or manually in multilevel planning [Seite 77].

Prerequisites
● You have created locations in SAP R/3 with a type that is known in SAP APO:

○ Freight forwarder (recommended; corresponds to the SAP APO location type


transportation service provider)

○ Plant

○ Distribution center
For more information, see Integration of Master Data [Seite 12].

● You have defined transportation zones.

Process
...

1. You create a two-level location hierarchy structure in Customizing. Choose Master Data
→ Hierarchy → Define Hierarchy Structure.
2. You create a hierarchy for this structure. To do this, on the SAP Easy Access screen,
choose Advanced Planning and Optimization → Master Data → Hierarchy → Maintain
Hierarchy.
3. In Customizing, enter this structure as the transshipment hierarchy structure (service
provider hierarchy structure). Select Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling
(TP/VS) → Basic Settings → Maintain Transportation-Relevant Hierarchy.
4. Assign the hierarchy to active model 000. On the SAP Easy Access screen, choose
Master Data → Hierarchy → Maintain Hierarchy.
5. You implement the hierarchy manually in the SAP APO master data by assigning the
locations or transportation zones to the transshipment locations (the level 1 nodes are
the transshipment locations, and the level 2 nodes are the source/destination locations
of the orders or the transportation zones).

If you want to assign a location to multiple transshipment locations, use


hierarchy structure type extended hierarchy [Extern].
For modeling with the optimizer, the following restrictions apply:

○ You can transfer each order a maximum of twice.

○ For each order there is a maximum of one itinerary. This means that in example
1 (see below) you cannot generate an alternative itinerary via harbor 3 and/or
harbor 4 and that in example 2 you can only deliver goods to the customers

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using transportation service provider D. You can avoid these restrictions by


defining compatibilities [Seite 107] that cover transshipment locations (for
example, between order characteristics and transshipment location or means of
transport and transshipment location). You should define these compatibilities in
such a way that a unique relationship between transshipment location and
source or destination location is passed on to the optimizer.

Example
Example 1
An order with source location A and destination location B is transported as follows: By truck
from A to harbor 1, then by ship from harbor 1 to harbor 2, then by truck once again from
harbor 2 to destination B. The system creates three shipments:
Shipment 1: A → harbor 1 (truck)
Shipment 2: Harbor 1 → harbor 2 (ship)
Shipment 3: Harbor 2 → B (truck)
Example 2
Several orders are transported from a distribution center by truck to transportation service
provider D, and then distributed to several customers using smaller trucks.
In both examples you model a two-step location hierarchy: The level 1 nodes are the
transshipment locations, the level 2 nodes are the source/destination locations of the orders.
In example 1, you assign the target location to the node Harbor 2 in the hierarchy and the
source location to harbor 1. If there is only one transfer (as in example 2), then it is sufficient
to assign the target location to the transshipment location D.
In example 2, however, you can also always ship every order directly from A to B with a truck,
that is, without transferring them to another vehicle. However, to do this, you must have
defined a direct transportation lane from A → B.

See also:
Transportation Lane [Extern]

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Consolidation
Use
During consolidation, the system automatically combines order items, delivery items, or order
schedule lines into freight units [Extern]. The system uses freight units to simulate the
deliveries that are created automatically in the ERP system for the orders for which the
system has created planned shipments during planning in the Transportation
Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS) component.
The system automatically executes consolidation when the following functions are called:
Interactive planning [Seite 67]
Optimization in the background [Seite 84]
Order split based on freight units [Seite 57]

Prerequisites
You have defined consolidation strategies [Seite 56].

Features
The system tries to consolidate the items or schedule lines. Here the system checks if the
following prerequisites are met:

● The start and destination locations of all items or schedule lines are the same.

● All the items or schedule lines are compatible (see Definition of Compatibilities [Seite
107]).

● The total quantity does not exceed the split quantity [Extern] (if defined).

● The requested delivery dates/times and material availability dates/times of all items or
schedule lines are the same.

● The split rule [Seite 59] is the same for all items or schedule lines (if defined).

● The transportation group is the same for all items or schedule lines.
If some of the prerequisites are not met, the system consolidates the items or schedule lines
so that all prerequisites are met within a group, in other words, a freight unit.

See also:
Dimensions and Units of Measurement [Seite 61]

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Consolidation Strategy
Definition
Procedure that determines whether order items, delivery items, or order schedule lines are to
be consolidated and how they are to be consolidated.

Use
The system takes into account consolidation strategies during consolidation [Seite 55]. You
define consolidation strategies in the definition of split rules [Seite 59].

Structure
The system supports the following consolidation strategies:

● Consolidate as much as possible (default case)


If the following prerequisites are met, the system consolidates the items or schedule
lines into a freight unit:

○ The start and destination locations of all items or schedule lines are the same.

○ All items or schedule lines are compatible.

○ The total quantity does not exceed the split quantity [Extern].

○ The split rule is the same for all items or schedule lines.

○ The transportation group is the same for all items and schedule lines.

○ The requested delivery dates/times and material availability dates/times of all


items or schedule lines are the same.
You can use the Consolidate per RDD and Consolidate per MAD indicators in
the split rule to control how the system is to procedure if requested delivery
dates/times and material staging dates/times for the items or schedule lines are
not the same. Either the system does not consolidate the items or schedule
lines, or it consolidates them while taking into account the earliest requested
delivery date or the latest material staging date.
If some of the prerequisites are not met, the system consolidates the items or schedule
lines so that all prerequisites are met within a group, in other words, a freight unit.

● Consolidate (only entire order)


This strategy differs from the Consolidate as much as possible strategy in so far as the
system creates freight units per item or schedule line even if some of the items or
schedule lines do not meet the prerequisites.

● Always consolidate
The system always creates a freight unit for each complete order or delivery.

● No consolidation
The system creates a freight unit per item or schedule line without checking the
prerequisites. In this case, no consolidation takes place.

Integration
When applying consolidation strategies, the system checks compatibilities. For more
information, see Definition of Compatibilities [Seite 107].

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Order Split Based on Freight Units


Use
You can use this function to automatically or manually split orders and outbound deliveries.
You use this function in the following cases, for example:

● A sales order must be delivered with multiple outbound deliveries due to its size.

● During loading, it becomes apparent that the available loading space is insufficient for
the entire outbound delivery. The outbound delivery must therefore subsequently be
split into multiple outbound deliveries.
In both cases, you must create multiple outbound delivery and shipment documents in the
ERP system.

Integration
● Integration with an ERP system is necessary for this function.

● Before the order split, the system automatically consolidates the relevant orders and
outbound deliveries into freight units.
For more information, see Consolidation [Seite 55].

Prerequisites
● You have defined split rules. In the split rule, you define the split quantity, the vehicle
capacity, and other split parameters. To do so, on the SAP Easy Access screen,
choose Advanced Planning and Optimization → Transportation Planning/Vehicle
Scheduling → Environment → Current Settings → Transportation Optimization →
Define Split Rules.
Split rules are required for the automatic order split, but are optional for the manual
order split.
For more information, see Split Rule [Seite 59].

● If you want to split outbound deliveries, the prerequisites for the subsequent delivery
split must be met in the ERP system:

○ The outbound delivery was not distributed to a decentralized Warehouse


Management system.

○ In Customizing for Logistics Execution under Shipping → Deliveries →


Subsequent Delivery Split, ensure that the default profile 0003 (Delivery Split -
LE Components) has not been changed or deleted.

○ No goods movement, billing document, or pick quantity that is still to be


confirmed exists for the outbound delivery (at least for the split quantity of an
item).

Features
You can execute the order split either in accordance with a split quantity [Extern] that you
have defined or in accordance with the vehicle capacity. If the order quantity or outbound
delivery quantity exceeds the split quantity or the vehicle capacity, the system splits the order
or the outbound delivery into split freight units. Item quantities that are not contained in a split
freight unit form the split remainder, which constitutes a separate freight unit.
When you trigger the generation of deliveries in the ERP system in the Transportation
Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS) component, the ERP system automatically creates a

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delivery for each split freight unit and the split remainder. For more information about
generating deliveries, see Transfer of Planned Shipments to SAP R/3 [Seite 149].
When you split outbound deliveries in TP/VS, a subsequent delivery split is automatically
executed after the transfer to the ERP system. For more information, see the SAP Library
under:

● SAP R/3 Enterprise Application Components → Logistics → Logistics Execution (LE)


→ Shipping (LE-SHP) → Delivery Processing → Subsequent Outbound Delivery Split

● SAP R/3 Enterprise Application Components → Logistics → Logistics Execution (LE)


→ Transportation (LE-TRA) → Transportation Planning → Creating Shipments →
Subsequent Delivery Split in Shipments

Restrictions
● You can use this function for the following types of orders and deliveries only:

○ Sales orders

○ Purchase orders

○ Stock transport orders

○ VMI sales orders

○ Outbound deliveries (as of SAP R/3 Enterprise Release 4.70)

● Applying split rules before optimization can increase the complexity of the optimization
run.

● The system does not create schedule lines for the orders and outbound deliveries that
you split. If the material availability date is to be determined in the Global ATP check
using the planning results from the Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling
(TP/VS) component, the system might use only one of several possible TP/VS
transportation dates/times (in particular the earliest goods issue date).

● The subsequent delivery split is available as of SAP R/3 Enterprise 4.70.

Activities
Automatic Order Split
...

1. When you call interactive planning [Seite 67] or planning in the background, the system
automatically splits all the orders and outbound deliveries in accordance with the split
rules.
2. To process the split result, for example, to resplit split freight units, you call the
transaction Create Freight Units (/SAPAPO/VSSP) from interactive planning.
For more information, see Manual Creation of Freight Units [Seite 65].

Manual Order Split


...
...

1. To perform a manual order split, on the SAP Easy Access screen, choose Advanced
Planning and Optimization → Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling → Planning
→ Create Freight Units.
2. Choose the required orders and outbound deliveries, and split them. Alternatively, you
can choose a split rule and apply it directly to the chosen orders and outbound
deliveries (using Set Rule).
For more information, see Manual Creation of Freight Units [Seite 65].
3. You can then call interactive planning and continue with planning.

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Split Rule
Definition
Combination of parameters that the system takes into account when it creates freight units.

Use
The system takes into account split rules when executing the following functions:

● Consolidation [Seite 55]

● Order split based on freight units [Seite 57]

Changing split rules during planning has an effect on unplanned freight units
only.

Structure
You define the following parameters, for example, in split rules:

Parameter for Consolidation


Consolidation strategy [Seite 56]

Parameters for the Order Split


You can define the following parameters: The system applies the parameters to unplanned
freight units and split remainders only.

● Proportional split
This parameter defines how the system is to distribute the quantities of the individual
order items to freight units during an order split (see Example of Proportional Split
[Seite 63]).

● Split quantity [Extern]

● Vehicle capacity
If you set the Use Veh. Cap. indicator, the system uses the vehicle capacity in the
relevant dimension as the split quantity.

● Rounding quantity

● Apply Manually indicator


If you set this indicator, the system does not automatically apply the split rule, but
instead, only applies it when you choose it as part of the manual order split.

Dimensions and Units of Measurement


The dimensions weight and volume are preconfigured as default. You can define up to eight
additional dimensions.
For more information, see Dimensions and Units of Measurement [Seite 61].

Requirements
By selecting conditions you can restrict the validity of a split rule to certain orders.
For more information about conditions, see Condition [Seite 109].

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To define split rules, on the SAP Easy Access screen, choose Advanced
Planning and Optimization → Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling →
Environment → Current Settings → Transportation Optimization → Define Split
Rules.

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Dimensions and Units of Measurement


You use dimensions [Extern] to group units of measurement. You need units of measurement
to display product quantities, for example, in interactive planning, for consolidation, and for
the order split. Furthermore, you need dimensions and units of measurement to describe the
capacity of vehicle resources [Seite 29].

Prerequisites
● You have defined the following in the product master data:

○ Base unit of measure [Extern] (BUoM)

○ Conversion factors

You need conversion factors to convert the base units of measure into the
required units of measurement. You define these in the product master on the
Units of Measure tab page.
If you have not defined a conversion factor, the system cannot take into account
split quantities or rounding quantities when orders are split based on freight
units [Seite 57], for example. In this case, it sets the quantities to zero.
If you use characteristics, you do not have to define conversion factors. In this
case, the system uses the characteristic value as the quantity.

● You have optionally defined your own units of measurement for the dimensions weight
and volume in Customizing for the Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling
(TP/VS) component under Basic Settings → Basic Settings for Vehicle Scheduling.

Use
In the split rule [Seite 59], you define the dimensions and units of measurement that you want
to use in TP/VS. The dimensions weight (with the default unit of measurement kilogram) and
volume (with the default unit of measurement cubic decimeter) are predefined as default. You
can define up to eight additional dimensions. We recommend that you restrict the number of
defined dimensions for performance reasons.

Example
The following units of measurement are predefined as default:

● Kilogram (dimension weight)

● Cubic decimeter (dimension volume)


You also define the following unit of measurement:

● Pallet (no dimension)


Your sales order contains product A and product B each of which have the quantity "1 piece".
You have defined piece as the base unit of measure (BUoM) for both products.
You have defined the following conversion factors for product A:

● 1 piece = 2 kg

● 1 piece = 3 dm3
You have defined the following conversion factor for product B:

● 1 piece = 0.5 pal

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In this case, product A is displayed in the planning view [Seite 69] with quantity 2 kg or 3 dm3.
In the unit of measurement pallet, the quantity 0 is displayed because you have not defined a
conversion factor.
Product B is displayed with the quantity 0.5 pal. Since you have not defined conversion
factors for kilogram or cubic decimeter, no conversion occurs. This system displays the value
0.

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Example of Proportional Split


You have created sales order 123 with the following items:

● Item 10 comprises 4 pallets of product A

● Item 20 comprises 7 pallets of product B

● Item 30 comprises 5 pallets of product C


You have defined "4 pallets" as the split quantity [Extern] and "1 pallet" as the rounding
quantity.
The following figure shows the split result when you select the various options:
Sales Order 123
Split Quantity: 4 Pallets
Rounding Quantity: 1 Pallet
10 Product A 4 Pallets
20 Product B 7 Pallets
30 Product C 5 Pallets

No Proportional Proportional
No Item
Proportional Split Split
Split (Weighted)
Split (Not Weighted)
Freight Units:

123-0001

123-0002

123-0003

123-0004

123

The following section describes the split result in detail:

● No item split
If you have set the No Item Split indicator in the split rule, the system groups the
products by processing the order items item by item. The system therefore creates the
following freight units (FUs): the four pallets of item 10 produce freight unit FU 123-
0001. FU 123-0002 comprises four of the seven pallets of item 20. The three remaining
pallets of this item produce FU 123-0003. FU 123-0004 comprises four of the five
pallets of item 30. The last pallet produces the split remainder FU 123.

● No proportional split
The system groups the products by processing the order items item by item. The
system therefore creates the following freight units (FUs): the four pallets of item 10
produce freight unit FU 123-0001. FU 123-0002 comprises the next four pallets, in
other words, the first four pallets of item 20, and so on. FU 123-0003 comprises the
remaining three pallets of item 20 as well as the first pallet of item 30, and so on. In the
case of this option, the system can combine different products in a freight unit.

● Proportional split (not weighted)


The system groups the products by processing all the order items. The system
therefore creates the following freight units (FUs): freight unit FU 123-0001 comprises a
pallet of item 10, a pallet of item 20, a pallet of item 30, and then another pallet of item
10. FU 123-0002 comprises a pallet of item 20, a pallet of item 30, and so on until all
the pallets are distributed to FUs.

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The freight unit quantity per item is calculated as follows:


Freight unit quantity = split quantity/number of order items

● Proportional split (weighted)


The system groups the products in accordance with the weighting of the individual item
quantities compared with the total quantity of the order items.
The freight unit quantity per item is calculated as follows:
Freight unit quantity = split quantity x item quantity / total quantity of order items
The freight unit quantity is rounded in accordance with the rounding quantity.
In this example, the freight unit quantity is calculated as follows:

○ Item 10
4 x 4 / 16 = 1

○ Item 20
4 x 7 / 16 = 1.75, is rounded up to 2

○ Item 30
4 x 5 / 16 = 1.25, is rounded down to 1

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Manual Creation of Freight Units


Use
As part of a manual order split, you can split orders and outbound deliveries by combining
their items into freight units and entering the corresponding quantities. You can also edit the
result of an automatic order split. For more information about the order split, see Order Split
Based on Freight Units [Seite 57].

Integration
When you call this function, the system automatically consolidates the relevant orders and
outbound deliveries into freight units. For more information, see Consolidation [Seite 55].

Prerequisites
If you want the system to take into account split rules, you must define split rules [Seite 59].

Features
With this function you can:

● Combine freight units


You can combine multiple freight units (multiple split freight units or split freight units
and split remainder) into one freight unit. This is only possible for the freight units of an
order or outbound delivery. Here, the system checks compatibilities and capacities (for
planned freight units).

● Split freight units


When you manually split freight units, split freight units that were created automatically
on the basis of split rules are overwritten.

● Change split freight units


You can change item quantities of split freight units or can move items from one split
freight unit to another. The system performs a capacity check for freight units already
planned.

● Delete split freight units


When you delete a split freight unit, the system adds its quantity to the split remainder.
If the freight unit for the split remainder is already planned, the system performs a
capacity check.

● Apply split rules


You can apply a split rule to the selected orders and outbound deliveries by choosing
the required split rule and then Set Rule.

● Perform complete delivery


You can perform a complete delivery for an order, an outbound delivery, or an order or
outbound delivery item. In this case, the system does not perform a split.

● Change the requested delivery date


You can change the requested delivery date or enter a requested delivery time frame.

Since the ERP system only knows the requested delivery date and not
requested delivery time frames, requested delivery time frames are saved in the

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Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS) component only. However,


for selections, for example, when the planning view is called (transaction
/SAPAPO/VS01), the system only takes into account the requested delivery
date from the ERP system and not the changed requested delivery date or
requested delivery time frame.

● Create deliveries in the ERP system

● Block freight units


You can block freight units for the optimization.

● Check freight units


The system checks capacities and compatibilities for the freight units. Here the system
takes into account the following:

○ Quantities of the freight unit for the split remainder cannot be changed.

○ Quantities of planned freight units can be changed.

○ Released freight units cannot be changed.

○ The total quantity of the split freight units can exceed the total quantity of the
original order (overdelivery).

Activities
To manually create freight units, on the SAP Easy Access screen, choose Advanced Planning
and Optimization → Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling → Planning → Create
Freight Units.

You can also execute the functions Combine Freight Units, Split Freight Units,
and Delete Split Freight Units by drag and drop.

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Interactive Planning
Purpose
Interactive planning allows you to assign orders (for example, sales orders, purchase orders,
stock transport orders, and returns) to vehicles resources [Seite 29]. You can assign the
orders to resources either manually [Seite 75] or using the optimizer [Seite 84]. As a result
you receive planned shipments that you can then process further.
You execute all these activities in the planning view [Seite 69] of interactive planning.
Alternatively, you can execute the optimization run in the background [Seite 139].

Prerequisites
● You have created orders in SAP R/3 and transferred them to SAP APO using the SAP
APO Core Interface.

● You have defined an optimization profile [Seite 91].

Process Flow
...

1. Choose Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling → Planning → Interactive Vehicle


Scheduling in the SAP APO menu (transaction /SAPAPO/VS01). The Vehicle
Scheduling – Selection screen appears.
2. Use the input help to select an optimization profile. In the optimization profile, you
define the orders that the system should take into account during planning. You also
select a planning horizon, order categories, locations, and so on, and define the
optimizer runtime in the optimization profile.

○ To make quick changes, you can edit individual profiles on this screen without
having to modify the optimization profile itself. If you want to make changes in
the optimization profile, you can go directly to the selected optimization profile
by choosing Optimization profile.

○ If a large number of resources or locations exist, it may make sense to use


resource selection. In the same way, you can select one or more orders or
shipments. Choosing orders only makes sense for displaying existing planned
shipments. Planning the orders is not possible.

○ You can save the selected settings as a variant.


Choose Execute. You are then in the planning view of interactive planning.

When you call the planning view, the system creates freight units [Extern] out of
the order schedule lines. For more information, see Consolidation [Seite 55].
3. You plan shipments either manually or using the optimizer.
4. You process the planning results as necessary.

Result
Once planning is complete, you can execute the next steps within the transportation planning
process, for example transportation service provider selection (TSP selection).

See also:
Maintaining Shipments Manually [Seite 75]
Maintaining Multimodal Shipments Manually [Seite 77]

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Optimization [Seite 84]


Transportation Service Provider Selection [Seite 111]

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Planning View
Definition
User interface for interactive planning of resources, shipments, and orders in Transportation
Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS).

Use
You use the planning view to:

● Solve planning problems interactively


You can plan and edit shipments interactively in the planning view.

● Display the planning situation graphically


You can display transportation activities, resources, and orders in the planning board of
the planning view.

Structure
The planning view includes the following screen areas:

● The selection bar (shuffler) in the left-hand area of the screen, which includes the
three views for selecting planning objects (resources, shipments, orders)

● Five tab pages in the right-hand area of the screen, for displaying and editing planning
objects:

○ Tabular Planning

○ Multilevel Planning

○ Overview Planning Board

○ Object Planning Board

○ Details
From the planning view, you can also execute a number of tasks that are part of the planning
process:
Starting the optimization run [Seite 89]
Selecting the transportation service provider [Seite 111]
Releasing shipments [Seite 128]
Calling the alert monitor [Extern]
Calling the application log [Seite 141]
Transferring planned shipments to SAP R/3 [Seite 149]
The following describes both screen areas in detail:
You use the selection bar (shuffler) to select the planning object for which you want to
display the details on the right of the screen, or want to edit. The selection bar includes the
following three processing views:
Resource View
In the resource view, the system displays all the vehicle resources selected using the
optimization profile or the selection screen. Depending on the capacity used of the vehicle
resource in the planning horizon, it gets a symbol that signals the load condition (empty
across the whole horizon or loaded). The system only displays the shipments assigned to a

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vehicle resource if you have selected the corresponding orders in the optimization profile or
selection screen. If you do not select the orders, you can display the shipments by double-
clicking the vehicle resource.
Shipment View
In the shipment view, the system displays all the shipments for which at least one shipment
activity lies completely or partially within the planning horizon. If you want to change a
shipment that has already been scheduled, double-click it and edit it in the right-hand screen
area (Tabular planning tab page). To delete shipments, select the corresponding shipments
and then choose Delete Shipments in the context menu.
Order View
In the order view, the system displays all planned and unplanned freight units [Extern].
You can change or add to the fields available in the editing view of the selection bar using a
user exit or BAdI (see Editing Field Contents [Seite 146]).
The tab pages on the right of the screen have the following uses:

Tabular Planning
On this tab page, you plan shipments manually [Seite 75]. You can also edit planning objects.
This tab page includes the following three tables:

● Shipment activities/itinerary
In this table, the system displays all the shipment activities (shipment
assignment/itinerary) that are assigned to the planning object. The shipment number,
the start, finish, and gross/net duration of the shipping activities are displayed.

● Assigned/unassigned freight units


The upper table (assigned freight units) displays all the freight units that are assigned
to the planning object.
The lower table (unassigned freight units) displays all the freight units that are not yet
scheduled and/or those to be scheduled, and that are relevant for the current planning
run.
You can change or add to the fields available in the tables using a user exit or BAdI (see
Editing Field Contents [Seite 146]).

Multilevel Planning
You use this tab page for manually planning interlinked or multimodal shipments [Seite 77]
(cross-docking).
You can change or add to the fields available in the tables using a user exit or BAdI (see
Editing Field Contents [Seite 146]).

Overview Planning Board


This tab page gives you a complete overview of all the planning objects selected using the
optimization profile. It includes the following screen areas:

● In the Transportation activities screen area, the orders are displayed with their
transportation activities on a time axis. This time axis corresponds to the planning
horizon defined in the optimization profile. The activities load, transport, and unload are
displayed in the form of bars, each in a different color. These bars include the start and
finish of activities.

● In the Resources screen area, all the resources involved in the shipments are
displayed: vehicle resources, loading resources (inbound/outbound) and resources
maintained in the opening times. Resource breaks are defined in gray.
For more information, see Using the Planning Boards [Seite 72].

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Object Planning Board


This tab page displays information about the planning objects displayed in the selection bar
(shuffler). It includes two screen areas as in the case of the overview planning board. The
information displayed depends on the view you choose in the selection bar.

● Resource view: Double-click a resource to display information relating to all the


shipment activities and orders connected to this resource in the object planning board.

● Shipment view: Double-click a shipment to display information relating to all the


resources and orders connected to this shipment in the object planning board.

● Order view: Double-click an order to display all the shipment and resource information
for the order in the object planning board.
For an object planning board that is already open, you can switch from one of the selected
views to another. The data in the object planning board changes accordingly.
For more information, see Using the Planning Boards [Seite 72].

Geographical Overview
On this tab page, you can display the routes of the shipments [Seite 73].

Details
On this tab page, you can display additional details for the planning object (resource,
shipment, or order) displayed in the selection bar (shuffler).

See also:
Status Overview [Seite 83]
Collaborative Transportation Planning [Seite 129]
Manual Order Combining [Seite 79]

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Using the Planning Boards


Prerequisites
You have created orders in SAP R/3 and transferred them to SAP APO.

Procedure
...

1. Choose Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling → Planning → Interactive Vehicle


Scheduling in the SAP APO menu.
2. Use the input help to select an optimization profile.
3. Choose Execute. The Vehicle Scheduling – Resource screen appears.
4. Select the Overview Planning Board or Object Planning Board tab page.
Most of the functions on these tab pages are available in context menus, which vary for each
screen area.

Display Functions
You have various possibilities to change the display period:

● Change the scale (view in hours, days, weeks, months, quarters, and years)

● Switch on/off full screen (switch between the current display and the overview of the
whole display period)

● Change start of diagram (set the start of the display period to the current date or to any
other date)

● Hide non-working time (for example, weekends)


Alternatively, you can set the start and end of the display period to the start date of the first or
the end date of the last graphical object. Select the desired object in the order list or resource
list and select the relevant option in the context menu.
For the current date, a vertical, red dashed line automatically appears in the display period.
A vertical dashed line, which you can move with the cursor, highlights the date the cursor is
on in the schedule. This date also appears in the status line at the bottom of the screen.
You can flag individual orders or resources in color or hide them from the list. To display a
hidden object once more, select it in the shuffler with a double mouse click. You can also
mark in color all the objects that belong to a selected order (for example, shipment activities
or resources).

Processing Functions
To display order or product data, you can branch directly to the order view or to the product
view or product master record.

Planning Functions
You can reschedule orders directly in the planning board or deallocate them.

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Displaying Routes for Shipments


Use
You can display one or more shipments on a road map on the tab page Geographical
Overview in interactive planning. A route can be displayed either as a road route, that is, the
exact route to be followed, or as a symbolic route, that is, a direct connection between the
individual locations. You can also display route descriptions with the travel time and distance
of the journey based on the road network.

Prerequisites
● You have installed an external GIS server (GIS = Geographical Information System)
and an IGS (Internet Graphics Server) and connected these to SAP APO.

● You have activated the map display for your user in Customizing for the component
Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS).

● You have created the geographical coordinates for the locations.

Features
Displaying Routes
The routes are displayed as colored lines. The start and destination locations and the stop-
offs are marked with a description in addition to the graphical display to provide a better
overview.
You can display the routes for shipments and for orders and resources to which shipments
are assigned. Note when selecting orders that in the case of a shipment with several orders,
the system only displays the route as far as the destination location of the selected orders.
If during the display you switch tab pages and select a different object in the selection bar (left
part of the screen), the system refreshes the road map display when you select the
Geographical Overview tab page again.

Displaying Route Description, Travel Time, and Distance


You can display a detailed route description for this shipment by choosing Route.

If you choose the arrow to the right of Selected Shipment and then choose the shipment
that you want, the travel time and distance are displayed on the basis of the road network for
this shipment. The distance is displayed in a user-defined unit (for example, mile, km).
To display the travel time and distance for all the displayed shipments, choose Overview.

Deleting Shipments from the Display


You can delete selected shipments from the road map by choosing Remove.
If you have not chosen a shipment to the right of Selected Shipment and you then choose
Remove, all shipments displayed on the road map are deleted.
If several shipments are displayed on the map and you have only selected one shipment to
the right of Selected Shipment, you can deselect this selected shipment by choosing the
arrow to the right of Selected Shipment and then the blank entry.

Changing the Layout of the Road Map


You can center the road map and zoom in and out. You can also move the map section and
return to the complete view at any time.

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Activities
...

1. From the SAP Easy Access screen, choose Advanced Planning and Optimization →
Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling → Planning → Interactive Vehicle
Scheduling.
2. Select an optimization profile and choose with quick info text Execute.
3. Choose the Geographical Overview tab page.
4. Selection one or more shipments in the selection bar and then Display. The system
displays the relevant section of the road map and the shipment routes.

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Maintaining Shipments Manually


Use
Along with automatic planning with the optimizer [Seite 84], interactive planning also allows
you to plan shipments manually.
For manual planning, the system takes the following constraints, among others, into account:

● Vehicle resource capacities (as long as you schedule the resource finitely)

● Resource availability

● Loading resources (inbound/outbound) to locations

● Opening times

● Trips to and from depot location (for your own means of transport)

● Empty runs

● Compatibilities/incompatibilities

● Pickup or delivery windows

● Schedules (only for multilevel manual planning)

● Wait time

● Maximum length of stay


You can plan interlinked shipments, multimodal shipments [Extern], and schedules in either
the optimizer [Seite 84] or manually in multilevel planning [Seite 77].

Procedure
Create Shipments
...

1. You are in the planning view [Seite 69]. Select a resource in the selection bar (shuffler).
The screen name displays the resource description.
2. On the Tabular Planning tab page, move freight units from the Unassigned Freight
Units table to the Assigned Freight Units table. You can do this using drag and drop or
by choosing Assign Order. You can remove a freight unit from the table using Remove
Assignment.
3. The Transportation Scheduling Specifications for Scheduling screen appears. There
you edit the:

○ Loading and unloading durations

○ Sequence of the stops

○ Transportation duration

○ Arrival or departure date and time


The system determines the default values for the loading durations from transportation
and shipment scheduling [Extern]. The system also generates a default value for the
itinerary, which it determines from the stop-offs at all start locations and all destination
locations. You define the sequence of stop-off points by adjusting the stop-off
sequence. The system reads the shipment duration from the data from the relevant
transportation lane. However, you can adjust this where necessary. You must enter at
least one date/time for each shipment (for example, the arrival time at the last

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destination location). After your confirmation, the system creates a shipment as long as
there is a possible date for the execution of the shipment in the planning horizon and
the resource selected has enough capacity.
4. Confirm your entries with Enter. The system adds a row with the relevant information in
the Shipping Activities/Itinerary table and in the Assigned Freight Units table.
You can display or change the created shipments in the shipment view in the selection
bar (shuffler).

Change Shipments
You reschedule a shipment by selecting it with a double-click in the shipment view of the
selection bar (shuffler), and then choosing Reschedule Shipment in the Shipping Activities
table.
If you add additional freight units to a shipment in the shipment view, the whole shipment is
rescheduled. You can do this until the shipment has been released.

Delete Shipments
You delete shipments by selecting them in the shipment view of the selection bar (shuffler)
and by then using the right mouse button to choose Delete Shipment in the context menu.
If you deallocate all the freight units assigned to a shipment, the system deletes the shipment.
If a shipment that is to be deleted has a freight unit assigned to it which is also assigned to
other shipments, the system removes the freight unit from all shipments. This function is
possible up until the shipment is released.

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Maintaining Multimodal Shipments Manually


Use
You can create multimodal shipments [Extern] either in optimization [Seite 84] or manually in
multilevel planning. You can take into account schedules in both cases. You can edit the
multimodal shipments created in the optimizer in multilevel planning, for example, changes
dates/times, remove orders from the shipment, or add orders to shipments.
One of the advantages of manual maintenance in multilevel planning as opposed to the
optimizer is that you do not have to define a transshipment hierarchy [Seite 53]. You also
avoid the restrictions of the optimizer, for example the maximum number of reloads.
Multilevel planning offers an interface for customer-specific heuristics. Heuristics support you
in planning by providing you with default values using algorithms for the shipment structure
(stages of shipment and resource assignment) on the basis of the selected orders and
resources. The basis for these default values are the selected orders and resources. You can
edit the shipment structure manually and use it as an initial solution for the optimizer.

Prerequisites
You can only use heuristics if you have activated them in Customizing. Otherwise the relevant
pushbutton is not active in multilevel planning.

Procedure
...

1. You are in interactive planning. In the shuffler (left screen area), select the resource
view and in the right screen area select the Multilevel Planning tab page.
2. Create stages of shipment. You can choose from the following:

○ Select a freight unit in the lower area of the screen and choose Create Stage(s).

○ Select a freight unit and drag them to the upper area of the screen using drag
and drop.

○ Choose New Stage and enter the required data.

○ If you want to create a default for a shipment structure using a heuristic, select
the required heuristic from the dropdown menu to the right of the Heuristics
button.
3. Assign a resource to the stage of the shipment by dragging the required resources from
the shuffler to the stage of the shipment using drag and drop. Alternatively, you can
also assign the resource using Assign resource in the shuffler. To do this, you must first
activate the checkbox of the stages to which you want to assign the resource.
You do not, however, have to assign any resources. You can initially create the
shipment without a resource and can then subsequently assign a resource to it during
transportation planning.

You assign schedule vehicles by choosing Change Stage. In the Schedule


Connection field, you can select the desired schedule connection.
4. You can calculate the unloading and loading duration for shipments by choosing
Calculate Un/Loading Duration.
If you want to define different unloading and loading durations for the individual
shipment stages, double-click the relevant shipment and enter the required values.

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The system does not take into account unloading and loading durations for
schedule vehicles.
5. In the standard system, the shipments are scheduled backwards, that is, starting from
the desired arrival date. If you want to use forward scheduling to schedule the
shipments, that is, starting from the desired departure date, choose Schedule
Forwards. If no arrival or departure date is available, the system uses the start or end
date of the planning horizon.

We recommend that you schedule forwards when using schedules in multilevel


planning.
6. Check the route if necessary by choosing Check Route and adopt the changes by
choosing Copy Changes.

Result
The system creates planned shipments and loads the assigned resources.

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Manual Order Combining


Use
You can interactively define that multiple orders or deliveries are to be delivered together. In
this way you ensure that the optimizer assigns them to the same planned shipment.

Features
You can combine the orders or deliveries in the planning view of interactive planning in both
tabular and multilevel planning by combining the corresponding freight units [Extern].
To do this, you assign the unplanned freight units that are to be delivered together to a freight
unit. This freight unit becomes the main freight unit. The optimizer then only takes this main
freight unit into account in the optimization run instead of the individual freight units.
Before the system assigns the unplanned freight units to the main freight unit, it executes the
following checks:

● Source/Destination Location
The system checks whether the source and destination locations of the freight units are
identical. If they are not identical, it issues an error message, since no assignment is
possible.

● Compatibilities [Seite 107]


The system then checks if the freight units are compatible with each other. After the
optimization, it checks whether the freight units and the planned shipment determined
by the optimizer are compatible.
If the system finds an incompatibility, for example, different means of transport, the
optimizer cannot generate the planned shipment.

● Material Availability Date/Requested Delivery Date


You have defined the window for the pickup or delivery [Seite 97]. The system checks
whether the material availability dates and the requested delivery dates of the freight
units are identical. If the dates are not identical, the system issues a warning message
and adopts the date from the main freight unit.

● Planned Freight Units


The system checks whether planned freight units are assigned to the main freight unit.
If this is the case, it issues an error message, since you are not allowed to assign
planned freight units to a main freight unit.

● Multiple Assignment
The system checks whether the main freight unit is assigned to another freight unit. If
this is the case, it issues an error message, since you are not allowed to assign a main
freight unit to other freight units.
The system marks the assigned freight units with the Indicator for “With Shipment”. This
corresponds to the number of the main freight unit.

To display the Indicator for “´With Shipment”, you must add the relevant column
to the layout in interactive planning.
When you refresh the planning view, the assignments remain. When you leave the planning
view, the system deletes the assignments.

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Deleting Assignments
You can delete assignments using the context menu.

Activities
...

1. Assign the required unplanned freight units to a main freight unit. You have the
following options:

○ You select the unplanned freight units that are to be delivered together and
assign them to a freight unit in the selection bar (left part of the screen) by drag
& drop. This freight unit becomes the main freight unit.

○ You select the unplanned freight units that are to be delivered together and use
the relevant option in the context menu to combine them. This highest freight
unit selected becomes the main freight unit.
2. Start the optimizer. The optimizer creates planned shipments. When doing so, the
optimizer only takes into account the main freight unit, instead of the individual freight
units.

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Changing Delivery Dates/Times in SAP R/3 from


TP/VS
Use
In Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS), you can plan for different kinds of
document, for example sales orders, purchase orders, inbound and outbound deliveries. In
the planning process, shipments are created in the form of the corresponding activities (load,
unload, ship). This can mean that the dates/times of deliveries already sent to SAP R/3 (for
example, material staging date, transportation planning date, shipping activities) no longer
correspond to the new dates resulting from the loading and unloading activities in TP/VS.
However, since the dates are a main prerequisite for executing shipping activities, these
dates have to be updated in SAP R/3.

Prerequisites
● System prerequisites: SAP R/3 4.7

● You have activated the change logic for deliveries in SAP APO Customizing
(Advanced Planning and Optimization (SAP APO) → Transport Planning/Vehicle
Scheduling (TP/VS) → Basic Settings → Basic Settings for Vehicle Scheduling).

● If you want the system to retrieve the change status of deliveries in SAP R/3 when
transaction /SAPAPO/VS01 is called, you must set the Determine Change Status of
Deliveries indicator in the Optimization Profile.

Features
You can update the dates/times of sales order in SAP R/3 using backorder processing
[Extern].
The process is different for deliveries and inbound deliveries. If you have activated change
status retrieval in the optimization profile, the system automatically determines in SAP R/3
whether or not deliveries can be changed, when you call interactive planning (transaction
/SAPAPO/VS01). The system then displays the status in TP/VS. For example, a delivery that
has already been picked is “not changeable”.

The system displays the status in interactive planning in the “Change Status”
field for all unscheduled transportation units. You must first copy this field to the
column selection in the right screen area using “Layout Settings”.
From interactive planning, you then trigger the transfer of the altered dates to SAP R/3. To do
this, you select the desired shipments in the shuffler and then Synchronize Delivery Dates in
the context menu. If the delivery has the status “Not modifiable”, the system issues a warning
message. In this case, you cannot transfer the modified date. If a delivery has the status
“changeable”, the dates are automatically transferred, compared in SAP R/3 and then sent
back to TP/VS.
Even if you have not activated the determination of the change status of deliveries, you can
change delivery dates in SAP R/3 from TP/VS. If a delivery has the status “not changeable”,
SAP APO also displays a warning message and the modified date cannot be transferred.
You can create a history of all changes to shipments. You can call the history in two ways:

● In interactive planning: Display change history symbol

● Using the menu: SAP Easy Access Menu → Transportation Planning/Vehicle


Scheduling (TP/VS) → Environment → OLTP Interface → Display Change History for
Transports

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A prerequisite for displaying the change history is that you have entered a
retention duration (in days) of a value not equal to zero. In SAP APO
Customizing, choose Advanced Planning and Optimization → Transportation
Planning/Vehicle Scheduling → Basic Settings → Basic Settings for Vehicle
Scheduling.

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Status Overview
Use
The following figure shows an overview of all the statuses that are used in Transportation
Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS):

S h ip m e n t S h ip m en t
A c tio n S ta tu s A c tio n T e n d e rin g S ta tu s
S h ip m e n t P la n n e d F o r s h ip m e n t te n d e rin g
u s in g In te rn e t o r E D I
R e le a s e
(p u b lis h )
P u b lis h e d
G e n e ra te (re le a s e d )
d e liv e r y S h ip m e n t
te n d e rin g T e n d e re d

C h e c k re le a s e o f
S h ip m e n t TSP
p la n n e d s h ip m ts s e le c te d fo r re s p o n s e
tra n s fe r
T ra n s fe r p la n n e d
s h ip m e n t to S A P Tender
a c c e p te d
R /3 S h ip m e n t S ta tu s
tra n s fe rre d to T e n d e r a c c e p te d
O L T P s ys te m O b je c t
S u c c e s s fu l w ith c h a n g e s
A c tio n
Tender
re fu s e d

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Optimization
Use
The aim of optimization in the component Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling
(TP/VS) is to assign orders to vehicles cost-effectively whilst taking into account certain
constraints [Seite 94] and to determine the sequence of deliveries and transportation dates.

Prerequisites
● You have defined the master data for optimization in Customizing for SAP APO under
Basis Settings → Optimization → Basic Functions → Maintain Master Data for
Optimization Server (for example the network connections to the optimization server
and the maximum number of users).

● You have defined an optimization profile in Customizing for TP/VS under Optimizer →
Define Optimization Profile. You define the settings for the optimizer in the
optimization profile.

● You have defined a cost profile in the SAP APO master data under Master Data →
Application-Specific Master Data → Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling →
Maintain Vehicle Scheduling Costs. You define the costs that the system is to minimize
in the optimizer in the cost profile [Seite 41].

● You have created transportation lanes and made the settings relevant to TP/VS in the
SAP APO master data under Master Data → Transportation Lane → Transportation
Lane. For more information, see TP/VS-Relevant Transportation Lane Settings [Seite
39].

● In the case of multimodal shipments or transshipments, you have defined a


transshipment hierarchy [Seite 53].

Features
The optimizer generates planned shipments from the optimization data [Seite 86] (that is,
orders, deliveries, and vehicles). When doing this, the optimizer processes planned
shipments already available from a previous optimization run or manual planning.
The optimizer also generates additional planned shipments by using heuristic criteria to
distribute the orders and deliveries to vehicles. When doing this, the optimizer does not take
into account planned shipments that already exist. The best of these initial solutions [Seite 88]
make up the starting point of the search process.
The optimizer then modifies these initial solutions step-by-step, for example, by loading an
order on to another vehicle or changing the delivery sequence of a vehicle. When doing this,
the optimizer tries to minimize the total costs [Seite 87] while adhering to the constraints.
At the end of the planning run, the optimizer returns the best solution found. For example, if
the costs defined for non-delivery of an order are lower than the costs for shipping the order,
the order will not be delivered.

You can have the optimizer check if planned shipments that you have created
manually adhere to the constraints. The optimization run is then ended after
these planned shipments have been evaluated, that is, the optimizer does not
generate any more planned shipments and does not modify the existing planned
shipments.
For information about ending optimization runs before they are finished, see Optimization Run
Termination [Extern].

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Activities
You have two options for executing the optimization:

● Interactively in the planning view. For more information, see Executing Interactive
Optimization [Seite 89].

● In the background. On the SAP Easy Access screen, choose Advanced Planning and
Optimization → Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling → Planning → Planning in
the Background → Schedule Optimization Run.

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Optimization Data
Definition
Data for which the system optimizes planning during optimization [Seite 84].

Structure
Optimization data includes the following data:

● All the orders (for example, sales orders and purchase orders) and deliveries that you
have selected in the optimization profile

● All the planned orders and deliveries that lie within the demand horizon and planning
horizon or which are assigned to chosen vehicle resources [Extern]

● All the vehicle resources that you have chosen in the optimization profile
The following transportation lanes are also part of the optimization data:

● Transportation lanes for all the means of transport chosen in the cost profile [Seite 41]
for which you have chosen vehicle resources in the optimization profile

● Transportation lanes between all the relevant locations of the optimization run (source
and destination locations of the orders selected, transshipment locations [Extern], and
depot locations)

● Transportation lanes for all the schedule-based means of transport selected in the cost
profile for which there is an itinerary linking the relevant locations

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Total Costs
Definition
Costs that the system minimizes during optimization [Seite 84].

Structure
The total costs comprise the following costs:

● Fixed transportation costs

● Variable transportation costs for each unit for the dimensions duration, distance, stop-
offs, and transported quantity/distance

● Earliness costs

● Lateness costs

● Costs for non-delivery

● Load costs
You define these costs in the cost profile [Seite 41]. You can also find more information there.
Before the optimization run starts, you can influence the weighting of these costs by
specifying a factor.

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Initial Solution
Definition
Solution that the optimizer generates, evaluates, and then optimizes. There are two types of
initial solution:

● The existing planned shipments from a previous optimization run or manual planning
form an initial solution.

● The optimizer generates additional initial solutions by distributing orders and deliveries
to vehicle resources using heuristic criteria.

Use
The optimizer can only process, and, where necessary, improve existing planned shipments
from a previous optimization run or manual planning as an initial solution, if they meet the
following prerequisites:

● They must not be released (the optimizer does not change released planned
shipments during the optimization run).

● They must lie completely within the planning horizon.

● If they belong to an interlinked shipment, this shipment must lie within the planning
horizon.

● They must use connections with transportation lanes.

● They must lie in selected vehicle resources.

● They must not violate any incompatibilities.

● If they are part of an interlinked shipment, this shipment must be valid for optimization
(for example, an order can be transferred to another vehicle a maximum of two times
and the transshipment locations must correspond to the transshipment locations
defined in the hierarchy).

● If they belong to schedule vehicle resources, the schedule data must be correct
(differences in the schedule data can occur if schedule times or the itinerary change).
The optimizer filters planned shipments that do not meet these prerequisites before the
optimization run begins. The optimizer then checks the validity of the initial solution. An initial
solution is invalid, for example, in the following cases:
• You have manually entered values for the durations (transportation, loading/unloading)
or changed the values since the shipment was scheduled. These values therefore
deviate from the standard values defined in the master data at the time of planning.
• The optimizer plans two successive shipments to the same vehicle resource that is not
one of your own vehicle resources. The optimizer cannot plan the journey of the vehicle
resource from the end of the first planned shipment to the start of the second planned
shipment because there is not enough time available.
Only if the initial solution is valid can the optimizer use it and execute the optimization run.

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Executing Interactive Optimization


Prerequisites
See Optimization [Seite 84]

Procedure
...

1. On the SAP Easy Access screen, choose Advanced Planning and Optimization →
Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling → Planning → Interactive Vehicle
Scheduling.
The Vehicle Scheduling – Selection screen appears.
2. Choose the required optimization profile and then Execute.
The Vehicle Scheduling – Resource screen appears.

■ You can use Do not optimize order to exclude orders from the
optimization run.

■ If you choose Change Shipment Fixing for a shipment, the system does
not take it into account in the optimization run.
3. To call the optimizer, choose VS Optimization. The Optimizer Settings dialog box
appears.
4. Choose Interactive and make additional settings, as required.

■ For example, you can change the planning horizon. However, here you
cannot enter an earlier start date or a later end date. This means that
you can only enter a later start date or an earlier end date.

■ If you choose the option In Background instead of Interactive, the system


executes optimization in the background. In this case, the additional
steps are not required.

■ If you choose Only Selected Objects, the system executes optimization


only for individual vehicle resources and orders that you have chosen
before in the planning view. In this way, you can add orders to a planned
shipment or execute optimization again for individual vehicle resources,
for example.
5. The VS Optimization screen appears. There you can make the following settings, for
example, for the optimization run:

○ Define the weighting of costs [Seite 87]


To do this, choose Optimization Profile and then the Cost Factors tab page.

○ End the optimization run after the initial solution [Seite 88] has been evaluated
To do this, choose Optimization Profile and then the Basic Settings tab page.
6. Choose Start Optimization Run to execute the optimization.
The system executes the optimization run. The following results are displayed:

○ Weighted or unweighted resulting costs

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○ Information about temporary solutions


If you want to display the solution process for another parameter, double-click it
in the Current solution area. If you want to display the solution process for
several parameters, select the requested parameters and choose Show values.

○ Additional information, for example:

■ Resulting costs broken down by vehicle


The values displayed are based on the costs defined in the cost profile
[Seite 41].

■ Details about transportation lanes


If you work with transportation zones, the system displays all the relevant
transportation lanes that were generated during the runtime here.

○ Overview of the best solution (end result of optimization)

○ Details about messages


7. When you exit the optimizer, you can choose whether you want to adopt or reject the
planned shipments that have just been generated.
If you adopt the new planned shipments, you can then continue to process these in
interactive planning.

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Editing the Optimization Profile


To call the individual functions in the table, choose from the SAP Easy Access screen,
Advanced Planning and Optimization → Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS).
Function Navigation
Define optimization profile → Environment → Current Settings → Transportation
Optimization → Define Optimization Profile
Or choose the following path in Customizing for TP/VS:
Advanced Planning and Optimization → Transportation
Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS) → Optimizer → Define
Optimization Profile.
Change, delete, copy → Environment → Current Settings → Transportation
optimization profile Optimization → Define Optimization Profile
Check optimization profile → Environment → Current Settings → Transportation
settings Optimization → Define Optimization Profile. Then choose
Check Optimization Profile Settings.
Start interactive planning from → Environment → Current Settings → Transportation
the optimization profile Optimization → Define Optimization Profile. Then choose Start
VS.
Edit optimization profile from the → Planning → Interactive Vehicle Scheduling. Then choose
selection screen for interactive Optimization Profile.
planning

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Demand Horizon and Planning Horizon in


Optimization
Definition
Planning and demand period in which shipments are to take place. You define the demand
and planning horizon as part of the optimization profile for the component Transportation
Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS). To execute planning in TP/VS, you must define both of
these horizons.

Use
Demand Horizon
The following figure shows how the demand horizon is defined:

Start of demand End of demand


Current date horizon horizon

Offset

Demand Horizon

= Order
= Material availability date
= Requested delivery date

The demand horizon specifies which orders (for example, sales orders and purchase orders)
and deliveries are included in planning. The system chooses all orders and deliveries whose
requested delivery date lies within the demand horizon. You can also specify that the system
is select the orders and deliveries based on the material availability date.
You can define the demand horizon as fixed or relative:

● Fixed: You define the demand horizon precisely by defining a start and end date and a
start and end time.

● Relative: You do not define the demand horizon with precise dates and times, but
specify instead a duration in days starting from the current date. The system then
automatically determines the start and end date and the start and end time.
If the demand horizon is not to start on the current date, but instead at a later time, you
can define an offset.
According to this, the relative demand horizon is defined as follows:
Start of demand horizon = current date + defined offset

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End of demand horizon = current date + defined offset + defined duration of demand
horizon

Planning Horizon
The following figure shows how the planning horizon is defined:

Start of planning End of planning


Current date horizon horizon

Offset

Planning Horizon

= Order
= Material availability date
= Requested delivery date

The planning horizon contains information about when shipments are scheduled.
You can define the planning horizon as fixed or relative:

● Fixed: You define the planning horizon precisely by defining a start and end date and
a start and end time.

● Relative: You do not define the planning horizon with precise dates and times, but
specify instead a duration in days starting from the current date. The system then
automatically determines the start and end date and the start and end time.
If the planning horizon is not to start on the current date, but instead at a later time, you
can define an offset.
The relative planning horizon must not lie in the past.
In the case of the relative planning horizon, you can specify the time zone in which the
horizon is to be calculated.
According to this, the relative planning horizon is defined as follows:
Start of planning horizon = current date + defined offset
End of planning horizon = current date + defined offset + defined duration of planning
horizon

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Constraints for Optimization


Use
The optimizer takes into account constraints when assigning orders and deliveries to vehicle
resources. You can differentiate between hard and soft constraints:

● The optimizer always adheres to hard constraints.

● You model soft constraints using penalty costs, for example, lateness costs that are
part of the total costs [Seite 87].
The optimizer minimizes the total costs in the optimization run while adhering to the hard
constraints. By appropriately weighting the penalty costs in the total costs, you can influence
the priority of adhering to the soft constraints. If, for example, you give a greater weighting to
the penalty costs, the optimizer’s main aim is to adhere to the constraints. If, however, you
give a lesser weighting to the penalty costs, the optimizer first deals with other parts of the
costs (for example, minimum number of vehicle resources) and accepts the violation of the
soft constraints.

Hard constraint: Loading capacities of a vehicle resource. The optimizer can


only schedule orders within existing transportation capacities.
Soft constraint: Requirement dates of sales orders. The optimizer can also
schedule a sales order after the requested delivery date. In this case, lateness
costs are incurred.

Features
The following table shows the planning data that the optimizer considers as constraints:
Planning Data Constraint Comment
Loading capacities Hard
Loading resources Hard
(inbound/outbound) and
opening times
Incompatibilities [Seite 107] Hard
Pickup Soft The optimizer can also
schedule the pickup of the
order before or after the
material availability date. In
this case, earliness or lateness
costs are incurred. You can
define tolerances for the early
or late pickup without penalty
costs (see Definition of
Windows [Seite 97]).
Hard The optimizer can only
schedule the pickup for the
material availability date. You
can define tolerances within
which an early or late pickup is
allowed (see Definition of
Windows [Seite 97]).
Soft and hard A combination of the options

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described above
Delivery Soft The optimizer can also
schedule the delivery of the
order before or after the
requested delivery date. In this
case, earliness or lateness
costs are incurred. You can
define tolerances for the early
or late delivery without penalty
costs (see Definition of
Windows [Seite 97]).
Hard The optimizer can only
schedule the delivery for the
requested delivery date. You
can define tolerances within
which an early or late delivery
is allowed (see Definition of
Windows [Seite 97]).
Soft and hard A combination of the options
described above
Journey to depot for own Hard
means of transport
Loading and unloading Hard
durations
Schedules [Seite 45] of means Hard
of transport (trains, ships,
airplanes, and trucks)
Minimum goods wait time Hard Only relevant for cross-
[Extern] at the location docking [Seite 53]
Maximum goods wait time Hard Only relevant for cross-
[Extern] at the location docking [Seite 53]
Distance traveled (for each Soft The optimizer attempts to
vehicle resource) schedule the shortest distance
possible.
Hard The distance must not be
greater than the value defined
in the cost profile.
Soft and hard A combination of the options
described above
Journey duration (for each Soft The optimizer attempts to
vehicle resource) schedule the shortest duration
possible.
Hard The duration must not be
greater than the value defined
in the cost profile.
Soft and hard A combination of the options
described above
Number of stop-offs (for each Soft The optimizer attempts to
vehicle resource) schedule as few stop-off as
possible.

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Hard The number of stop-offs must


not be greater than the value
defined in the cost profile.
Soft and hard A combination of the options
described above
Wait time [Extern] Hard The optimizer does not take
into account the wait time for
trailers.
Maximum length of stay Hard The optimizer does not take
[Extern] into account the maximum
length of stay for trailers.
Decreasing capacities [Seite Hard
44]
Compartment capacities Hard
Capacities of means-of- Hard
transport combinations

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Definition of Windows
Use
You use windows to control when goods are to be picked up and delivered. The optimizer
then schedules the pickup or delivery exactly in the window that you have defined. If there
were no windows, the optimizer would schedule these dates in such a way that the total costs
were as low as possible.
You can also control how the optimizer is to deal with cases where these windows are not
taken into account, that is, whether the optimizer is to calculate penalty costs.
You can map the following cases:

● The goods are picked up too early or too late, for example, for the outbound delivery of
a sales order.

● The goods are delivered too early or too late, for example, for the inbound delivery of a
sales order or purchase order.

Prerequisites
● If you want to create soft constraints for the delivery window from previous releases or
hard constraints for early pickup, you must execute the upgrade report
/SAPAPO/VS_UPGRADE_SCM_41.

● You have implemented SAP Notes 560, 661185, and 675126. These ensure that
shipping data from SAP R/3 is updated in SAP APO.

Features
You create windows by defining tolerances within which a late or early pickup or delivery is to
be allowed. You specify for each tolerance whether the optimizer is to consider it as a hard,
soft, or soft and hard constraint [Seite 94]. In this way, you control whether the optimizer
calculates penalty costs when the constraints are not adhered to. The optimizer takes into
account the values that you have defined in the cost profile.
The requested delivery date [Extern] of the order is the basis for calculating the tolerances of
the early or late delivery of goods. In the case of an early or late pickup, the material
availability date [Extern] of the order is used as the basis. You can also define that the exact
time of the requested delivery date or the material availability date is to be taken into account.
You can define the following tolerances:

● Maximum earliness

● Earliness without penalty costs

● Maximum lateness

● Lateness without penalty costs


For more information about the link between tolerances and constraints, see this example
[Seite 99].
You can restrict windows to certain optimization profiles. You can also restrict windows to one
or more orders by defining conditions [Seite 109].
Pickup and delivery windows are also taken into account in manual planning (including
multilevel planning), but only for hard constraints. However, the system simply issues a
warning message if they are not adhered to.
You can use Business Add-In (BAdI) /SAPAPO/VS_FUNIT to define customer-specific
windows. It offers additional options for changing costs.

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Using a delivery window from another system


If you have defined a delivery window at order level in another system, the delivery windows
defined in the component Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS) are ignored.
The following table shows how SAP APO adopts the dates/times of the delivery window:
Type of date Maximum Maximum Earliness Lateness
constraint earliness lateness without without
penalty costs penalty costs
No constraint - - - -
Soft constraint - - RDDfrom RDDto
(costs)
Hard constraints RDDfrom RDDto - -
Hard and soft RDDfrom RDDto - -
constraint
RDDfrom - RDDto is the requested delivery time frame, where RDDfrom < RDDto.

Activities
To define windows, choose from the SAP Easy Access screen: Advanced Planning and
Optimization → Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling → Environment → Current
Settings → Transportation Optimization → Define Pickup/Delivery Windows. You can also
define windows in the planning view [Seite 69] (menu Edit).
You can display the following in the planning view either by choosing Pickup/Delivery Info or
on the Details tab page:

● The active windows for your orders

● The dates that the optimizer has calculated for the pickup or delivery (that is, goods
issue or goods receipt).
You can use the information displayed to determine why the optimizer has scheduled an
order in a certain way.

See also:
Optimization [Seite 84]

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Date Constraints for Delivery Date


You have defined the following tolerances:

Δearly = 2 days (tolerance for early delivery without penalty costs)


Δearliest = 3 days (tolerance for maximum earliness)
Δlate = 1 day (tolerance for late delivery without penalty costs)
Δlatest = 2 days (tolerance for maximum lateness)
The requested delivery date is 10.01., 12:00. The solid red curve specifies that you do not
want to take into account the exact time of the requested delivery date. The dotted blue curve
specifies that you want to take into account the exact time.
The following figures show how these tolerances affect the delivery date, depending on
whether you define them as hard, soft, or soft and hard constraints.
Figure 1: Soft constraints for early and late delivery

Costs

Δ early Δ late

Δ early Δ late

Time
06.01. 07.01. 08.01. 09.01. 10.01. 11.01. 12.01. 13.01. 14.01. 15.01.

In this case, a late delivery is allowed until 12.01. (solid red curve). No penalty costs are
calculated. A delivery after 12.01. is allowed, but penalty costs will be incurred.
An early delivery can occur at the earliest on 08.01. without penalty costs being incurred. If
the delivery occurs before 08.01., penalty costs will be incurred.
If you have specified that the system is to take into account the exact time of the requested
delivery date (dotted blue curve), penalty costs will be incurred for a late delivery after 11.01.,
12:00 and for an early delivery before 08.01., 12:00.

Figure 2: Hard constraints for early and late delivery

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Costs

Δ earliest Δ latest

Early Late
delivery not Δ earliest Δ latest delivery
permitted not
permitted

Time
06.01. 07.01. 08.01. 09.01. 10.01. 11.01. 12.01. 13.01. 14.01. 15.01.

In this case, a late delivery is not allowed after 13.01. (solid red curve). The delivery can occur
at the earliest on 07.01.
If you have specified that the system is to take into account the exact time of the requested
delivery date (dotted blue curve), a delivery is not allowed after 12.01., 12:00 and before
07.01., 12:00.

Figure 3: Soft and hard constraints for early and late delivery
Costs

Late
Early delivery
delivery not not
permitted permitted

Time
06.01. 07.01. 08.01. 09.01. 10.01. 11.01. 12.01. 13.01. 14.01. 15.01.

In this case, a late delivery is allowed after 10.01. (solid red curve). However, penalty costs
will be incurred if the delivery occurs on 12.01. A delivery after 13.01. is not allowed.
An early delivery is allowed from 07.01. However, penalty costs will be incurred if the delivery
occurs on 07.01. A delivery before 07.01. is not allowed.
If you have specified that the system is to take into account the exact time of the requested
delivery date (dotted blue curve), a late delivery is not allowed after 12.01., 12:00. Penalty
costs will be incurred for a delivery between 11.01., 12:00 and 12.01., 12:00.
An early delivery before 07.01., 12:00 is not allowed. Penalty costs will be incurred for a
delivery between 07.01., 12:00 and 08.01., 12:00.

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Dynamic Route Determination


Use
This function performs automatic transportation planning and scheduling without calling the
optimizer. As a result, you get shipment proposals and the relevant dates/times.
The ERP system automatically triggers dynamic route determination when you create or
change sales orders. For more information, see Dynamic Route Determination from the ERP
System [Seite 25].
You can also perform dynamic route determination interactively for your orders (sales orders,
purchase orders, and so on) and deliveries from the planning view of the Transportation
Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS) component. Simulation and background modes are also
available.

Prerequisites
● You have defined a route determination profile [Seite 104]. To do so, on the SAP Easy
Access screen, choose Advanced Planning and Optimization → Transportation
Planning/Vehicle Scheduling → Environment → Current Settings → Dynamic
RouteDetermination → Define Route Determination Profile.

● If you want dynamic route determination to be triggered automatically from the ERP
system, the following prerequisites must be met:

○ You are using SAP R/3 Release 4.6C or higher (ERP system).

○ You have installed the Global Availability Check (Global ATP Check) [Extern].

○ You have executed the report ATP_BASIC_SETTING in the ERP system,


including setting the Retransfer ATP Desired Dates indicator. We recommend
that you also set the Group Check w/o Delivery Group and Grp Check with
Background EDI indicators to enable the system to check multiple items from a
document at the same time.

○ You have activated dynamic route determination for the required order type in
Customizing for TP/VS under Dynamic Route Determination → Activate
Dynamic Route Determination.

○ If you want the system to perform an order split based on freight units [Seite
57], you must choose the relevant area in the split rule [Seite 59].

○ If you want the system to restart dynamic route determination if the required
quantity is not available on the required material availability date, you must set
the ATP-Conf. Quantities indicator in Customizing for TP/VS under Basic
Settings → Basic Settings for Vehicle Scheduling.

● If you want to call dynamic route determination in TP/VS from the planning view or in
the background, you have specified the required route determination profile in the
optimization profile or have specified that the system is to determine a route
determination profile. To do so, on the SAP Easy Access screen, choose Advanced
Planning and Optimization → Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling →
Environment → Current Settings → Transportation Optimization → Define Optimization
Profile (General tab page).

Features
Dynamic route determination performs the following steps, for example:

● Geographical determination

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The system determines shipment proposals for the sales order items on the basis of
the following data, for example:

○ Transportation lanes

○ Transshipment locations (a maximum of two)

○ Compatibilities

○ Means of transport (in accordance with your settings in the route determination
profile)

● Assignment of vehicle resources


The system determines suitable vehicle resources for the shipment proposals. Here the
system takes into account the following:

○ Compatibilities

○ Capacities

○ Assignment of vehicle resources to existing shipments

● Scheduling
The system performs scheduling on the basis of the following data, for example:

○ Loading resources and resources maintained in opening times

○ Pickup or delivery windows

○ Schedules

○ Minimum or maximum goods wait times at transshipment locations

○ Calendars and working times for vehicle resources

○ Existing shipments

● Check of transportation allocations of transportation service providers (TSPs)


The system checks the transportation allocations of the TSPs for the shipment
proposals. As a prerequisite, you must have set the TSP Capacity Check indicator in
the route determination profile.
For more information, see Check Against Transportation Allocations [Seite 120].

● Determination of transportation and penalty costs


The system determines TSP-dependent costs and TSP-independent costs for the
shipment proposals.

○ Determination of TSP-dependent costs


Here the system takes into account the following costs:

■ APO-internal costs

■ ERP costs

■ Costs that were determined using the Business Add-In (BAdI)


/SAPAPO/VS_RG_COST

○ Determination of TSP-independent costs


The system determines the costs on the basis of the cost profile, for example,
costs for earliness or delay. Here the system takes into account the pickup and
delivery windows.

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SAP delivers these steps, in the sequence specified, in the default strategy 50_DEFAULT
with the following methods:

● 50_DND Dynamic route determination

● 50_RSEL Resource selection

● 50_SCHD Scheduling

● 50_CAPA TSP capacity check

● 50_CCAL Cost calculation


You can define your own strategies in accordance with your requirements, for example, by
deleting steps, adding additional steps, or ordering your steps differently. You define
strategies in Customizing for TP/VS under Dynamic Route Determination. You can also use
various BAdIs for incorporating customer-specific solutions in Customizing for TP/VS.

Dynamic route determination does not support trailers, compartments, or


decreasing capacities.
For more information, see SAP Note 307611 that contains answers to frequently
asked questions.

Activities
● To call dynamic route determination from the planning view, on the SAP Easy Access
screen, choose Advanced Planning and Optimization → Transportation
Planning/Vehicle Scheduling → Planning → Interactive Vehicle Scheduling. Choose
the required freight units and Dyn. Route Determination.

● To simulate dynamic route determination [Seite 106], on the SAP Easy Access screen,
choose Advanced Planning and Optimization → Transportation Planning/Vehicle
Scheduling → Environment → Current Settings → Dynamic Route Determination →
Simulate Dynamic Route Determination.

● To execute dynamic route determination in the background, on the SAP Easy Access
screen, choose Advanced Planning and Optimization → Transportation
Planning/Vehicle Scheduling → Planning → Planning in the Background → Schedule
Dynamic Route Determination Run.

See also:
Scheduling with Dynamic Route Determination [Extern]

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Route Determination Profile


Definition
Profile that contains control parameters for dynamic route determination.

Use
You can use the route determination profile to define the steps that route determination is to
execute and for which orders.

Structure
You can define the following parameters, for example, in the route determination profile:

● Strategy
The strategy controls the steps that dynamic route determination performs. SAP
delivers a standard strategy. You can define your own strategies in Customizing for
Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS) under Dynamic Route
Determination.

● Sorting
You use the Sorting indicator to define how the system is to sort the results of dynamic
route determination, for example, by total costs.

● Simulation mode
You use the Do Not Save/Block indicator to control whether the system is to save
shipment proposals and block resources.

Note that you block resources for other users if you do not set the indicator.

● Interactive selection
You can use the Interactive Selection indicator to control whether the system displays
all the shipment proposals that it determines during dynamic route determination on the
user interface, or if it is to automatically select the best shipment proposal in the
background.
If there are multiple freight units assigned to different route determination profiles and
you have set this indicator in at least one of these route determination profiles, the
system displays the shipment proposals for all the freight units on the user interface.
The system only automatically selects the best shipment proposal in the background if
you have not set this indicator in any of the route determination profiles assigned.

● Order filtering
The system determines the route determination profile with the suitable condition [Seite
109] and the highest priority for each order or freight unit.

We do not recommend that you use the Product field in the condition. If a freight
unit consists of multiple order items with different products, the Product field is
not filled at header level in the freight unit. For this reason, the system might not
be able to take into account this condition correctly.

● Fixed transportation duration

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You can specify whether the system is to use a fixed transportation duration or is to
take into account the transportation lane as the basis for scheduling.

● Delivery group correlation


In the case of the delivery group correlation, the system tries to schedule the shipment
proposals in such a way that all the items in a delivery group fall within a tolerance that
you have defined.

● Planning horizon
You use the planning horizon [Seite 92] to define the time period in which the system
can schedule shipments. When you call dynamic route determination from the planning
view, the system takes into account the planning horizon from the optimization profile.

● Windows
You can specify whether the system is to take into account pickup or delivery windows
[Seite 97] during dynamic route determination, or if it is to schedule on the basis of the
requested delivery date/time.

● Cost profile
Dynamic route determination determines the TSP-dependent costs on the basis of the
cost profile [Seite 41].

● Resource and transportation service provider assignment


You can specify the resources, transportation service providers (TSPs), and means of
transport that dynamic route determination is to take into account.

To define route determination profiles, on the SAP Easy Access screen, choose
Advanced Planning and Optimization → Transportation Planning/Vehicle
Scheduling → Environment → Current Settings → Dynamic Route
Determination → Define Route Determination Profile.

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Simulation of Dynamic Route Determination


Use
You can also perform dynamic route determination in simulation mode. Freight units and
shipment proposals are provided as the results of dynamic route determination.

Features
To simulate dynamic route determination, enter the following data:

● Required delivery date and time

● Source location and destination location (You can enter either a location or a
transportation zone as the destination location.)

● Product and quantity


In order that the system can uniquely determine a route determination profile or a split rule,
you can enter additional data such as:

● Shipping conditions

● Incoterms

● Delivery priorities
You can display the freight units and shipment proposals determined by dynamic route
determination either in two separate subscreens or in a hierarchical tree structure. You can
also display error, warning, and information messages that the system issued during the
simulation.
You can correlate freight units by taking into account their loading date. For more information
about the delivery group correlation, see Route Determination Profile [Seite 104].
The results are displayed in the same way as for dynamic route determination from the ERP
system [Seite 25]. You can perform a number of actions for the shipment proposals
determined:

● Sort the proposals in accordance with predefined sort criteria

● Display a fixed number of shipment proposals for a certain freight unit

● Select a transportation service provider (TSP)

● Change the resource assignment


If the resource that you want to assign is already assigned to another shipment, the
system informs you of the assignment in a warning message. If you ignore the warning
message, the system assigns the required resource and removes the previous
assignment.
You can display the dates/times and durations that are relevant to scheduling in a separate
window. Shipments, transportation calendars, and resource calendars, as well as loading,
transportation, and unloading durations are also displayed in a graphical format in this
window.

Activities
To simulate dynamic route determination, on the SAP Easy Access screen, choose Advanced
Planning and Optimization → Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling → Environment →
Current Settings → Dynamic Route Determination → Simulate Dynamic Route Determination.

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Definition of Compatibilities
Purpose
You can use compatibilities and incompatibilities to define the compatibility of planning data
that the system is to take into account when planning shipments, for example:

● The delivery is to occur within a certain period, with a certain means of transport, or via
a certain transshipment location.

● Orders with different Incoterms must not be transported together.

● Refrigerated goods must only be transported in appropriate means of transport


(refrigerated trucks).

● A certain means of transport cannot be unloaded at a location, since the location does
not have a suitable loading ramp.
In this way, you can control how orders are assigned to shipments and how shipments are
assigned to means of transport, since compatibilities and incompatibilities are taken into
account in both the optimizer and in manual planning (including multilevel planning).

● Incompatibilities are considered as hard constraints [Seite 94] in the optimizer.

● If the system determines incompatibilities during manual planning, it simply displays a


warning message.
You can also use compatibilities to model alternative itineraries in transshipment processes
(see Definition of Transshipment Hierarchies [Seite 53]).

Prerequisites
● You have defined a TP/VS field catalog in Customizing for the component
Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS).

● If you have already defined compatibilities or incompatibilities in a previous release,


you must execute upgrade report /SAPAPO/VS_UPGRADE_SCM_41.

● You have implemented SAP Notes 560, 661185, and 675126. These ensure that
shipping data from SAP R/3 is updated in SAP APO.

Process
...

1. You define compatibility types in Customizing for the component TP/VS. Compatibility
types are combinations of object characteristics that you can define for compatibilities
or incompatibilities. These object characteristics are order characteristics, for example,
and come from the TP/VS field catalog.
2. You define compatibilities or incompatibilities for the compatibility types that you have
created. To do this, on the SAP Easy Access screen, choose Advanced Planning and
Optimization → Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling → Environment → Current
Settings → Transportation Optimization → Define Compatibility Types. You can also
define compatibilities and incompatibilities in the planning view (menu Edit).

You cannot deliver goods to your customer CUST01 using truck TR2, since the
customer does not have a suitable loading ramp. In this case you first define the
compatibility type Means of Transport – Destination Location. You then specify
that means of transport TR2 is incompatible with destination location CUST01.

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A compatibility between two values means that all other combinations are
incompatible (unless you have defined additional compatibilities). An
incompatibility between two values means that all other combinations are
compatible (unless you have defined additional incompatibilities). For example, if
you define a compatibility between transportation group Hazardous Goods and
means of transport Truck, the transportation group Hazardous Goods is
incompatible with all other means of transport.
Pay attention to the sequence. That is, a compatibility between means of
transport Truck and transportation group Hazardous Goods, for example, is not
the same as a compatibility between transportation group Hazardous Goods
and means of transport Truck. In the first case, the truck can only transport
hazardous goods. In the second case, hazardous goods cannot be transported
by airplane.
3. You can restrict the validity of the compatibilities and incompatibilities to certain
optimization profiles, if required. You can also define conditions [Seite 109] to restrict
the compatibilities and incompatibilities to certain orders.

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Condition
Definition
Filter with which the application of a function can be restricted to one or more orders, for
example.

Use
You use conditions in the following functions (the relevant objects are named in the brackets):

● Window for pickup or delivery [Seite 97] (order, freight unit)

● Compatibilities [Seite 107] (order, freight unit)

● Optimization profile [Seite 84] (order, freight unit)

● Split rules [Seite 59] (order item)

● Determination of shipment type (shipment)

● Control rules [Seite 137] (selection criteria: order, freight unit, order item, vehicle,
shipment; change condition: order, freight unit, order item)

● Route determination profile [Seite 104] (order filtering: order, freight unit; resource
assignment: vehicle)
You can define two types of condition:

● You define global conditions only once and can then use them time and again. This
means, for example, that you can use a condition in several windows or in a window
and a compatibility.

● You define one local condition for a certain function, for example, for a certain
optimization profile. Changes to these conditions do not have an effect on other
functions, for example, other optimization profiles, windows, or compatibilities.

Structure
A condition is defined by its validity period and any number of fields that the system uses as
filter criteria. These fields come from the TP/VS field catalog and describe characteristics of
the following objects:

● Order/freight unit

● Order item

● Location

● Vehicle (this object includes trailers too)

● Shipment

Examples of characteristics:

■ Order data, for example, order number or requested delivery date

■ Source or destination location

■ Means of transport

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■ Shipping data, for example, Incoterms

To define conditions, on the SAP Easy Access screen, choose Advanced


Planning and Optimization → Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling →
Environment → Current Settings → Transportation Optimization → Define
Conditions.

Integration
You have defined a TP/VS field catalog in Customizing for the Transportation
Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS) component under Optimizer → Define Field Catalog.

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Transportation Service Provider Selection


Use
You can use the transportation service provider selection (TSP selection) to assign a suitable
transportation service provider (TSP) to your shipments either manually or automatically. The
aim is to find a TSP with the lowest costs.

Prerequisites
Basic Settings
You have defined transportation lanes in the master data and have thereby defined means of
transport and TSPs. You have defined a transportation duration and a transportation distance
for your means of transport and have set the Detld Planning indicator.
For more information, see TP/VS-Relevant Transportation Lane Settings [Seite 39].

A separate transaction is available in the Transportation Planning/Vehicle


Scheduling (TP/VS) component to define transportation lanes as part of the TSP
selection. For more information, see Definition of Transportation Lanes [Seite
125].

Optimization Options
You use one or more of the following optimization options:

● Strategies [Seite 114] (only relevant to automatic TSP selection):

○ Costs

○ Priority

○ Continuous move

● Business share [Seite 119] (only relevant to automatic TSP selection):

● Check against transportation allocations [Seite 120]

Detailed Settings
● You have made additional settings in the optimization profile on the TSP Selection tab
page. These are optional settings that are relevant to the automatic TSP selection
only. To do this, on the SAP Easy Access screen, choose Advanced Planning and
Optimization → Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling → Environment →
Current Settings → Transportation Optimization → Define Optimization Profile.

● If you want to take into account external freight costs during the TSP selection, you
must have made the following settings (for more information, see SAP Note 445118):

○ You have configured the transportation planning point in Customizing for the
ERP system under Logistics Execution → Transportation → Interfaces →
Transportation Planning Point Determination so that the system can determine
the costs defined in the ERP system.

○ To determine shipping points, you have defined a default entry consisting of a


plant and a shipping point in Customizing for your ERP system.

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Upgrade Report
To be able to use data from TSP profiles that you defined in a previous release, you must
execute an upgrade report.
For more information, see Upgrade of TSP Selection Parameters [Seite 127].

Features
In manual TSP selection, you assign the required TSP manually to your shipments. If you
have configured the check against transportation allocations, the system takes into account
transportation capacities (transportation allocations) that you have defined for the individual
TSPs. If the system does not find any transportation allocations during the assignment, it
assigns a TSP but does not assign quantities in the planning book.
A separate optimization [Seite 126] is available for the automatic TSP selection. This
determines a TSP while taking into account the chosen optimization options for all the
shipments that you have chosen. If none of the TSPs are available, the system removes the
relevant shipment from optimization.

You can use Business Add-In (BAdI) Control Optimization for TSP Selection
(/SAPAPO/VS_CS_SELECT), method OPT_CONTROL to deactivate the
optimization for certain shipments.

Shipments with Multiple Stops


In the case of shipments with multiple stops, the system tries to find a direct transportation
lane between the start and destination locations.

A shipment goes from A via B and C to D.


The system determines the most concrete transportation lane (using the same
technique as for strategy determination [Seite 117]) for each stage (A to B, B to
C, and C to D). The result is a list of all possible TSPs for each stage. The
system also uses strategy determination to determine the strategy for the main
leg (direct connection from A to D). The result is a list of possible TSPs. The
system now creates the intersection from all these lists. The result is no TSPs,
one TSP, or multiple TSPs that can serve all the stages as well as the main
stage. The consideration of stages and stops is used therefore as a filter.
If you have implemented the BAdI Control of Optimization for TSP Selection
(/SAPAPO/VS_CS_SELECT) to use your own optimization logic, the system
simply checks the TSPs for the stages and for the main stage.
The system first checks which TSPs cover all the stages of the shipment (A to B,
B to C, and C to D). In a second step, the system chooses the TSP from those
found in the first step with a direct transportation lane between A and D.

Activities
You are in the planning view [Seite 69] in interactive planning and have selected one or more
shipments in the shuffler (selection bar).
Choose Select Transportation Service Provider.

● Automatic TSP selection


Choose Automatic Assignment and then Execute.

● Manual TSP selection


Choose Manual Assignment and a TSP number, or choose SCAC and enter the
Standard Alpha Carrier Code (SCAC) for the required TSP. Choose Execute.

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More information about the shipments is displayed on the Details tab page. If multiple TSPs
can be selected for a shipment during automatic TSP selection, you can display a TSP list, for
example, on this tab page. You can use this list to establish why the system has assigned a
certain TSP.
Background Processing
You can also plan automatic TSP selection as a background job. To do this, on the SAP Easy
Access screen choose Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS) → Planning →
Planning in the Background → Select Transportation Service Provider (TSP). You must,
however, schedule the TSP selection after the optimization run since the system may not find
any shipments otherwise.

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Strategies
Use
Strategies are optimization options for the transportation service provider selection [Seite 111]
(TSP selection). The system takes into account strategies during the automatic TSP
selection. You define strategies in the transportation lane.

Prerequisites
The following prerequisites are relevant to continuous moves only:
You have defined compatibilities [Seite 107].

● You have set the Continuous Move indicator on the TSP tab page in the location
master (location type 1020) and have specified the TSP performance in per cent, as
required.

● You have made the settings relevant to the continuous move in the optimization profile,
for example, you have specified which extended checks the system is to perform.
Since some of these checks are time-intensive, we recommend that you only choose
those that are actually necessary.

● To be able to display continuous moves in the ERP system, you must make the
following setting:

○ Up to Plug-In 2004.1 with SAP R/3 Enterprise Release 4.70 and SAP ERP
Central Component 5.0: you must specify which customer field the system is to
fill with the continuous move identification in Customizing under Integration with
Other SAP Components → Advanced Planning and Optimization →
Application-Specific Settings and Enhancements → Settings and
Enhancements for Shipments → Define Field for APO Continuous Moves.
To display the continuous moves, choose Logistics → Logistics Execution →
Transportation → Transportation Planning → Continuous Moves → Display.
Plug-In 2004.1 with SAP R/3 4.6C: use the transaction code VTCM to display
the continuous moves.

○ As of SAP ERP Central Component 6.0, this setting is no longer required.


You can now display continuous moves that you have transferred to the ERP
system after the upgrade in the same way as any other shipment in transaction
VT02n and VT03n. You can still display continuous moves that you transferred
to the ERP system before the upgrade under Logistics → Logistics Execution →
Transportation → Transportation Planning → Continuous Moves → Display.

Features
You can choose one or more of the following strategies. For more information about how the
system takes into account strategies during the TSP selection, see Strategy Determination
[Seite 117].

Priority
The system determines the transportation service provider (TSP) on the basis of a priority that
you have defined. This means that the system chooses the TSP with the highest priority first
from the transportation lane, taking into account the various restrictions.

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Costs
The system determines the TSP on the basis of the lowest total costs. You can take into
account either internal or external costs (Cost Origin):

● Internal costs
Transportation costs and TSP costs that you define for your TSPs:

○ You can define transportation costs per shipment (EA), weight, or volume.

○ You define TSP costs per kilometer.

● External costs (ERP)


Freight costs that you define in the ERP system. For more information, see the SAP
Library for the ERP system under Logistics → Logistics Execution → Transportation →
Shipment Cost Processing.

● External costs (BAdI)


You can use method GET_EXTERNAL_COSTS of Business Add-In
/SAPAPO/VS_CS_SELECT to deactivate the freight cost calculation in the ERP system
and to connect another system.

Continuous move
As part of the automatic TSP selection, the system tries to combine shipments by forming
continuous moves [Extern]. The aim is to reduce the costs of the shipment by assigning
additional shipments to a TSP. The following types of continuous moves are available:
• Simple continuous move: the transportation service provider (TSP) accepts one or
more additional shipments directly after executing the first shipment.
• Round trip: the start location of the first shipment and the destination location of the
second shipment are identical.

The system cannot take into account complex round trips [Extern] where
multiple source locations (pickup) or destination locations (delivery) are served.
The system can combine two shipments in a continuous move if the conditions are met:

● The relevant TSP is available for both shipments.

● The arrival date/time of the first shipment lies in the departure window of the second
shipment.

● The departure date/time of the second shipment lies in the arrival window of the first
shipment.
Then the system performs a number of additional checks in accordance with your settings in
the optimization profile. For example, the system checks whether the following objects are
compatible with one another:

● Means of transport

● Transportation zones

● Locations (in other words, the destination location of the first shipment and the start
location of the second shipment)
Furthermore, the distance between the destination location of the first shipment and the start
location of the second shipment must not exceed the maximum distance that you have
defined for the TSPs for both shipments.

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Then the system checks the type of continuous move. In the case of a round trip, the system
checks if the destination location of the first shipment and the start location of the second
shipment are identical, for example. In the case of a simple continuous move, the system can
combine multiple shipments without the vehicle having to return to the start location.
For more information, see Cost Calculation for Continuous Moves [Seite 118].

Activities
Priority
...
...

1. Choose the strategy Priority or any combination with the strategy Costs for the means
of transport in the Priority/Costs field.
2. Define the required priorities for the individual TSPs.

Costs
...
...

1. Choose the strategy Costs or any combination with the strategy Priority for the means
of transport in the Priority/Costs field.
2. If you want to use internal costs, define transportation costs and TSP costs for the
individual TSPs.

Continuous move
...
...
...

1. Choose the continuous move type for the means of transport in the Contin. Move Type
field.
2. Define the following values, as required, for the individual TSPs:

○ Arrival and departure windows

○ Maximum distance

○ Discount

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Strategy Determination
Use
The system tries to find the most concrete transportation lane for the shipment from all the
transportation lanes that are relevant to the TSP selection.

You have defined the following transportation lanes:

■ Transportation lane between start location A and destination location B

■ Transportation lane between start location A and destination


transportation zone B’ (contains destination location B)

■ Location transportation lane [Extern] at start location A


The shipment is to go from A to B. In this case, the system chooses the
transportation lane between start location A and destination location B. This is
the most concrete transportation lane since it runs between two concrete
locations. The transportation lane between start location A and destination
transportation zone B’ is less concrete since a transportation zone can contain
multiple locations. Using the strategy that you have defined for this
transportation lane, the system determines the transportation service provider
(TSP).
The system takes into account the TSPs in the transportation lane only. If you
have a shipment with multiple stops, you can use these stops as an additional
filter. For more information, see transportation service provider selection [Seite
111] in the section Shipments with Multiple Stops.

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Cost Calculation for Continuous Moves


Cost Origin: Internal Costs (from Transportation Lane)
In this case, the system first determines the costs per shipment. When doing so, it takes into
account the costs that you have defined in the transportation lane for the transportation
service provider (TSP) and the means of transport. The system then determines the discount
per shipment. When doing so, it takes into account the settings that you have made in the
transportation lane for the TSP and the means of transport. The system deducts this discount
from the costs determined previously for each shipment.

You have defined the following data:


TSP A is to receive a discount of 10% on the transportation lane A->B for means
of transport 0001.
TSP A is to receive a discount of 20% on the transportation lane B->C.
There are two shipments (SHP1 for A->B and SHP2 for B->C). The costs for
SHP1 are 1000 and the costs for SHP2 are 2000. The optimizer has determined
that both shipments are suitable for a continuous move.
The optimizer now calculates costs of 900 (1000 minus 10%) for SHP1 and
1600 (2000 minus 20%) for SHP2. If the optimizer were to assign the continuous
move to TSP A, the total costs would therefore be 2500. The optimizer
compares these costs with TSP B, for example, who offers lower costs for each
shipment (for example, 950 for SHP1 and 1800 for SHP2). If the optimizer were
to assign the continuous move to TSP B, the total costs for the continuous move
would therefore be 2750. Therefore, the best solution is to assign both
shipments as a continuous move to TSP A.

Cost Origin: External Costs (from ERP System)


In this case, the costs for the shipments come from the ERP system (freight cost calculation).
The subsequent determination of discounts occurs as described above.
If you have specified in the Freight Costs area in the optimization profile that the system is to
perform a recalculation and a distribution, it automatically performs a freight cost simulation in
the ERP system for shipments that are suitable for a continuous move after the optimization
run. When doing so, the system acts as if it were dealing with one single shipment. The
system then distributes the total costs calculated for this shipment among the individual
shipments, for example, in accordance with weight or distance. The system then transfers the
costs per shipment to the ERP system as the planned freight costs.

For more information about reusing these costs in the ERP system, see the
consulting note 944365.

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Business Share
Use
Business shares are optimization options for the transportation service provider selection
[Seite 111] (TSP selection). The system takes into account business shares during the
automatic TSP selection. You can define tolerances for each business share as well as
penalty costs that the optimizer calculates when an excess or shortfall of these tolerances
occurs. However, the penalty costs are not real costs, but instead are used for weighting
purposes only.
The optimizer takes into account the following when assigning the TSPs in accordance with
the defined business shares:

● Only the shipments that you have you selected for the current TSP selection and that
have not yet been transferred to the ERP system. The optimizer does not take into
account any shipments that you have already assigned in a previous TSP selection.

● Transportation zone hierarchies [Seite 51]

● All relevant transportation lanes and hierarchical relationships between means of


transport. For more information, see Check Against Transportation Allocations [Seite
120] under Features.

Activities
You define business shares in the transportation lane as follows:
...
...

1. Set the Use Business Share indicator for the means of transport, and define tolerances
and penalty costs.

It only makes sense to use business shares if you have defined penalty costs.
We recommend that you also always define tolerances to give the optimizer a
certain amount of leeway.
2. Define the required business shares for the individual TSPs, for example, 40% for
TSP1 and 60% for TSP2.

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Check Against Transportation Allocations


Use
The check against transportation allocations is an optimization option that you can use as part
of both the manual and automatic transportation service provider selection [Seite 111]. You
can also use it in dynamic route determination [Seite 101].
In the check against transportation allocations, you assign transportation capacities
(transportation allocations) to transportation service providers (TSPs) for a certain period. You
can define the following:

● The maximum number of shipments for a TSP per transportation lane, period (day,
week, or month), and means of transport.

● The minimum number of shipments that defines the number of agreed shipments per
period (day, week, or month).

Prerequisites
● You have made the Customizing settings for the check against transportation
allocations [Seite 122].

● You have made the following settings in your transportation lanes:

○ You have set the Use Transp. Allocations indicator for your means of transport.

○ You have specified a planning period for your means of transport. It must agree
with the planning period in the planning book.

○ You have optionally defined the transportation capacities (transportation


allocations) for your TSPs in the Min. Shipment Quantity and Max. Shipment
Quantity fields. These are used for the initial data supply of the relevant key
figures in the planning book.

Features
The check against transportation allocations is based on the product allocation function in the
Global Availability Check. For more information about the features of product allocation, see
Check Against Product Allocations [Extern].
The check against transportation allocations uses the following characteristics:

● Allocation object

● Start location

● Destination location

● TSP

● Means of transport
The check against transportation allocations also uses the following key figures for
transportation capacities (transportation allocations):

● Maximum

● Minimum

● Actual

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During the check against transportation allocations, the system checks the transportation
allocations in all the relevant transportation lanes. This means that you can define restrictions.

You have defined the following transportation lanes and capacities


(transportation allocations):

■ Transportation lane between start location A and destination location B


(maximum shipment quantity = 3)
This is the most concrete transportation lane since it runs between two
concrete locations.

■ Transportation lane between start transportation zone A’ and destination


transportation zone B’ (maximum shipment quantity = 10)

■ Transportation lane for start location A (maximum shipment quantity =


10)
This is the least concrete transportation lane.
The system can only assign capacities if capacities are free in all the
transportation lanes (you can override this in manual planning). In this case, it
can assign three shipments at the most, event if a greater capacity is available
for the transportation lane between the start and destination transportation
zones, and at the start location. The reason for this assignment is that the
system takes into account the lowest available capacity.
The system also takes into account transportation zone hierarchies [Seite 51] and hierarchies
between means of transport. You define hierarchies between means of transport by
specifying higher-level means of transport when defining means of transport. This means that
you can also use hierarchical relationships to define restrictions since the system takes into
account the transportation allocations in all higher-level means of transport.

The system can take into account transportation lanes at different levels for
outbound shipments only. This is because it cannot take into account
transportation allocations at the destination location or at the destination
transportation zone. It can also take into account hierarchical relationships
between means of transport for outbound shipments only.

You can use the Business Add-In (BAdI) /SAPAPO/VS_PLAN_BOOK to


deactivate the check against transportation allocations and the planning book to
implement your own solution. For more information, see the BAdI
documentation.

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Settings for the Check Against Transportation


Allocations
To configure the check against transportation allocations [Seite 120], you must make the
following settings in the order specified. For more information, see the documentation for the
individual IMG activities and SAP Note 445118.

Settings in Customizing for Demand Planning (Basic Settings Area)


...

1. Define a storage buckets profile with the required periodicities (day, week, month, or
posting period). Make sure that the validity period is up-to-date.
2. Execute the S&DP administration.
a. Create your own planning area using the template for the delivered planning
area 9ATPVS.
b. Assign your storage buckets profile to this planning area.
c. Define a time series object.

The unit of measure for the characteristics must be the same as the base unit of
measure preconfigured by default in Customizing for TP/VS under Basic
Settings → Basic Settings for Vehicle Scheduling. In other words, it must be EA.
It used for display purposes only.
You define the unit of measure for the characteristics in the planning book in
Demand Planning.
3. Define a planning buckets profile per periodicity. The planning buckets profile is a time
buckets profile for the planning book.
4. Define a planning book per periodicity, and assign your planning area and the relevant
planning buckets profile to it.

Settings in Customizing for Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling


(TSP Selection Area)
...

1. Define an allocation object.


2. Define a transportation allocation group per planning period.
Note the following:

○ The period for the transportation allocation group must agree with the
periodicity of the storage buckets profile that you have specified in the planning
area.

○ The check date in the transportation allocation group must be the material
availability date. This ensures that scheduling is prevented.

○ Maintain characteristics. You must assign all the following characteristics to a


transportation allocation group for the check against transportation allocations:

■ Allocation object (KONOB)


■ Location (LOCNO)

■ Start location (LOCFR)

■ Destination location (LOCTO)

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■ Means of transport (TTYPE)

○ +0 to -0 must be entered in the consumption period. Forward Consumption


must be deactivated.

○ Set the Check Planning Area indicator.


3. Define an allocation determination procedure. Assign all the relevant transportation
allocation groups to the same allocation determination procedure (one transportation
allocation group per step). The transportation allocation groups must be sorted in
descending order by the size of the periodicity.
4. Connect the planning area and assign it to the characteristics and key figures. Bear in
mind the periodicity (day, week, or month). All transportation allocation groups must be
assigned to the same planning area.
5. To check the settings, you can execute the Customizing activity Check the Product
Allocation Settings. There you can define whether the system can use the allocation
determination procedure for the check against transportation allocations.

Assigning the Allocation Determination Procedure


If you want to select TSPs using the check against transportation allocations, assign an
allocation determination procedure in the location master of the TSP. The check against
transportation allocations is then active for this TSP and the system performs a corresponding
check when selecting the TSP.

Initial Data Transfer for Planning Book


You must perform the initial data supply to the planning book to transfer the following data:

● Characteristics combinations

● Minimum and maximum shipment quantities that you have defined in the transportation
lane for your transportation service provider (TSP).
To do this, on the SAP Easy Access screen, choose Advanced Planning and Optimization →
Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling → Environment → Current Settings →
Transportation Service Provider Selection → Initialize Transportation Allocations
(/SAPAPO/TDLCAPA_INIT).
You can change the transferred shipment quantities in the planning book (transaction
/SAPAPO/SDP94). If you have not defined any shipment quantities in the transportation lanes
and therefore no shipment quantities were transferred during the initial data transfer, you can
define shipment quantities in the planning book. You can also display the actual capacities
that the system uses during the TSP selection in the planning book.

Ensure that at least @ and # are specified as permitted extra characters in the
transaction Maintenance of Permitted Extra Characters in BW (RSKC).

When you change the periodicity in the transportation lane, and relevant values
are already available in the planning book, you must execute the initialization
report /SAPAPO/TDLCAPA_INIT. To do this, select the changed transportation
lanes. The system then transfers the quantities from the old allocation group to
the new group. The transfer occurs automatically for the planning area. As a
result, all the old and all the future quantities are in the new allocation group
(updated quantities, minimum quantities, and maximum quantities are adjusted
in relation to the new period). The system does not take into account new
quantities that you have defined in the transportation lane. If, for example, you
change the periodicity from Month to Day, it can be the case that the allocated

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quantities exceed the maximum quantities. If you also want to copy changed
minimum and maximum quantities to the planning book, you should choose the
period of time in such a way that existing updated values are not affected. To do
this, you must restart the initialization report. For more information, see SAP
Note 910450.

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Definition of Transportation Lanes


Use
The transaction Define Transportation Lanes for TSP Selection (/SAPAPO/SCC_TL5) is
available for defining transportation lanes for the transportation service provider selection
(TSP selection). It offers extra functions in addition to those provided in the transaction Define
Transportation Lane (/SAPAPO/SCC_TL1) in the master data for SAP Advanced Planning
and Optimization (SAP APO).

The transportation service provider selection only takes into account


transportation lanes that you have defined in the active model 000.

Features
You have the following options:

● Transportation lanes
Here you can define transportation lanes between two locations.

● Intrazone lanes/location transportation lanes


Here you can define transportation lanes for a transportation zone (intrazone lane
[Extern]) or for a location (location transportation lane [Extern]).

● Mass maintenance

○ Create
Here you can create multiple transportation lanes at the same time by copying
an existing transportation lane. This tab page corresponds to the transaction
Mass Creation of Transportation Lanes (/SAPAPO/SCC_TL2). For more
information, see Creating Multiple Lanes [Extern].

○ Display/Change
Here you can display and change multiple transportation lanes.

Activities
To define transportation lanes for the TSP selection, on the SAP Easy Access screen, choose
Advanced Planning and Optimization → Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling →
Environment → Current Settings → Transportation Service Provider Selection → Define
Transportation Lanes for TSP Selection.

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Optimization as Part of TSP Selection


Use
Optimization as part of the transportation service provider selection (TSP selection)
determines the assignment of transportation service providers (TSPs) with the lowest costs to
shipments.
It aims to achieve the following goals:

● Reduction in total costs

● Consideration of all capacity restrictions for means of transport and TSPs (from the
transportation lane; maximum capacity is a hard constraint [Seite 94], minimum
capacity is a soft constraint)

● Consideration of business shares (soft constraints; from the transportation lane)


The total costs represent the weighted total of the following individual costs:

● Non-delivery costs for shipments that the optimizer cannot assign

● Costs for the assignment of TSPs to shipments

● Penalty costs for violating business shares


The total of all the discounts for continuous moves is subtracted from these total costs.
The optimizer takes into account transportation zone hierarchies [Seite 51] and hierarchical
relationships between means of transport. You define hierarchies between means of transport
by specifying higher-level means of transport when defining means of transport.
The optimization problem is solved by mixed-integer linear programming.

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Upgrade of TSP Selection Parameters


Use
You can use this report to perform an upgrade of parameters that you have defined for the
transportation service provider selection (TSP selection) in the transportation service provider
profile (TSP profile) in SAP Supply Chain Management (SCM) 4.1 or lower. As of SAP SCM
5.0, the TSP profile is no longer available. Instead, you define the parameters for the TSP
selection in the transportation lane. To be able to continue to use the parameters in your TSP
profile, you must use this report to transfer them to the relevant transportation lanes.

Prerequisites
You have defined transportation lanes that are relevant to the TSP selection. A transportation
lane is relevant to the TSP selection if you have chosen a transportation service provider
(TSP) for it. For more information, see TP/VS-Relevant Transportation Lane Settings [Seite
39].

Features
Selection
You can choose a TSP profile to display the previous parameters. You enter the parameters
required for the TSP selection in the Transportation Lane Adjustment area. To perform the
upgrade, choose Perform Upgrade. The system transfers the parameters that you have
defined to the relevant transportation lanes.
You can use the simulation mode to perform the upgrade report without the system saving the
data on the database.

Standard Variants
The standard variants of this report comprise the following settings:

● Strat. for TSP Sel.: Costs

● Cost Origin: Internal Costs

● Contin. Move Type: No Continuous Move

Output
The system saves the parameters in the relevant transportation lanes. The system tells you
the number of new and changed entries in a dialog box. No list is issued.

Activities
To perform the upgrade report, on the SAP Easy Access screen, choose Advanced Planning
and Optimization → Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling → Environment → Current
Settings → Transportation Service Provider Selection → Perform Upgrade of TSP Selection
Parameters (/SAPAPO/VS09).

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Planned Shipment Release


Use
When you have finished planning, you release the planned shipment. The system fixes the
planned shipment and the orders that are to be delivered with this shipment. The planned
shipment receives the status "published (released)" and a green traffic light.
So long as you have not yet transferred the planned shipment to SAP R/3 you can reset the
release.

Integration
The following table shows the effect of the release on other functions:
Function Effect
Change to planned shipment When you have released a planned shipment, you can
no longer change it manually in Transportation
Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS).
Optimization [Seite 84] The optimization does not take into account a released
planned shipment during the optimization run.
Transportation Tendering When you have assigned a transportation service
(Cooperative Transportation provider to the planned shipment and have set up the
Planning) [Seite 129] transportation tendering (cooperative transportation
planning) for this transportation service provider, the
system automatically tenders the planned shipment to
an external transportation service provider as soon as
you release the planned shipment.
Transferring Planned Shipment to The planned shipment must be released before it can
SAP R/3 [Seite 149] be transferred to SAP R/3.

Activities
You have the following options to release a planned shipment:

● Release in interactive planning:


Select the planned shipment in the selection bar in the planning view [Seite 69] and
choose Release Shipment.

● Release in the background:


In the SAP Easy Access screen, choose Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling
(TP/VS) → Planning → Planning in the Background → Release Shipments in the
Background.

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Collaborative Transportation Planning


Purpose
Collaborative transportation planning allows manufacturers and their transportation service
providers (carriers or forwarders, for example) to streamline their work processes and
ultimately benefit from reduced handling costs, improved transparency, and greater efficiency.
Manufacturers inform their transportation service providers about scheduling agreements.
The transportation service provider can accept, reject, or change the transportation RFQs.
For instance, the TSP can suggest an alternative pickup or delivery date.

Collaborative Transportation Planning


Both
Transportation Manufacturer
Business benefits service provider Business benefits

Improved Vehicle
Vehicle
Lower costs due to
transparency scheduling
scheduling reduced handling work

Improved Exchange
Exchange
Improved
communication with all transportation
transportation communication with all
involved parties RFQs
RFQs involved parties

Improved process Improved process


Transportation
Transportation
efficiency efficiency
planning
planning

Collaboration
Collaboration in
in
event
eventof
of
exceptions
exceptions

Transportation
Transportation Vehicle
Vehicle
planning
planning scheduling
scheduling

Logistics
Logistics
Execution
Execution
System
System

You can use EDI or the Internet for collaborative transportation planning.

Collaborative Transportation Planning with EDI


Prerequisites

● You have defined the partner profiles for an EDI partner of type CR (Tools → Business
Communication → IDoc Basis → Administration → Partner profile).
Depending on the scenario, you have maintained message type PLNSHP here for the
outbound and inbound parameters.

You can choose any partner number.


For more information, see IDoc Interface/Electronic Data Interchange [Extern].

● You have assigned this EDI partner to your transportation service provider.
To do this, access the location master of the transportation service provider with
location type 1020 and complete the EDI partner number details on the General tab
page.

● You have created the VS alert profile [Seite 143].

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● You have carried out the planning in the SAP APO Transportation Planning and
Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS) [Seite 18] component and created planned shipments.

Process Flow
...

1. The transportation planner at the manufacturer’s plant plans in TP/VS and chooses a
transportation service provider either manually or automatically.
2. If this planner releases shipments in TP/VS, the system sends a transportation RFQ to
the transportation service provider automatically using EDI (IDOC PLNSHP).
3. The transportation planner at the transportation service provider then uses EDI to
accept or reject the transportation RFQ. He or she can also change the pickup or
delivery dates and times set out in the transportation RFQ (that is, quote different
ones).
4. If the transportation RFQ is rejected or changed, the transportation planner at the
manufacturer receives notification through the SAP APO Alert Monitor. If it was
rejected, he or she can invite tenders for new shipments or cancel shipment tendering.
5. If the transportation RFQ was accepted, the transportation planner at the
manufacturer’s plant can continue planning in TP/VS. Finally, the planned shipments
are transferred to the SAP R/3 execution system where they become actual shipments.

Collaborative Transportation Planning with EDI


Transportation service provider Manufacturer

Transportation Transportation planner


planner

Display Us
e ED
transportation 44 I to
RFQs se Alert if
33 Us nd 55 RFQ rejected
e tra
ED ns
It po
o rt a
ac tio
ce n
p to RF
rr Q
ej APO
APO
ec 22 TP/VS
TP/VS
t RF
Q Vehicle
11 Scheduling
Tran sportation
Transporta tion
servi
service
ce prov
provider’s
ider’s
system Execution of RFQ accepted
system 55 R/3
R/3

Mandatory flow Optional flow of


of information information

Collaborative Transportation Planning with the Internet


Prerequisites

● You have defined collaboration partners for your transportation service providers in the
Transportation planning collaboration scenario (Supply Chain Collaboration →
Environment → Current Settings → Collaboration Partners).
For more information, see Maintaining Settings for Collaborative Partners [Extern].

● You have assigned a collaboration partner to the transportation service provider (in
master data).

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To do this, access the location master of the transportation service provider with
location type 1020 and complete the collaboration partner details on the General tab
page.

● You have followed this menu path and entered your e-mail address (on the Address
tab page): Tools → Administration → User Maintenance → Users.

● You have created the VS alert profile [Seite 143].

● You have carried out the planning in the SAP APO Transportation Planning and
Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS) [Seite 18] component and created planned shipments.

Process Flow
...

1. The transportation planner at the manufacturer’s plant plans in TP/VS and chooses a
transportation service provider either manually or automatically.
2. If this planner wishes to send e-mails to the transportation service providers, he or she
has to select the Sending of E-Mails Activated indicator in the communication settings
for the collaboration partner.
The transportation planner can also revoke transportation RFQs. To do this, he or she
has to cancel the release of the relevant shipments. In this case, the transportation
service providers involved receive a list of revoked transportation RFQs by e-mail.
3. The TSP’s transportation planner reviews the transportation RFQ on the Internet and
either accepts or rejects it. If necessary, he or she can change the pickup or delivery
dates and times set out in the transportation RFQ (that is, quote different ones).
Furthermore, he or she can view an XML file containing all the details of the
transportation RFQ by clicking on the shipment number. The XML file can be displayed
in a transportation service provider-specific layout that is defined in the APO CLP
partner settings.

If you wish to provide your transportation service providers with an XML file, you
must select the XML Display Activated indicator in the communication settings
for the collaboration partner. You also need to edit the EDI settings.
4. If the transportation planner rejects or modifies the transportation RFQ , the
transportation planner at the manufacturer receives notification through the SAP APO
Alert Monitor. If the shipment was rejected, he or she can invite tenders for new
shipments or cancel shipment tendering.
5. If the transportation RFQ was accepted, the transportation planner at the
manufacturer’s plant can continue planning in TP/VS. Finally, the planned shipments
are transferred to the SAP R/3 execution system where they become actual shipments.

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Collaborative Transportation Planning: Internet


Transportation service provider Manufacturer

Transportation planner Transportation planner

22
Inf
or
m
tra
ns Alert if RFQ
po
Internet rta 55 rejected
33 t ion
Display se
rv
transportation ice
Acc pr
RFQs ept ov
44 o r re id e
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11 Scheduling
Transportation
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service
service provider‘s
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system Execution if RFQ accepted
55 R/3
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Mandatory flow Optional flow of


of information information

User Parameters for Collaborative Transportation Planning


Description Prerequisite
You wish to dispatch a shipment. Enter the following data on the Parameters tab page
For this purpose, you wish to send (System → User Defaults → Own Data):
the IDoc PLNSHP directly from
Parameter /sapapo/clp_vsidoc, value X
within TP/VS (/SAPAPO/VS01)
instead of through the function Send
Planned Shipments through EDI
(/SAPAPO/SHPEDI).
You wish to prevent the details Enter the following data on the Parameters tab page
about planned shipments from (System → User Defaults → Own Data):
being changed on the Internet.
Parameter /sapapo/clp_bidnochg, value X
You do not want the transportation Enter the following data on the Parameters tab page
service provider to have access to (System → User Defaults → Own Data):
the details of the planned
shipments. Parameter /sapapo/clp_bidnodtl, value X

You do not want to display certain Enter the following data on the Parameters tab page
data about the planned shipments (System → User Defaults → Own Data):
on the Internet.
Parameter /sapapo/clp_bidnofld

● Value 'X ' (first character)


The Source Location field is not displayed

● Value ' X ' (second character)


The Destination Location field is not displayed.

● Value ' X ' (third character)


The Planned Pickup Date field is not displayed.

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● Value ' X ' (fourth character)


The Delivery Date field is not displayed.

● Value ' X ' (fifth character)


The Distance field is not displayed.

● Value ' X ' (sixth character)


The Total Time field is not displayed.

● Value ' X ' (seventh character)


The Journey Time field is not displayed.

● Value ' X' (eighth character)


The Vehicle Type field is not displayed.

You can also combine these parameter


values. For example, if you wish to
prevent the Distance, Journey Time, and
Vehicle Type fields from being displayed,
enter the value ' X XX'.

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Monitoring of Shipment Tenderings


Use
You can use the report /SAPAPO/VS_MONITOR_TENDER to monitor the status of the
shipment tenderings at the relevant transportation service provider (TSP) and to automatically
trigger follow-up actions when certain events occur.
Possible events:

● Tenderings without response


In this case, you can specify when the TSP last reacted.

● Rejected tenderings
Possible follow-up actions

● Tendering from next TSP


If the system determined multiple TSPs during the original TSP selection, it tenders the
shipment to the next TSP in the ranking list. If a further tendering is not possible, it
generates the alert No transportation service provider found for the relevant shipment.

● Tendering from same TSP


The system tenders the shipment to the same TSP again.

● Cancel tendering
The system cancels the tendering and removes the assignment between the relevant
TSP and the shipment.

● Generate alert only


You can use this action in conjunction with the event Tenderings without response only.
In this case, the alert No response from TSP is generated for each of the relevant
shipments. You can use this alert as the basis for manually triggering the first three
actions at a later time.

Features
Selection
You can restrict the selection of shipments to be checked to certain TSPs, for example, if
there are different tolerance times before a TSP reacts. You can also select the events to be
checked. You must specify the maximum duration until the first reaction in the format
hhhhhhh:mm. You can select one action only for each report run. You can also execute the
check in a test mode. When you activate this option, the system does not perform the
selected action. It simply logs and displays the result.

Output
The result of the check and the actions that result from it are logged in the application log and
displayed at the end.

Activities
To call the report, on the SAP Easy Access screen, choose Advanced Planning and
Optimization → Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling → Planning → Collaborative
Transportation Planning → Monitor Tenderings.
You can also schedule the report as a background job. You can use the report
/SAPAPO/VS_MON_TENDER_SCHED to do this. To call this report, on the SAP Easy

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Access screen, choose Advanced Planning and Optimization → Transportation


Planning/Vehicle Scheduling → Planning → Planning in the Background → Schedule
Monitoring of Tendering.

Example
You have arranged with TSP A that he or she has a maximum of six hours to react to a
shipment tendering. After the system has assigned TSP A to shipment XYZ in the automatic
TSP selection, it tenders the shipment XYZ on 28.06.2005 at 13:02. You have scheduled the
report Monitor Tenderings as a regular background job that is to be executed every five
minutes. You have restricted the selection for the report to TSP A. You have also selected the
event Tenderings without response and have defined 6:00 hours as the duration. As the
action, the system is to tender relevant shipments to the next TSP.
The following explains the report functions at various times during the execution:

● 28.06.2005 at 19:00
Determine allowed limit for tendering date/time
Current time – duration = latest tendering date/time within permitted window
28.06.2005 19:00 – 6 hours = 28.06.2005 13:00
The report now selects all the shipments without a reaction from the TSP whose
tendering date/time lies before 28.06.2005 at 13:00 and to which TSP A is assigned. In
this case, the system does not select shipment XYZ.

● 28.06.2005 at 19:05
Determine allowed limit for tendering date/time
Current time – duration = latest tendering date/time within permitted window
28.06.2005 19:05 – 6 hours = 28.06.2005 13:05
The report now selects all the shipments without a reaction from the TSP whose
tendering date/time lies before 28.06.2005 at 13:05 and to which TSP A is assigned. In
this case, the system selects shipment XYZ since the tendering took place at 13:02 and
therefore lies outside the permitted window of six hours. As the action in response to
this event, the system cancels the tendering to TSP A, and tenders the shipment to the
next TSP in the ranking list, for example, TSP B.

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Delivery and Shipment Deletion


Use
Only deliveries that were not planned in the Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling
(TP/VS) component are deleted automatically in SAP APO since they are no longer relevant
for planning.
The following deliveries and shipments are still available in SAP liveCache and in the
database:

● Deliveries for which you have posted goods issue or goods receipt in SAP R/3 and that
are in shipments
The system simply sets the quantity for these deliveries to 0.

● Shipments for which you have set the status to Shipment End in SAP R/3
SAP APO considers these shipments as no longer being relevant for planning and it no
longer displays them in interactive planning. The system saves the deliveries contained
in the shipments in an exclusion table so that they are not planned again in another
shipment. In addition, a deletion indicator is set for the database entries in the COM
layer.
To ensure that SAP liveCache does not overflow and to relieve the database, we recommend
that you delete these deliveries and shipments on a regular basis.
When deleting the shipments, the system also determines and corrects any inconsistencies.
The results are written in the application log.

Activities
...

You can delete deliveries and shipments interactively or in a background job.

● To delete deliveries and shipments interactively, choose the following from the SAP
Easy Access screen for mySAP Supply Chain Management: Advanced Planning and
Optimization → Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling → Planning → Delete
Deliveries or Delete Shipments.

● To delete deliveries and shipments in the background, choose the following from the
SAP Easy Access screen for mySAP Supply Chain Management: Advanced Planning
and Optimization → Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling → Planning →
Planning in the Background → Delete Deliveries in the Background or Delete
Shipments in the Background.

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Control Rule
Definition
Rule that determines which actions are to be performed for planned shipments when the
corresponding orders are changed in the ERP system.

Use
You use control rules to determine changes to orders (for example, sales orders or purchase
orders) and deliveries in the ERP system, and to automatically adjust the corresponding
planned shipments in the Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS) component
using suitable actions. However, in TP/VS you can only adjust planned shipments that have
not yet been transferred to the ERP system. If you do not define any control rules, the
planned shipment remains unchanged in TP/VS.

Structure
Supported Changes in the ERP System
The system can automatically adjust planned shipments for the following types of changes in
the ERP system (dependent on the settings in the control rule:
● Change an order or a delivery

● Delete an order or a delivery

● Create a delivery for an order

● Post goods issue or goods receipts for a delivery


You can specify that the system is to write an alert when an order has been changed in the
ERP system for which a planned shipment was already created in TP/VS (see Monitoring of
VS Alerts [Seite 143]). You can then check your planning situation in TP/VS and make any
necessary changes.

Actions in TP/VS
The following table shows which actions the system can perform for planned shipments in
TP/VS:
Action Explanation
Adjust shipment If you have not changed the order quantity, the
planned shipment remains unchanged.
If you have changed the order quantity, the
system updates the total weight and total
volume of the planned shipment only.
Deallocate order The system deallocates the order [Extern].
Deallocate order (only for capacity overload) If you have increased the order quantity so that
the resource is overloaded, the system
deallocates the order [Extern].
Invalidate (retain order) The system invalidates [Extern] the planned
shipment.
The assignment between the planned shipment
and the order remains intact.

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Invalidate (retain order) (only for capacity The system invalidates [Extern] the planned
overload) shipment.
The assignment between the planned shipment
and the order remains intact.
This only happens if you have increased the
order quantity in such a way that the resource
is overloaded.
Invalidate (deallocate order) The system invalidates [Extern] the planned
shipment and deallocates the order [Extern].
Invalidate (deallocate order) (only for capacity The system invalidates [Extern] the planned
overload) shipment and deallocates the order [Extern].
This only happens if you have increased the
order quantity in such a way that the resource
is overloaded.
BAdI You can use the Business Add-In (BAdI)
/SAPAPO/VS_INB_PROC, method
PROCESS_EXT_CHANGES to define your
own actions.

Selection Criteria
You can use conditions [Seite 109] to restrict control rules. For example, you can define
control rules for different tendering or transportation statuses, or for transportation service
providers. You can also define conditions for new order values by specifying that the control
rule is to apply in certain cases only, for example:

● You have changed the quantity in certain intervals.

● You have changed shipping conditions or other shipping-relevant information in the


order in the ERP system.

To define control rules, on the SAP Easy Access screen, choose Advanced
Planning and Optimization → Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling →
Environment → OLTP Interface → Define Control Rules.

Integration
To use this function, integration with the ERP system is required.

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Planning in the Background


Purpose
You can execute the following functions in the background as an alternative to interactive
planning [Seite 67]:

● Optimization [Seite 84]

● Transportation service provider selection [Seite 111]

● Dynamic route determination [Seite 101]

● Scheduling of shipment tendering monitoring [Seite 134]

● Scheduling of heuristic runs [Seite 77]

● Release of planned shipments [Seite 128]

● Deletion of deliveries and shipments [Seite 136]

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Additional Functions
Use
The following are functions that cover more technical issues such as:
Error handling/monitoring [Seite 141]
Monitoring VS alerts [Seite 143]
Editing field contents [Seite 146]
Authorizations in TP/VS [Seite 148]

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Error Handling/Monitoring
Use
There are various functions for error handling and monitoring available in the Transportation
Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS) component. Most of these functions are valid across the
whole of SAP APO.

Features
Consistency Check in Vehicle Scheduling
Using transaction /n/SAPAPO/VSCC, you can check the settings you have made in
Customizing (including a check of SAP R/3 Customizing) and the master data and movement
data. You get a list of error messages. For some of these messages you can display detailed
information by clicking the relevant object. In some cases you can go directly to the affected
transaction and rectify the error. You can also schedule the consistency check as a
background job and write the results to the application log. We recommend executing the
check according to the supply chain model and after the IMG activities have been completed.

Application Log
Using the application log, you can track what has been transferred (data objects and
integration model), when (time), and by whom (user). The application log also issues a
detailed error message is there is an application error. You can call the application log for
Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling using the application toolbar in interactive
planning. You define the log level, that is, the level of detail in the log in SAP APO
Customizing under Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS) → Basic Settings →
Basic Settings for Vehicle Scheduling.
This function uses preset time selection parameters. If you want to enter your own time
selection parameters or want to take additional SAP APO components into consideration in
the application log, use transaction /n/SAPAPO/C3.

SCM Queue Manager


The SCM queue manager (transaction /n/SAPAPO/CQ) allows you to centrally monitor
queues and how they are being processed in both the sending system and the receiving
system. It is possible to navigate to the qRFC monitor and to the application log in both
systems.

qRFC Monitoring
The qRFC and the qRFC alert offer further monitoring possibilities. The qRFC monitor
(transaction SMQ1 for outbound queues and SMQ2 for inbound queues) lets you display,
activate, debug, or delete queues. The qRFC alert (transaction /n/SAPAPO/CW for outbound
queues and /n/SAPAPO/CQINW for inbound queues) enables a message to be issued
automatically if a transmission error occurs.
Saving the Log Files from the Optimization Runs
In transaction /n/SAPAPO/OPT10, you can set the debug level and dump level of the
Optimizer. In transaction /n/SAPAPO/OPT11 (under menu option Extras), you can save the
Optimizer trace file, and the input and output data (if you have given the dump level the value
1).

CIF Comparison/Reconciliation of Transaction Data


Using the CIF comparison/reconciliation of transaction data, you can identify and correct data
inconsistencies between SAP APO and SAP R/3.

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Consistency Check liveCache – SAP APO DB


Using transaction /n/SAPAPO/OM17, you can identify inconsistencies between the liveCache
and various databases in SAP APO.

See also:

Administration [Extern]

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Monitoring of VS Alerts
Use
You can use the Alert Monitor [Extern] to monitor alerts for Vehicle Scheduling (VS) [Seite
18]. To do this, you define a VS alert profile containing a user-specific selection of alerts that
are relevant to your planning area.

Features
The VS alert profile contains a number of alert types specific to Vehicle Scheduling activities.
The following tables show the available alert types and alerts:

Alerts that occur during planning (manually or using the optimizer)

Alert Explanation
Check availability. Order due date changed by An existing order was rescheduled by Vehicle
VS Scheduling. For this reason, the availability
must be checked again.

Loading resource is overloaded A loading resource (inbound/outbound) is


overloaded. This can only occur if multiple
planners work at the same time with the same
locations to which loading resources are
assigned.
Order not scheduled in shipment by optimizer The order was not scheduled in a shipment.
This can be due to various reasons: a suitable
transportation lane or resource was not found
for the shipment belonging to the order.
Non-delivery costs are lower than the relevant
transportation costs and the costs for
earliness/lateness.
The optimizer could not find a solution in the
given runtime.
Order was changed in OLTP This alert can be used in control rules [Seite
137] to recognize situations where an order
that was already assigned to a shipment was
changed in the OLTP system.
Shipment: resource is overloaded This alert indicates that a shipment quantity
exceeds the available capacity of the shipment
resource.
This situation can occur if the resource was
manually overloaded or if the order quantity
has increased after the shipment was already
generated.

Alerts that occur when selecting the transportation service provider

Alert Explanation

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No transportation service provider found A suitable transportation service provider (TSP)


was not found to execute a shipment. This can
be due to the following reasons:
No TSP is assigned to the transportation lane.
The TSP’s capacity is insufficient to execute a
shipment (error occurs only in the case of
automatic TSP assignment with transportation
allocation).

Alerts that occur during transportation tendering

Alert Explanation
Shipment rejected by TSP A tendered shipment was rejected by the TSP.
Proposed dates/times changed by TSP Date/time proposals (planned departure/arrival)
were changed by TSP (planned shipment).
Transferred shipment: shipment rejected by A shipment already transferred to the OLTP
TSP system was rejected by the TSP.
Transferred shipment: proposed dates/times Date/time proposals (planned departure/arrival)
changed by TSP were changed by TSP (shipments already
transferred to OLTP system).
For the first two transportation tendering alerts, you can use the context menu in the shipment
to perform tendering again, or to cancel the request for quotations.
To create user-specific alerts, you can use the following Business Add-Ins (BAdIs):

● /SAPAPO/VS_SHIPMENT

● /SAPAPO/VS_INB_PROC
The following alerts can also be triggered from Supply Chain Event Management (SCEM):

● Proposed shipment rejected by TSP

● Proposed dates/times changed by TSP

● Transferred shipment: proposed dates/times changed by TSP

● Transferred shipment: proposed shipment rejected by TSP

● No response from transportation service provider (only used by SCEM)


The following alert is used if the shipment tendering is monitored in SCEM:

● Alert from Supply Chain Event Management

Activities
...

1. Select the alerts that are relevant to you.


2. Assign a VS optimization profile [Seite 84].
In the optimization profile, you specify the planning version, the period, and the objects
for which the Alert Monitor determines alerts. If you do not enter an optimization profile,
the Alert Monitor only determines alerts with type Loading resource is overloaded for
the planning version and period defined in the overall alert profile.
3. If required, assign the VS alert profile to your overall alert profile [Extern], your SCC
user profile [Extern], or if you want to display alerts in interactive planning in TP/VS, to
the optimization profile for TP/VS.

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See also:
Application-Specific Alert Profiles [Extern]
Monitoring and Solving Planning Problems Using the Alert Monitor [Extern]

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Editing Field Contents


Use
If the fields available in the planning view [Seite 69] are not sufficient or are not suited to your
business processes, you can change or enhance the field contents. You can do this for the
selection bar (shuffler) and the tables of the tab pages Tabular Planning and Multilevel
Planning. You can edit the field contents by implementing a user exit or a Business Add-In
(BAdI).

Procedure
Editing Field Contents by Implementing a User Exit
...

1. Call transaction CMOD.


2. Implement the user exit you require. Use SAP enhancement APOVS003. For more
information, see Creating Customer-Specific Function Modules [Extern].
The following table shows which user exits are available:
Display Structure User Exit
Freight unit User Exit:
EXIT_/SAPAPO/SAPLVS_VSGUI_001
Structure:
/SAPAPO/VSR_G_FUNIT
Include:
CI_FUNIT
Comment:
You use this user exit for fields in tables
ATPFIELDS, SDFIELDS, and so on. To use
these fields, you must set the SD Data
indicator in Customizing under Transportation
Planning and Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS) →
Basic Settings → Basic Settings for Vehicle
Scheduling. For all other enhancements with
regard to freight units, use user exit
EXIT_/SAPAPO/SAPLVS_VSGUI_005.
User Exit:
EXIT_/SAPAPO/SAPLVS_VSGUI_005
Structure:
/SAPAPO/VSR_G_FUNIT
Include:
CI_FUNIT

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Stages User Exit:


EXIT_/SAPAPO/SAPLVS_VSGUI_002
Structure:
/SAPAPO/VSR_G_STAGES
Include:
CI_VS_STAGES
Shipment User Exit:
EXIT_/SAPAPO/SAPLVS_VSGUI_003
Structure:
/SAPAPO/VSR_G_SHIPMENTS
Include:
CI_VS_SHIPMENTS
Resource User Exit:
EXIT_/SAPAPO/SAPLVS_VSGUI_004
Structure:
/SAPAPO/VSR_G_RESOURCES
Include:
CI_VS_RESOURCES

Editing Field Contents by Implementing a BAdI


...

To implement the required BAdI, choose Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS)


→ Business Add-Ins (BAdIs) for TP/VS in the Customizing for SAP APO.
The following table shows which BAdIs are available:
BAdI Use
Field enhancement for multilevel planning Adding fields in mulitlevel planning
(/SAPAPO/VS_ADDFIELDS)

Example
You want to display additional address details for your customers, for example street name, in
the planning view (transaction /SAPAPO/VS01). To do this, implement user exit 005.

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Authorizations in TP/VS
Use
The component Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS) uses the SAP
authorization concept [Extern] to control access to applications. For more information about
authorizations, see Users and Roles (BC-SEC-USR) [Extern] and Checking Authorizations
[Extern].
Features
The following authorization object is available in TP/VS. For more information, see the
relevant online documentation:
C_APO_TPVS
You can use this authorization object to control the authorization checks for transactions and
functions in TP/VS. You can use the optimization profile to restrict access to most functions.
In the case of interactive planning, you can also restrict access using the start and destination
locations and the vehicle resource.
You can use Business Add-In (BAdI) /SAPAPO/VS_AUTHORITY for user-specific changes.

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Transfer of Planned Shipments to SAP R/3


Purpose
When you have completed planning in the component Transportation Planning/Vehicle
Scheduling (TP/VS), you transfer your planned shipments to SAP R/3 for transportation
execution and delivery processing.

Prerequisites
See TP/VS-Specific Customizing Settings in SAP APO [Seite 17].

Process Flow
1. To create a shipment in SAP R/3, a delivery must already exist. This means that before
you can transfer the planned shipments created in TP/VS to SAP R/3 you must first
generate the deliveries in SAP R/3. You trigger the generation of deliveries in SAP R/3
within TP/VS. Then deliveries are automatically generated in SAP R/3 for the orders for
which you have created planned shipments in TP/VS.
If you want to restrict the orders for which you want to generate deliveries in SAP R/3
according to particular criteria, for example, locations, specify an optimization profile.
We recommend selecting an optimization profile in particular if you have several
planners with individual tasks, that is, with different optimization profiles. To avoid
locking problems during transfer of data, you must define the optimization profiles
without any overlaps.
2. In TP/VS you trigger an automatic check of the delivery generation in SAP R/3. Here
the system checks if all the orders for which you have created planned shipments in
TP/VS have been converted into deliveries. If all the deliveries are there, the system
automatically releases the planned shipments for transfer to SAP R/3.
3. You transfer the planned shipments to SAP R/3 either interactively or in the
background. The shipments are created automatically in SAP R/3. If you want to
restrict the planned shipments to be transferred, specify an optimization profile.
The follow options are available for calling the interactive transfer in TP/VS:

○ Choose Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling → Environment → OLTP


Interface → Transfer Orders to Delivery Generation from the SAP Easy Access
screen. Afterwards choose Check Release of Planned Shipments and then
Transmit Planned Shipments to OLTP System.
In the planning view [Seite 69], choose Goto → OLTP Generation of Deliveries.
Afterwards choose Check Release of Planned Shipments and then Transfer Planned
Shipments to OLTP.
Interactive planning offers you the advantage of providing an overview of the orders for
which deliveries are to be generated in SAP R/3 and of being able to restrict them.
Moreover, you also gain on overview of the planned shipments to be transferred and
can restrict them.
To call background processing, choose Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling →
Environment → OLTP Interface → Mass Processing Interface → Schedule Delivery
Generation from the SAP Easy Access screen. Afterwards choose Check Release of
Planned Shipments and then Transfer Planned Shipments to OLTP.

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Transportation and Shipment Scheduling in TP/VS


Use
The Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling (TP/VS) component uses transportation and
shipment scheduling in SAP APO. The following only deals with the points that are relevant
for TP/VS. For general information about transportation and shipment scheduling in SAP
APO, see Transportation and Shipment Scheduling [Extern].

Features
Transportation and shipment scheduling for sales orders
If in TP/VS you trigger the generation of deliveries in SAP R/3 for the sales orders for which
you have created planned shipments, SAP APO determines the following five dates:

● Delivery date

● Goods issue date

● Loading date

● Material availability date

● Transportation planning date


Three of these dates result from the transportation activities that you generated in TP/VS.
They are transferred automatically to SAP R/3 when you trigger the generation of deliveries:

● The delivery date corresponds to the start date of the unloading activity.

● The goods issue date corresponds to the end date of the loading activity.

● The loading date corresponds to the start date of the loading activity.
The SAP APO system schedules the material availability date and the transportation planning
date when you trigger the generation of deliveries in SAP R/3 from TP/VS. The SAP APO
system schedules the dates using backward scheduling from the loading date. The SAP APO
system uses the times you defined in the Customizing for transportation and shipment
scheduling as a basis.
If the SAP APO system determines that one of these five dates is in the past, it does not
transfer the dates. The transportation and shipment scheduling occurs when the deliveries
are created in SAP R/3.
Scheduling for stock transfers
For stock transfers, the delivery date, the goods issue date, and the loading date also result
from the transportation activities. The SAP APO system calculates the material availability
date and the transportation planning date using backward scheduling and starting from the
goods issue date. For this to happen, you have to define the following values:
...

1. Goods issue time in the product master record


The system then calculates the material availability date as follows:
Goods issue date – goods issue processing time = material availability date
2. Shipment creation time in the location master of the start location.
The system then calculates the transportation planning date as follows:
Goods issue date – shipment creation time = transportation planning date
3. Shipment calendar in the location master of the start location

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If the SAP APO system determines that one of these five dates is in the past, it does not
transfer the dates. The transportation and shipment scheduling occurs when the deliveries
are created in SAP R/3.
Transportation and shipment scheduling for purchase orders
For purchase orders, the SAP APO system only transfers the delivery date to SAP R/3.

If the TP/VS dates that you have already transferred to SAP R/3 change, for
example due to the rescheduling of a shipment, you can synchronize them in
SAP R/3. For more information, see Changing Delivery Dates/Times in SAP R/3
from TP/VS [Seite 81].

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Monitor for OLTP Publications


Use
You use this report to monitor the activities involved in OLTP generation of deliveries and the
transfer of planned shipments to the OLTP system, and detect errors in good time.

Features
The report highlights, for example, documents that have exceeded the transfer due date. This
can be the result of a release check not being executed for shipments, or delays in
processing the job. The report also highlights reports that have been sent multiple times. If the
OLTP system does not confirm creation of a delivery or a shipment, a red traffic light is
displayed. The report can also determine and display the duration of the document
processing in the OLTP system.
The report has the following structure:
Field Information Displayed
Type ORD for preceding documents
for deliveries, SHP for planned
shipments
Document Number of preceding document
or shipment number
Item Item number for preceding
documents
Transfer Transfer status: Red light if
publication of the document has
already been triggered,
otherwise green
Duration Transfer duration, that is,
elapsed time since the start of
publication
Due date Due status: Red traffic light if
the due date has been overrun;
green light if the due date is in
the future
Duration Due date duration, that is,
elapsed time since the due date
was overrun
Start location Always filled for shipments;
Only filled for preceding
documents if there are
requirements relevant to the
location (output node in
liveCache)
Destination location Always filled for shipments;
Only filled for preceding
documents if there are
requirements relevant to the
location (input node in
liveCache)

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To call this report, choose SAP menu → Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling →


Environment → OLTP Interface → OLTP Publication Monitor or from interactive planning
(Goto → OLTP Publication Monitor).

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Transportation Management in EWM

Use
Extended Warehouse Management (EWM) has its own Transportation Management (TM)
area. The following sections describe the functions available as well as the integration of TM
with Shipping and Receiving.

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Shipment
Definition
Document containing all the goods that are consolidated by a ship-from party and are then
transported together from an issuing location (a plant, for example) to a destination location (a
customer, for example). The shipment forms the basis for planning, executing, and monitoring
the transportation of goods.

Use
You can create shipments both manually and automatically.

A shipment can have different characteristics that are determined by the shipment type as
well as its relationship to other shipments. You define the shipment type in Customizing for
Transportation Management (TM). It contains all the important control parameters for the
shipment document. The following table shows the possible instances of shipments, the
required settings, and the usages:

Instance Settings Use


Transportation ● In Customizing for TM under Define You can assign transportation
request Shipment Type, you have not set the requests to bills of lading or to
UI Changeable indicator for the freight documents.
shipment types Planned Transportation
Request and Final Transportation
Request.

● In Customizing for TM under Maintain


Settings for Determining Shipment
Types, you have defined the shipment
types Planned Transportation Request
and Final Transportation Request as
predecessor shipment types.
Bill of lading ● In Customizing for TM under Define ● You can assign
Shipment Type, you have set the UI transportation requests with
Changeable indicator for the shipment common properties to a bill
type Bill of Lading. of lading, for example:

● In Customizing for TM under Maintain ○ Transportation


Settings for Determining Shipment service provider
Types, you have defined the shipment
type Bill of Lading as a successor ○ Ship-from party and
shipment type. ship-to party

○ Delivery date

● You can manually set


statuses in the bill of lading,
for example, Transportation
Completed. In this case, the
relevant paper document
(international bill of lading
(CMR) or bill of lading
according to VICS
standard) is printed
automatically. For more
information about printing,

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see Post Processing


Framework [Extern].
The following classification is relevant to the processes in the Extended Warehouse
Management (EWM) component:

● Planned shipment: Can still change with regard to type and size, for example, due to
a subsequent delivery split in the Extended Warehouse Management (EWM)
component.

● Final shipment: Is fixed with regard to type and size, in other words, it is confirmed.
Most of these shipments are already packed or loaded.

Structure
The header contains data such as:
● Incoterms

● Partners

● Dates/times

● Transportation details such as transportation mode, route, stops, and transit direction
The shipment items contain data such as locations, dates/times, packages, products, weight
and volume, units of measure, and references to the original document, for example, the
delivery.

Integration
The automatic creation of shipments occurs via an integration interface with goods accepted
and shipping. You can also communicate shipments using IDocs. The IDoc structure of the
freight document is compatible with the EDIFOR standard (subset of EDIFACT [Extern])
IFCSUM (International Forwarding and/or Transport Message Consolidation Summary).

See also:
Freight Document [Seite 157]
Creation of Freight Documents [Seite 158]

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Freight Document
Definition
Document that reflects the result of planning and consolidating shipments [Seite 155] and that
is used in collective goods traffic, for example. The freight document determines the load on a
vehicle.

Use
The freight document is relevant to transferring planning results and to printing, and maps
trips as well as multiple pickups and stops.
You can create freight documents both manually and automatically.
You define the freight document type in Customizing for Transportation Management (TM). It
contains all the important control parameters for the freight document.
You can manually set statuses in the freight document, for example, Transportation
Completed. In this case, this status is set automatically for all the bills of lading contained in
the freight document. These are then printed automatically. You can also print master bills of
lading [Extern] and freight lists [Extern] from the freight document. For more information about
printing, see Post Processing Framework [Extern].

Structure
The freight document contains data such as:

● Transportation details (for example, route, transportation mode)

● Business partners

● Status

● Dates/times (for example, loading date, pickup, arrival)

● Loading or unloading sequence

● Reference documents

Integration
The automatic creation of freight documents occurs using an IDoc. Changes that you have
made manually or changes that were communicated using an IDoc (such as changed
dates/times, transportation details, or statuses) are transferred automatically to the shipments
contained in the freight document. If you set the status Transportation Completed, for
example, in the freight document, it is also set automatically for all shipments contained in the
freight document.
The IDoc structure of the freight document is compatible with the EDIFOR standard (subset of
EDIFACT [Extern]) IFCSUM (International Forwarding and/or Transport Message
Consolidation Summary).
The creation of freight documents can also be triggered from the Shipping and Receiving area
by sending a final load message or a load message to TM. Both of these messages are also
compatible with the EDIFOR standard IFCSUM.
For more information about creating freight documents, see Creation of Freight Documents
[Seite 158].

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Creation of Freight Documents


Use
You can create freight documents [Seite 157] in different ways. Freight documents reflect the
result of planning and consolidating shipments [Seite 155]. They are used as the basis for
creating loads on vehicles.

Prerequisites
● You have defined the following in Customizing for Transportation Management (TM):

○ Transportation planning points

○ Settings for transportation planning point determination and assignment to an


external transportation planning system (TPS), if you want to use an external
TPS

○ Shipment types and freight document types

○ Settings for shipment type determination, if you want to use your own document
types, and settings for freight document type determination

Features
You can create freight documents in the following ways:

● If you have connected an external transportation planning system (TPS), the planned
shipments are sent automatically via IDoc to this TPS. In the TPS, you plan the
transportation; for example, you can group shipments that are to be transported with
the same vehicle or you can change dates/times. The result of transportation planning
is a freight document. This is sent back automatically to Transportation Management
(TM).
If the vehicle is not yet known in shipping and receiving, a vehicle, a transportation unit
(TU), and a vehicle activity are automatically created there.
You can maintain the freight document in TM. For example, you can change
transportation details such as the means of transport or the dates/times. The relevant
shipments, deliveries, and vehicles are updated automatically.

● If you have not connected an external TPS, you create the freight document manually
in TM. When doing this, you group multiple planned shipments that are to be or can be
transported together. To do this, on the SAP Easy Access screen, choose Extended
Warehouse Management → Goods Receipt and Shipping → Transportation →
Maintain Freight Document.
If the vehicle is not yet known in shipping and receiving, a vehicle, a transportation unit
(TU), and a vehicle activity are automatically created there.

● If deliveries have already been assigned to vehicles or transportation units (TUs) in


shipping and receiving, a freight document is automatically created or updated via a
message in TM. The system also automatically updates assignments between
shipments and freight documents and sets the status Planning Fixed by Execution.
You must not change the documents in TM. The data merely serves as a source of
information and as a prerequisite for the automatic creation of bills of lading and for
printing. In this case, the following paragraph is not relevant.
After a freight document has been created, the relevant shipments and deliveries are
automatically updated with the planned transportation data, for example, vehicle. The
outbound delivery orders get the status Transportation Planning End.

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See also:
Loading and Unloading [Extern]
Integration of TM with the Loading Process [Seite 160]

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Integration of TM with the Loading Process


Purpose
By integrating Transportation Management (TM) with the Extended Warehouse Management
(EWM) component, you enable bills of lading to be printed automatically when vehicles are
being loaded.

Prerequisites
You have set up printer and form determination. For more information, see Printer and Form
Determination [Seite 161].

Process
...

1. When an outbound delivery or an outbound delivery order is created or changed in


delivery processing, a notification is automatically sent to TM. In TM, planned
shipments [Extern] or final shipments [Extern] are created or updated.
2. When deliveries are assigned to transportation units and vehicles in shipping and
receiving, and the status Loading End is set, a notification is sent to TM. Bills of lading
are created automatically in TM and the status Shipment Completed is set. Bills of
lading are an aggregation of final shipments that are assigned to a freight document
[Seite 157]. Provided that a freight document from earlier planning results is not already
available, a freight document is automatically created on receipt of this notification. For
more information, see Creation of Freight Documents [Seite 158].
3. The bills of lading are automatically printed in accordance with the CMR or VICS
standards. You determine which type of bill of lading is printed in printer and form
determination [Seite 161]. For more information about printing, see Post Processing
Framework [Extern].

■ You can use the Business Add-In (BAdI) /SCTM/EX_BOM to change the
criteria by which final shipments are grouped during the automatic
creation of bills of lading. By default, the system groups the shipments by
ship-from party and ship-to party.

■ To create bills of lading, you have the following alternative options:

○ In the transaction Maintain Freight Document


(/SCTM/FRD), you can trigger the automatic creation of
bills of lading using the Create Bill(s) of Lading pushbutton.

○ In the transaction Maintain Shipment (/SCTM/SHP), you


can create bills of lading manually and assign final
shipments to them which, for example, share the same
route or ship-to party. You can also create new bill of
lading items. You can then manually set the status
Shipment Completed for these bills of lading.

See also:
Loading and Unloading [Extern]

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Printer and Form Determination in Transportation


Management
Use
You can use printer and form determination to control which printer is used and which type of
form is to be printed.

Features
Printer determination
You can use criteria to define which printer is to be used. If you do not define any criteria, the
printer that you have specified in the user profile in your system is used automatically. Printer
determination is the same for bills of lading and freight documents.

Form determination
For automatic printing, you can use criteria to specify which form, in other words, which Smart
Form, is to be printed.

You can print bills of lading based on the country of origin or country of
destination, or in accordance with the CMR or VICS standard.
A separate form determination is available for freight documents and bills of lading.

By default, form determination via the Post Processing Framework (PPF) [Extern] is used. In
Customizing for Transportation Management, you can define the PPF action with a fixed form.
To do so, choose Extended Warehouse Management → Goods Issue Process →
Transportation Management → Basics → Define PPF Action Profiles and Define PPF
Conditions.

Activities
To configure printer and form determination, on the SAP Easy Access screen, choose
Extended Warehouse Management → Settings → Shipping and Receiving → Transportation
→ Printer and Form Determination. You must configure the following:

● Form determination for bills of lading

● Form determination for freight documents

● Printer determination for Transportation Management

● Print profile for Transportation Management

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Authorizations in Transportation Management


Use
In the area of Transportation Management (TM), you use the SAP authorization concept
[Extern] to control access to applications. For more information about the authorization
function, see Users and Roles (BC-SEC-USR) [Extern] and Checking Authorizations [Extern].

Features
The following table shows the authorization objects available in TM. For more information,
see the relevant system documentation.
Authorization Object Description
/SCTM/AUTH General authorizations for transportation

/SCTM/STAT Authorizations for transportation status

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Ocean Carrier Booking


Purpose
You can use this process to book capacity on a ship for sea transportation. You can use SAP
Event Management (SAP EM) to track the individual process steps.

Prerequisites
● You have ensured that final shipments exist in Transportation Management. You have
the following options:

○ You use final shipments from EWM.


If you assign the route for an outbound delivery from EWM to the Ocean Carrier
Booking process in Transportation Management, the final shipment created for
this delivery in Transportation Management is automatically assigned to the
Ocean Carrier Booking process. To do this, on the SAP Easy Access screen,
choose Extended Warehouse Management → Shipping and Receiving →
Transportation → Ocean Carrier Booking → Assign Shipments.

○ You manually create shipments. To do this, on the SAP Easy Access screen,
choose Extended Warehouse Management → Shipping and Receiving →
Transportation → Ocean Carrier Booking → Perform Ocean Carrier Booking.
For more information, see Performing Ocean Carrier Booking [Seite 165].

● You have maintained a partner ID. You need this to assign business partners. To do
this, on the SAP Easy Access screen, choose Extended Warehouse Management →
Shipping and Receiving → Transportation → Ocean Carrier Booking → Maintain
Partner ID.

● You have assigned a location code. This is a standardized code that you need to be
able to assign locations. To do this, on the SAP Easy Access screen, choose
Extended Warehouse Management → Shipping and Receiving → Transportation →
Ocean Carrier Booking → Assign Location Code.

● You have defined a Standard Carrier Alpha Code (SCAC) for your carriers. To do this,
on the SAP Easy Access screen, choose Extended Warehouse Management →
Master Data → Maintain Business Partner.

● You have assigned the ALE partner profiles to the transportation planning point (TPP).
For more information, see the Implementation Guide (IMG) for Extended Warehouse
Management (EWM) under Goods Issue Process → Transportation Management →
Ocean Carrier Booking → Assign ALE Partner Profiles to Transportation Planning
Point.

● You have created directory information for the IDoc/EDI conversion. For more
information, see the IMG for EWM under Goods Issue Process → Transportation
Management → Ocean Carrier Booking → Assign Directories for IDoc/EDI
Conversion.

● You have created the directory information for the file transfer. For more information,
see the IMG for EWM under Goods Issue Process → Transportation Management →
Ocean Carrier Booking → Assign Directories for File Transfer.

● You have scheduled the report /SCTM/R_CONVERSION_TRANSFER in the


background. This report controls both the automatic conversion of IDocs to EDI format
and the transfer to the communication partner. You can also trigger the report
manually during the process. To do this, on the SAP Easy Access screen, choose

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Extended Warehouse Management → Shipping and Receiving → Transportation →


Ocean Carrier Booking → Start IDoc/EDI Conversion and Transfer.

● You have set up printer and form determination for ocean carrier booking [Seite 168].

Process
...

1. You create a booking order manually.


To do this, on the SAP Easy Access screen, choose Extended Warehouse
Management → Shipping and Receiving → Transportation → Ocean Carrier Booking
→ Perform Ocean Carrier Booking.
2. You release the booking order. The system automatically creates an IDoc for the
booking order, converts it to EDI format, and sends it to your external communication
partner, for example, a platform or a partner for ocean carrier bookings.
To do this, on the SAP Easy Access screen, choose Extended Warehouse
Management → Shipping and Receiving → Transportation → Ocean Carrier Booking
→ Perform Ocean Carrier Booking.
3. The external communication partner confirms the booking order in the form of an EDI
message, or rejects it. The system converts the EDI message into the appropriate IDoc
format and imports the IDoc into Transportation Management.
4. You assign shipments to the booking order manually.
To do this, on the SAP Easy Access screen, choose Extended Warehouse
Management → Shipping and Receiving → Transportation → Ocean Carrier Booking
→ Perform Ocean Carrier Booking.
5. You release the shipping instruction (in other words, the booking order with the
assigned shipments). The system automatically creates an IDoc, converts it to EDI
format, and sends it to your external communication partner. The shipping instruction is
also printed automatically as a Smart Form in a generic bill of lading format.
6. The external communication partner confirms the shipping instruction in the form of an
EDI message, or rejects it.
If the external communication partner confirms the shipping instruction, the system
converts the EDI message into the appropriate IDoc format and imports the IDoc into
Transportation Management.
If the external communication partner rejects the shipping instruction, the system
automatically cancels the release of the shipping instruction. In this case, you must
correct the error and release the shipping instruction again (see step 5).

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Performing Ocean Carrier Booking


You can perform the following functions within ocean carrier booking. To perform a function,
on the SAP Easy Access screen, choose Extended Warehouse Management → Shipping and
Receiving → Transportation → Ocean Carrier Booking → Perform Ocean Carrier Booking
and then the path specified in the table.
Function Navigation Comment
Create shipments Create Shipment (quick entry On the quick entry screen, you
screen) can create multiple shipments
without having to reopen the
screen each time.
Create booking orders Create Booking Order (quick On the quick entry screen, you
entry screen) or Create New can create multiple booking
Order orders without having to
reopen the screen each time.
Release booking orders Create Booking Order (quick To change a released booking
entry screen) or Create New order, you first have to cancel
Order → Release Order the release.
Assign shipments to booking New Orders or Released To change assigned
orders Orders → Assign Shipment → shipments, you first have to
Assign cancel the assignment.
To assign all shipments, do
not select a shipment.
Assign shipment items to New Orders or Released
containers Orders → Assign Shipment →
Assign
On the Unassigned Items tab
page, choose Assign to
Container
Release shipping instructions Released Orders → Release
Shipping Instruction
Archive booking orders Transportation End on the
relevant screen

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Monitoring and Tracking Using SAP EM


Use
You can use SAP Event Management (SAP EM) to get an overview of the Ocean Carrier
Booking process and to monitor the following:

● Communication with an external communication partner, for example, a platform or a


partner for ocean carrier bookings

● Containers

Integration
You have installed SAP EM and integrated it with the Alert Framework. For more information,
see the SAP Library under SAP Event Management (SAP EM) → SAP Event Management
Infrastructure → Event → Reactions to and Actions for Events → Connection to the Alert
Framework.

Prerequisites
● You have defined an application system. For more information, see the Implementation
Guide (IMG) for Event Management (EM) under General Settings in SAP Event
Management → Define Application System.

● You have defined which of your systems is an SAP EM system. For more information,
see the IMG under Integration with Other SAP Components → Event Management
Interface → Define Application Interface → Define SAP EM.

● You have specified your SAP EM system in the application object types and event
types. To do this, specify a value in the Event Manager field on the General Data tab
page for all application object types and event types with the business process type
OCB10_ORDER. For more information, see the IMG under Integration with Other SAP
Components → Event Management Interface → Define Application Interface → Define
Used Bus. Proc. Types, Appl. Obj. Types, and Evt Types.

● You have made the settings for parameter mapping. For more information, see the
IMG under Event Handlers and Event Handler Data → Parameters → Define
Parameter Mapping. To make the settings, choose Assign Profile to Mapping Area and
enter two new entries as follows:
Entry 1 Entry 2
Application system Application system that you defined previously
Application object type OCB10_CONTAINER OCB10_ORDER
Mapping profile OCB10_CONTAINER OCB10_ORDER
Error handling mode Use default setting (Map parameter if possible, otherwise
assign input parameter)

Features
Events When Communicating with an External Communication Partner
An event is triggered automatically in SAP EM for the following process steps:

● You release a booking order.

● You release a shipping instruction (in other words, a booking order with the assigned
shipments).

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In both cases, you can track the following:

● Receipt of the message at your external communication partner

● Receipt of a confirmation or rejection from your external communication partner in your


system
Furthermore, SAP EM triggers an event if an unexpected event occurs. For example, if your
external communication partner sends you changes that have been made to the booking
order or shipping instruction.

Container Events
An event handler is created automatically in SAP EM for each container that is contained in a
booking order. In this way, you can track the following container events for the booking order:

● Loading on Vessel (LOAD_ON_VESSEL)

● Departure Vessel (DEPT_VESSEL)

● Arrival Vessel (ARRIV_VESSEL)

● Unloading from Vessel (UNLOAD_FROM_VESSEL)

Alerts
If the following events are delayed, SAP EM generates alerts:

● Booking Order Transfer Success

● Complete Preparation Phase

The preparation phase is the part of the process during which you create the
shipping instruction (assign shipments, containers, and so on).
The shipping instruction must arrive at your external communication partner in
good time before the actual transportation start. SAP EM generates the
Complete Preparation Phase alert 24 hours before the last date/time when you
can send the shipping instruction to ensure that you have enough time to
complete it.

● Send Shipping Instruction

● Shipping Instruction Transfer Success

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Printer and Form Determination for Ocean Carrier


Booking
Use
You can use printer and form determination to control which printer is used and which type of
form is to be printed.

Printer determination
You can use criteria to define which printer is to be used. If you do not define any criteria, the
printer that you have specified in the user profile in your system is used automatically.

Form determination
By default, form determination via the Post Processing Framework (PPF) [Extern] is used. In
Customizing for Transportation Management, you can define the PPF action with a fixed form.
For more information, see the Implementation Guide (IMG) for Extended Warehouse
Management (EWM) under Goods Issue Process → Transportation Management → Basics
→ Define PPF Action Profiles and Define PPF Conditions.

Activities
To configure printer and form determination, on the SAP Easy Access screen, choose
Extended Warehouse Management → Settings → Shipping and Receiving → Transportation
→ Printer and Form Determination. You must set up printer determination for Transportation
Management.

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