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KINS 2531A. Dr. Sturges. Final exam study guide. 1. Describe the structure of a nerve.

Include the terms epineurium, perineurium and endoneurium. Epinerurium- Covering the entire nerve as a whole. Perineurium- covering the fascicles Endoneurium- surrounding each fiber.

2. Draw and label the components of a spinal nerve. Include the following structures: spinal nerve, spinal cord, dorsal root and dorsal root ganglion, ventral root, dorsal ramus, ventral ramus. It also should include the location of sensory, motor, and interneuron cell bodies, axons, and dendrites. Why are spinal nerves called mixed? Mixed Nerves- consist of both sensory and motor fibers; transmits signals in two directions. 2. Define plexus and describe the major nerve plexuses formed by the ventral rami. Define dermatome. Plexus- A network of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels or nerves Major Nerve Plexus: Cervical- deep in the neck Lumbar- lower back Brachial- near the shoulders; in armpit Sacral- in pelvis Dermatome- area of skin innervated by the cutaneous branches of a single spinal nerve 4. Define a reflex, list the components and functions of each part of the reflex arc, and explain its importance to the functioning of the nervous system. Reflex- Quick, involuntary reactions of glands or muscles to stimulation Components of reflex arc: Receptors- site of stimulus; specialized cells/ dendrites of a sensory neuron Sensory neuron- AP, afferent fibers carry signal from receptors to dorsal horn of SC Integration center- In CNS; release of NT, EPSP, integration of information. Motor neuron- efferent fibers carry signal through the ventral root to skeletal muscles/ glands Effector- skeletal muscles contract/ glands secrete 5. Understand the characteristics of the inborn reflexes: quick, involuntary, predictable, need sensory information. Define learned reflexes. Inborn reflex- Quick (few synapses and interneurons); involuntary (automatic responses to SENSORY INPUT w/o our intent or awareness); Predictable (occur the same way every time) Learned reflexes- acquired; result from practice/ repetition 6. Differentiate between monosynaptic and polysynaptic reflexes. Monosynaptic- Sensory neuron synapses directly w/ motor neuron, short delay, stretch reflex Polysynaptic- Have at least 1 interneuron, longer delay, withdraw reflexes 7. Describe the structure of the muscle spindles: include central&end regions, alfa & gamma motor neurons in your discussions. Explain the stretch reflex. Structure of muscle spindle: Central region- lack myofilaments/ noncontractile, primary sensory nerve endings stimulated by rate and degree of stretch. End region- have myofilaments/ contractile, secondary sensory endings stimulated ONLY by degree of stretch, axons of gamma motor spinal neurons in ventral horn Gamma neurons- stimulate the shortening of the contractile ends Alpha neurons- innervate the working part of the muscle Stretch reflex- 1. Activates spindles; 2. Sensory neurons transmit impulses at higher frequency to SC; 3. Synapse w/ alpha motor neurons; 4. Alpha motor neurons stimulate extrafusal fibers; 5. Reflexive muscle contraction resists further stretching

KINS 2531A. Dr. Sturges. Final exam study guide. 8. Explain the withdrawal reflex and the crossed extensor reflex. Withdrawal reflex- Moves affected part of body away from stimulation Crossed extensor reflex- Contralateral reflex arcs explained by pain at one foot causing muscle contraction in other leg to support the weight.

9. List the principle parts of the brain: the cerebrum, the brain stem (know its components) and cerebellum. Be able to explain their locations using the directional terms rostral and caudal. Cerebrum- cerebral hemispheres Brain stem- Diencephlon (Epithalamus-helps us sleep, Thalamus-gray matter, Hypothalamus- controls endocrine system, center for emotional response), Midbrain, Medulla oblongata, pons Cerebellum- Caudal to cerebrum and Rostral (closer to forehead) Caudal (closer to the back) 10. Describe the structure and functions of the medulla oblongata. Include: pyramids and their decussation, olives, ascending tracts, nuclei of cranial nerves. Describe its function as the autonomic reflex center. Pyramids- has corticospinal tracts (carries motor signals from the cerebrum to the spinal cord); Decussation (motor neurons decussate, each side of the brain controls muscles on the opposite side of the body) Olives- contains wavy gray matter; stretch of muscles and joint to cerebellum Nuclei of: 9 Glossopharyngeal, 10 vagus, 11 accesory, 12 hypoglossal Autonomic reflex center-Cardiovascular system, Respiratory system 11. Describe the structure and functions of the pons. Include the cerebellar peduncles, nuclei of cranial nerves and respiratory centers. Rostral to the medulla. Cerebellar peduncles-2 middle peduncles; ascending and descending tracts - bundles of nerve fibers that carry signals in and out of the cerebellum. Nuclei of cranial nerves- (5) facial sensation; (6) eye movements; (7) facial expression; (8) hearing and balance 12. Describe the structure and functions of the midbrain: central aqueduct, periaquedactal gray matter, nuclei of cranial nerves, tegmentum, tectum with the corpora quadrigemina, substantia nigra. Periaqueductal gray matter- controls awareness of pain Nuclei of cranial nerve- (3) eye movement Tegmentum-connects to cerebellum and helps control fine movements Tectum- Corpora quadrigemina (4 nuclei); superior colliculi (visual reflex to track moving objects); inferior colliculi (startle reflex) Substantia nigra- releases dopamine 13. Discuss the structure and functions of the thalamus. Functions- receives nearly all sensory information (gateway to cortex); Interconnected to limbic system (emotions and memory) 14. Describe the location and list functions of the hypothalamus in maintaining homeostasis. Location- walls and floor of third ventricle Functions- Autonomic NS control (BP, HR, contractility, GI mobility); Controls Endocrine system (Temp, food intake, water intake, sleep &wake rhythms); Emotional response (limbic system, rage, pleasure, fear, & sex drive) 15. Describe the structure and functions of the cerebellum: location, hemispheres, vermis, folia, arbor vitae. Location- Caudal to cerebrum; separated by cerebral fissure Hemispheres- connected by vermis Folia- surface folds Arbor vitae- white matter

KINS 2531A. Dr. Sturges. Final exam study guide. 3 Functions- Receives signals from cortex, Sends info. To cortex, Maintains posture, Coordinates force, Compares intentions w/ performance of the body, receives info from proprioceptors 16. Describe the location, components and functions of the functional systems of the brain: reticular formation and the limbic system. Be able to explain their functional nature. Reticular Formation: Location- cluster of nuclei in brainstem Functions- Reticular activating system (activates cortex, inhibited by alcohol, sleep inducing drugs, habituation(ignoring repetitive stimuli)) Regulates sleep &conscious attention Limbic System: Location- Medial side of cerebral hemisphere Components- Cingulate gyrus, fornix, Amygdala, Hippocampus Functions- facilitates memory storage and retrieval; associated w/ smell 17. Differentiate among the terms- cerebral hemispheres, gray matter: cortex , pyramidal cells and nuclei, white matter: fibers and tracts, gyri, sulci and fissures (central sulcus, occipito-parietal sulcus, lateral sulcus, longitudinal fissure), lobes and their functions. 18. Define lateralization, and explain functions of representational and categorical hemispheres. Lateralization- Both of the hemispheres look symmetrical but they have different functions. Representational hemisphere- usually the right side. Receives info. in a more integrated way, the seat of imagination, insight, musical and artistic skill, comparison of sight , smell and taste. Categorical hemisphere- usually the left side. Spoken and written language, sequential/ analytical reasoning. 19. Describe the three types of fibers associated with the cerebral white matter (commissural, association and projection fibers) and give the locations and functions of each. Include corpus callosum in your discussion. Commissural fibers- cross Left to Right hemispheres. Mostly pass through corpus callosum. Allows two sides of cerebrum to communicate. Association fibers- Long (connect lobes from one hemisphere to the other); Short (connect gyri within one hemisphere).link perceptual and memory centers Projection fibers- Vertical from brain. Internal capsule (b/n the thalamus and basal nuclei). Corona radiata (tracts diverging to specific areas of the cortex. 20. Identify the locations and functions of the following portions of the cerebral cortex: primary motor cortex (precentral gyrus), Brocas area, primary somatosensory cortex (post-central gyrus). Primary motor cortex (pre-central gyrus) - Located in frontal lobe for voluntary control of skeletal muscles. Brocas Area- Located in the inferior prefrontal cortex in the left hemisphere. Generates a motor program for the muscles of the larynx, cheeks, tongue, and lips to produce speech. Primary somatosensory cortex (post-central gyrus)- touch, pressure, pain, vibration, temp., taste 21. Discuss the structure and function of the basal nuclei. Regulates intensity of movement Controls the rhythm and pattern of arm swinging in walking 22. Define the blood-brain barrier (include in your discussion the endothelium of the capillaries, basal lamina, astrocytes) and its roles. Maintains constant environment for neurons

KINS 2531A. Dr. Sturges. Final exam study guide. 4 23. Identify the four ventricles of the brain and their locations. Discuss the functions, formation, circulation, and reabsorption of CSF. This discussion should include the roles of the choroid plexus, arachnoid villi, the subarachnoid space, the central canal, the ventricles, and their foramina and aqueducts. 24. Discuss the three cranial meninges, including their locations, characteristics, functions, and spaces. Include in your discussion the differences between the cranial and spinal meninges. 25. Know the twelve cranial nerves by Roman numeral, name, type of fibers (motor/sensory/PS) and identify the main function(s) of each cranial nerve. 26. Compare ANS with the somatic motor division. List some effectors of the ANS. 27. Describe the general roles of the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the ANS. Understand the fight or flight and rest and digest responses. 28. Compare the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the ANS and include the type of NT used by both systems. Explain why the parasympathetic system is called craniosacral and why the sympathetic system is called thoracolumbar. Identify the major nerves of the parasympathetic division. 29 .Discuss the concept of dual innervation of organs by the ANS: antagonistic and cooperative effects. Give examples of organs that do/dont receive dual innervation.