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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I felt during my training period at Adani power Ltd,mundra that a certain correlatin between the theoritical knowledge

and experience exits.There is definite balance between the two leading to a safe and better porcess and increased productivity. I am thankful from the bottem of my heart to shri Mr. abhay Tamhane(HR General Manager) and shri Mr. kanaksir to allow me to perceive knowelge at the Adani power Plant. I am also thankful to mr.Mohan Dekate Sir , shri mr.Maji sir , shri Mr.Patel Sir , shri Mr.Shdhir sir , shri Mr.Mahendra Raval Sir and all who gave a helping hand and proper technical guidance during my training peroid. I am deeply thankful to all of them above for their cooperatin, assistance and and love they gave to me.

Purohit keyurkumar pravinbhai T.E.( Mechanical)


1) 2) 3)

INTRODUCTION TO ADANI POWER LTD. INTRODUCTION TO THERMAL POWER PLANT. BOILER UNIT. a)Defination b)Classification c)Main Parts Of Boiler d)Parameters Of Boiler


TURBINE UNIT. a)Defination b)Classification c)Main Parts Of Turbine d)Parameters Of Turbine


BALANCE OF PLANT. a)Ash Handling System b)Coal Handling system c)DM&RO Plant d)Cooling Tower

6) 7) 8)



Adani Power Ltd(APL) is setting up a 4620 MW power project at Mundra based on imported coal in the total area of 294 Ha. The execution will be done in the following stages.






2*330MW sub critical

2*330MW sub critical

2*660MW super critical

3*660MW super critical

Adani Power is the largest power plant in INDIA and 3rd largest thermal power plant in the World. Also it has emerged as Indias largest coal importer. Adani Power Ltd is situated 3.4 km from SH6, it has extention 5.7 km from NH 8A. Village: Tunda Taluka: Mundra District: Kutch State: Gujarat


Electricity in bulk quantities is produced in power plants, which can be of the following types. Thermal Nuclear Hydraulic Gas Turbine Geothermal Wind Plants Solar Plants 55% of the electricity is produced by thermal power plants. Which uses coal or lignite as fuel and is the non renewable energy source. Main parts of the thermal plants are boiler, turbine, condenser, and feed pump. And which are mostly operated on rankine cycle.



Definition of boiler:
Boiler is a pressure vessel used for generating steam for power generation, process use, or heating purpose. However according to the Indian Boiler Act, 1923 a boiler is a closed pressure vessel with capacity exceeding 22.75 liters used for generating steam under pressure. It includes all the mountings fitted to such vessels, which remain wholly or partly under pressure when steam is shut off.

Specification of boiler:
The boiler is an outdoor, balanced draft, gas biasing, natural circulation, Carolina type radiant boiler. It is arranged with water cooled bottom furnace, super heater, reheater, economizer, and airheater components.

Water tubes boiler:

In this types of boilers the fuel is fired in a confined chamber and the water is circulated through divided flow path inside a number of small bore tubes, which are exposed to the heat generated inside the combustion chamber.

Sub critical boiler: The operating pressure is below 225.5 bar this are known as sub critical boilers. The power plant efficiency is around 35%. The steam drum is used for separation of water and dry steam.

Opposite wall firing:

The firing of the pulverized coal and hot air is done on the opposite wall. Which has less efficiency than tangential firing. Burners are located at the opposite side of the wall. Natural circulation system: The circulation in this case takes place on the thermosiphon principle. The downcomer contains water whereas the riser tubes contain steam water mixture, whose density is comparatively less than water in downcomer. This density difference is the driving force for water circulation through various water circuits in the furnace. Balance draught system: The system in which combustion air is supplied under pressure through a fan and negative draught is created by the suction of another fan is called as balanced draught system. It is the combination of forced and induced draught system. In balanced draught system, air for combustion is supplied at required pressure by the action of the forced draught fan and removal of flue gas is assisted by the the indused draught fan thus balance draught is maintained.

Main Parts Of The Boiler:

A boiler furnace is that space under or aduacent to a boiler in which fuel is burned and from which the combustion products pass into the boiler. It provides a chamber in which the combustion reaction can be isolated and confined so that the reaction remains a controlled force.

Boiler Drum:
The function of the boiler drum is to separate the water from the steam generated in the furnace walls and to reduce the dissolved solid contents of the steam to below the prescribed limit of 1ppm. The drum is located at the upper front of the boiler. Drum diameter is 1775mm and thickness is 185mm.

It is one type of junction. It is also used to restrict the water turbulent.

Water Walls:
In modern boilers the combustion chamber is formed by tubes containing water and configured in such a manner as to form the walls of combustion chamber.

There are total twenty four pulverized coal burners for wall fired boilers and twelve oil burners provided each in between two pulverized fuel burners.

There are twelve igniters per boiler. The atomizing air for igniters is taken from plant air compressors at 7 kg/cm2.

Coal bunkers:
Processed coal after crushing from coal handling plant is stored in silos or coal bunkers. These are located at top of the mills so as to aid in gravity feeding of coal.

Coal Feeder:
Each mill is provided with a drag ling chain, rotaty, gravimetric feeder to transport raw coal from the bunker to the inlet at desired rate. It has capacity of 55t/h.

Coal Mills:
There are six mills for every 330 MW units. These mills pulverize coal to the desired fineness to be fed to the furnace. It has capacity of 38.7t/h.

P.A. Fan:

The primary air fans are designed for handling hot air for conveying the pulverized coal from mill to the furnace through coal carrying pipes. These are three fans per boiler. It is axial flow type and impeller diameter is 1.9m. Flow rate is 58.92 m3/sec.

F.D. Fan:
The forced draft fan which are two per boiler are designed for handling secondary air for the boiler. These are axial flow type and have 2m impeller diameter. Flow rate is 152.76 m3/sec. I.D. Fan: The induced draft fans which are three per boiler are designed for evacuating flue gases from the boiler. They are radial flow type and have 2.6m impeller diameter. Flow rate is 287.81 m3/sec.

Seal Air Fan:

These are used mainly for supplying seal air to the mill to prevent dust into gear box lubrication oil. These are two fans per boiler. The flow rate is 29100m3/hr.

These are 220m tall RCC structures with flue gases inside concrete shells. These are used to discharge flue gases at some height which will less effect on atmosphere.

Boiler Parameters:
SH steam flow (t/h) SH steam pr. at outlet (Mpa) SH steam temp. at outlet (C) Steam flow (t/h) RH pr. at inlet/outlet (Mpa) RH temp. at inlet/outlet (C) Feed water temp. (C) Fuel consumption (t/h) Boiler efficiency (%) Air temp. entering AH (C) Air temp. leaving AH primary/secondary Gas temp. entering AH Gas temp. leaving AH 973 18.24 543 883.6 4.198/4.04 338/543 255 113.4 93.68 28 326/338 373 129


Working Of Boiler
Anthracite coal from the coal wagons is transported to the coal handling plant. Here coal is crushed in crushers and reduced to 1 inch size. This crushed coal is transported to the coal bunkers with the help of coal conveyers. With the help of coal feeders coal from feeders coal from bunkers is made to fall in coal mill. In coal mill coal is crushed by the crushing action between table and rollers. This pulverized coal is taken to the burner in coal pipes with the help of hot and cold air mixture from primary air. Atmospheric air is fed by FD fan is preheated by the outgoing flue gases in APH. This hot secondary hot air flows into the wind box and distributed to the burners for complete combustion. The BFP discharge water leaving economizer is reaches to the boiler drum. Water from drum passes from downcomers and goes to headers. Headers distributes the water in the water walls. Water is partly converted into steam and rises up by natural circulation. Steam is separated from the bubbling water inside the drum and goes to the primary super heater. Partly super heated steam is than flows to the radiant SH located at the top of the furnace. It is than goes in desuperheater for attemperation. From the desuperheater steam finally goes to the final SH for further superheating before it leaves the main stop valve to the HP turbine. Steam existing from HP turbine goes back to the reheater for reheating. Steam after reheating flows to the IP turbine and than to the LP turbine. Wet steam from LP turbine is send to the condenser. Here the heat is exchange with the cold water that is being circulated with the help of CW pump.


The condensate water is than sent to the deaerator. This highly pure condensate is then sent to the boiler drum via feedwate heaters and economizer with the help of CEP and BFP. The cooled sea water becomes hot due to heat exchange with the LP turbine exhaust steam. This sea water is then circulated back to the CT. Here atmospheric air takes its heat away with the help of a fan.



There is reheat, condensing steam turbine with three stages of expansion made by Beijing Beizhong Steam Turbine Generator Co. Ltd. The shaft is coupled with the generator and is direction of rotation is anticlockwise if seeing from steam turbine. The nominal capacity is to generate power of 330MW. RPM of the turbine are 3000 and there are 7 extraction stages. There are 11 stages in HP turbine, 12 stages in IP turbine, and 2*5 stages in LP turbine. 2nos of stop valves in HP and IP turbine, and 4 control valves in HP turbine, 2 control valves in IP turbine. The output of Generator is 330MW. Which is 3 phase and rated speed is 3000 rpm, rated frequency is 50Hz. Hydrogen cooling is provided to control the temp of generator. And cooling of stator is done by DM water.


Main Parts Of Turbine

Circulating Cooling Pump
It is used to circulation of sea water in the condenser. There are total 7 nos of CWP per unit. (6 running and 1 stand by). The head is 25.35m and discharge is 18000m3/hr.

Closed Circuit Cooling Water Pump:

It is used to cool all the rotating equipments in the turbine unit. They are 3 per unit(2 running and 1 stand by). The head is 59m3 and flow rate is 800m3/hr.

The condenser is made by Harbin Turbine Auxiliary. There are 17618 no.s of cooling tubes used. And steam flow is 691.1 TPH. A condenser where the exhaust steam from the turbine is condensed operates at pressure lower than atmosphere .There are two objects of using a condenser in a steam plant. 1. To reduce the turbine exhaust pressure so as to increase the specific output of turbine. 2. To recover high quality feedwater in the form of condensate and feed it back to steam generator without any further treatment.

Jacking Oil Pump:

It is used to jacking of the turbine shaft. It has high pr. axial piston pump. There are 3 sets of pump per unit. Boiler Feed Pump: There are 3 BFP per unit(2 running and 1 in stand by). They are made by Shenyang Blower Works Ltd. The capacity of each pump is 678m3/hr.


Boiler Feel Pump:

It is used to feel the whole boiler equipments before starting the boiler. There are 2 nos of pump per unit.

Condensate Extraction Pump:

It is used to exract the water from condenser. There are 3 nos(2 running and 1 in stand by) of pump per unit.

There are total 7 heaters. Which are one type of heat exchangers. Water is heated by the extractions at different stages from turbine in the heaters.

Condenser Vacuum Pump:

It is used to maintain vacuum in the condenser. also it maintain the back pr. of the turbine which helps in the complete expansion of the steam.

Deaerator :
One of the feed water heater contact type open heater, known as deaerater. The presence of dissolved gases like oxygen and carbon dioxide in water makes the water corrosive. The solubility of these gases in water decreases with increases in temperature .These gases are removed in the deaerator , where the feed water heated to the saturation temperature by the steam extracted from the turbine. By the contact of steam the feed water is heated to the saturation temperature.


Turbine Parameters.
Steam turbine output Main steam flow Main steam pr. Main steam temp. Reheat steam flow Reheated steam pr. Reheat steam temp. Rated HP exhaust pr. HP cylinder exhaust temp. Feed water temp. 330MW 973t/h 17.75Mpa 540C 883.6t/h 3.93Mpa 540C 4.37Mpa 340C 256.5C

Steam Extraction Stages.

Steam extraction stage Stage 7 Stage6 Stage5 Stage4 Stage3 Stage2 Stage1 Flow t/h 85.03 49.53 43.56 54.53 23.12 27.53 22.91 Pr. Mpa 4.3723 2.1724 1.0674 0.5063 0.1393 0.0713 .0292 Temp C 339.9 452.5 353.5 261.1 136.7 90.4 68.5


Balance of plant is the unit which is not directly attached to the power generation unit. But it is very essential to generate power. It is the unit which fulfills the requirement of the plant. There are main four units in this unit. Which are as follows,


Coal Handling Plant Ash Handling Plant RO & DM Plant Cooling Tower This all four units controls the whole plant. So it is very essential that these plant should be controlled very carefully. So all these plant have their different control unit and also these are connected to the main control unit.

Coal Handling System

There are mainly two systems of the coal handling plant in the adani power. And these are as follows, 1. Track Hopper system (In running)


2. West Port Conveyor System (Under Project) The coal Handling Plant is designed for unloading of coal from Railway wagons, reclaiming the coal and ensuring uninterrupted coal supply to the storage bunkers corresponding to each boiler. All associated equipments such as track hopper, belt conveyors, tripper conveyors, paddle feeder, ring granulator crushers, all junction towers, crusher house and all miscellaneous items such as electric hoist, manual hoist, magnetic separators and etc. are included in the system to meet the above requirement. Coal Handling Plant (CHP) consists of following major equipments. Which are common for phase 1 and phase 2. 1. Belt conveyors 12 nos. 2. Tripper conveyors 4 nos. 3. Paddle conveyors 2 nos. 4. Ring granulators 2 nos. 5. Magnetic separators 2 nos. 6. Junction tower 2 nos. 7. Crusher house 2 nos.

The raw coal is coming from other countries to port and then by railway wagons it is supplied to Adani power unit. The coal used is mostly anthracite type of coal which has higher CV. The coal conveying rout starts from the track hopper feeding to proceed to the coal crushers. The crushed coal conveyed to the belt conveyor. Then it is feed to the belt feeder this is the reversible conveyor. This belt feeder feeds the coal according to the


system requirement in the each unit. Then it will feed in the coal bunkers of each unit. These coal bunkers stores the coal and than by coal feeder it supplies the coal as per coal requirement in the coal mill. The coal mill is used to pulverize the coal. It is also known as pulverizer.

Ash Handling Plant

Ash Handling Plant (AHP) is for handling of ash. The combustion products which are unburnt or remaining particles in the coal can not be burnt and they should be removed from the system so ash handling is used. There are main two types of ash collection is used in the plant.


1. Bottom Ash (Wet ash) 2. Fly Ash (Dry ash) The bottom ash has more density than the fly ash so it is collected at the bottom of the furnace. The system used to collect this ash is SSC. And from hopper this wet is discharged in the truck. The ash is collected at the bottom of the ash so it is called as the bottom ash system. Also ash collected from APH is wet ash. The ash collected from ESP and ECO is dry ash. And it has less density than the bottom ash so it will go with the flue gases. The system used to collect this ash is vacuum system in ESP. The ash goes with the flue gases so it is called as Fly ash. 40 nos. of ESP hoppers and 2 nos. APH hoppers are collected to 2 nos. of ash conveying lines which convey ash in all these hoppers to silo. 3 nos. of vacuum pumps are provided for each unit (2 running, 1 stand by). 2 sets of bag filter, receiver & lock hopper arrangements are provided on the top of each silo. One no. of cooling tower and 2 nos. of circulating water pumps are provided for supplying cooling water for all the 6 nos. vacuum pumps.

RO & DM Plant
RO & DM Plant is used to demineralization of water which is used in the boiler. There are main two RO Plants as follows:-


7 MLD (For phase 1 & 2) 20 MLD (For phase 3 & 4) Plant 7 MLD is operating on reverse osmosis principle. In which flow when pressure is applied is concentrated to dilute side and hence it is called as reverse osmosis. There are total 4 RO skids (3 working and 1 standby). And has following stages.

Pretreatment Plant
This section removes physical impurities (salt, sand etc) of sea water through coagulation by alum addition, flocculation by polymer addition, and process in the clarifier. This is followed by sand filters after that sea water is passed through micron cartridge filter, which removes impurities up to 5 um.

RO Skids
From cartridge filter water enters in the RO skids where actual reverse osmosis takes place. It removes 99.5% of salt from sea water which is called as permit water.

Pressure Sand Filter

This removes physical impurities of water. In which sand is used as filter media.

Activated Carbon Filter

This removes organic impurities and chlorine from water.

Strong acid Cation Exchanger

It removes positively charged ions from water.


Weak Base Anion Exchanger

It removes negatively charged ions like chlorides, sulphates from water.

Mixed Bed Exchanger

It removes both positive and negative charged ions from water which are remaining. Here we get the pure water which is useful in the boiler. 20 MLD plant has same system but the capacity of the plant is more and there are different units for RO plant and DM plant.



1) ECONOMISER An economiser is heat exchanger which rises the temperature of the feed water. This is done by the hot flue gases exiting at temperature varying 370 C to 540 C. Throwing away of such high temperature gases involved a great deal of energy loss. By utilizing these gases in heating higher efficiency and better economy were achieved, hence the heat exchanger called the economiser.

The superheater is a heat exchanger in which heat is transferred to the saturated steam to increase its temperature. It raises the overall cycle efficiency. In addition , it reduces the moisture content in the last stages of the turbine and thus increases the turbine internal efficiency. In modern utility high pressure boilers, more than 40% of the total heat absorbed in the generation of steam takes place in the superheater.

3) REHEATER The design of reheaters is similar to the superheaters. The steam outlet temperature is same and the steam pressure is about 20-25% of those in the superheaters.


In operation there are different units. It is used for controlling. The whole plant is controlled by one unit which is called as control room. There are total 4 control control rooms in the company per phase there is one control room. And also there are different control rooms for every system. In operation main thing is to control all the parameters at nominal operation. They watch each and every path continuously. It is very difficult when the plant is to be start. The main paths of water, steam, coal, ash, air, flue gases are shown in the fig.


During my training period I felt that all the industries have their own importance but power generation plant is the heart of all industries on which the other plants depend. No other industry can work without steam and power. India is facing electricity energy shortage and it is the most sources to develop our country. So it is very thank to Adani Group which will try to meet Indias power demand. Most of the plants are automated with the latest technology systems. Adani Power has ever remained consistent and increasing its productivity with increasing turnover and working above the optimum capacity. All my best wishes for a better today and a brighter tomorrow. PUROHIT KEYURKUMAR PRAVINBHAI (B.TECH MECHANICAS)