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TMMS10 Fluida system och transmissioner 2011-05-16 Bo R Andersson

Hydraulic systems for Mobile Applications


1st Lecture
Types of directional valves Steady State behaviour

2nd Lecture
System Dynamics

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1st Lecture May 16, 2011 Bo R Andersson

Content - Introduction to mobile systems - Hydraulic operation of a load - Directional valves for mobile applications
Closed centre valve Open centre valve LS Computer operated valve
2

Comparison of properties: -Operateability -Power effectiveness -Complexity

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Introduction to Mobile Systems

Control of position by control of velocity


(change of velocity, acceleration, deceleration)
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3

Control of working hydraulics

Typical for mobile machines:


-Control of load or implement
-Controlled by an operator -Load conditions change continuously -Simultaneous operation of several functions -One pump to several functions

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Sid 4

Linkpings universitet

Mobile Hydraulics
Continously operated by a human being

Difficulties and challenges:


Wide operating range No consistency between flow and speed Simultanous operation of several functions Saturation of pump flow Low efficiency and heat generation Safety and stability Low natural frequency and low damping Cost
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Types of mobile valves:

Closed Centre

Open Centre

Load Sensing

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Sid 6

Types of mobile valves:

Closed Centre

Open Centre

Load Sensing

Types of pumps:
Constant Pressure Constant Flow Variable Pressure

Variable Flow

Variable Pressure

Variable Flow

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Sid 7

Types of mobile valves:

Closed Centre

Open Centre

Load Sensing

Types of pumps:
Constant Pressure Constant Flow Variable Pressure

Variable Flow

Variable Pressure

Variable Flow

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Sid 8

Hydraulic operation of a Load

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Closed Center Valve

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Sid 12

Velocity Gain (Angular speed of Arm/Speed of cylinder) 8 7 6


Velocity Gain

5 4 3 2 1 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Angle of Arm

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No direct relation between flow and velocity!

Constant Pressure System Closed Center Valve

Qp-Diagram for Closed-Center Valve


100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 20% 0 0 100% 80% dQ dp 60% 50% 30% 20 40% 70%

p Load %

40 Q Load %

60

80

100

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Constant Flow System Open-Centre Valve


Load drop check valves

ppningsareor
30
ppning [mm^2]

25 20 15 10 5 0 0 1 2 3 Slidlge [mm] 4 5 6 P-A B-T Aoc

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Example of Open-Centre Valve

Open-Centre valve with a Q-Inlet.


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Open Centre valves


Most common valve type
Advantages: - Simple and cost effective - Control of both flow and pressure - High damping, good dynamic performance Disadvantages: - Low efficiency with fixed depl. pump - Difficult to limit port flow - Flow control is load dependent - Interaction between loads (load interference)

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LS-system

Load Drop Check Valve

l/min 60

Valve Characteristic

40

20

mm

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LS-system

Load Drop Check Valves

Pressure compensators

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LS-system

Load Drop Check Valves

Pressure compensators

Power Usage Single Operation

Power Usage Dual Operation

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Flow Control Valves


Post- and pre-pressure compensation

Q Cq A

2( p1 p2 )

q
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Post-Pressure Compensation

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Flow Sharing
Post-Pressure Compensation, Rexroth type German: LUDV Lastunabhngige Durchfluss Verteiligung

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Rexroth LUDV

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Rexroth M6-15, LUDV

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EFM -Electrohydraulic Flow Matching

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EFM -Electrohydraulic Flow Matching

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Energy Efficient Systems

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Energy Efficient Systems

Conventional LS-system

Utan lasttervinning Average hydraulic power during a working cycle 2009 Bo R Andersson

Energy Effective Systems


Reduction of Power Losses

Low Pressure Regeneration


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High Pressure Regeneration

Energy Recuperation

Energy Effective Systems


3-port Valves Reduction of Power Losses 2-port Valves

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Computer Controlled Valves

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Eaton: Ultronics

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Ultronics System versikt:


TS16 Elektro-Hydraulisk Ventil
9. Inbddad ASIC signalprocessor 5. Centreringsfjder 3. Pilot ventil

6. Pilot slid

4. High Power Force Motor

8. Pressure transducers

1. Valve of Monoblock type

7. Position transducer, LVDT 2. Independent spolls

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Ultronics

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Husco: Incova

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Design issues: -Pressure sensitive


(unbalanced pilot)

-Low bandwidth -Long-stroke solenoid -Poor accuracy

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Decoupling of pressure and flow

- Use of sophisticated control theory - Requires good knowledge of the application


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Computer Operated Valves


The beauty with computer control and with all sensors is that the control possibilities are endless

At the same time, the computer control has the following disadvantages and difficulties:
Safety Reliability Development time and cost Production cost Must meet ISO 15998 and EN 61508

2009 Bo R Andersson