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Casting Defects and Design

Casting Defects and Design Issues ver. 2 ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton

Issues

ver. 2

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

1

Overview

Processes Analysis

Defects

Design rules

Economics

• Analysis • Defects • Design rules • Economics ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof.

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

2

Issues in Casting

Shrinkage

Porosity

Piping

Microstructure

• Shrinkage • Porosity • Piping • Microstructure ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S.

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

3

Shrinkage

Can amount to 5-10% by volume

Gray cast iron expands upon solidification due to phase changes

Need to design part and mold to take

this amount into consideration

design part and mold to take this amount into consideration ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

4

TABLE 5.1

Metal or alloy

Shrinkage

Volumetric

solidification

contraction (%)

Metal or alloy

Volumetric

solidification

contraction (%)

Aluminum

6.6

70%Cu–30%Zn

4.5

Al–4.5%Cu

6.3

90%Cu–10%Al

4

Al–12%Si

3.8

Gray iron

Expansion to 2.5

Carbon steel

2.5–3

Magnesium

4.2

1% carbon steel

4

White iron

4–5.5

Copper

4.9

Zinc

6.5

Source : After R. A. Flinn.

Copper 4.9 Zinc 6.5 Source : After R. A. Flinn. ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

5

Casting Defects

Casting Defects ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011 6
Casting Defects ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011 6

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

6

Defects - Hot Tears

Defects - Hot Tears ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011
Defects - Hot Tears ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

7

Steam Engine Flywheels

Steam Engine Flywheels ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011 8
Steam Engine Flywheels ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011 8
Steam Engine Flywheels ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011 8

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

8

Car Rims

Car Rims Stamped C a s t ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton

Stamped

Car Rims Stamped C a s t ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton

Cast

Car Rims Stamped C a s t ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

9

Casting Defects - Porosity

Casting Defects - Porosity ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011
Casting Defects - Porosity ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011
Casting Defects - Porosity ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011
Casting Defects - Porosity ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

10

Types

Porosity

due to gases smooth bubbles

due to shrinkage rough voids

Not a problem for ingots

parts that will be deformation processed

as long as it is not exposed to air (corrosion)

can be healed

as it is not exposed to air (corrosion) – can be healed ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

11

Porosity due to Gases

Smooth bubbles

result from entrapped gases

solubility in liquid is high, in solid is low, so

gas is rejected during cooling

• Sievert’s law

S = kp g

0.5

S = solubility

k = constant

p g = partial pressure of gas over melt

= constant – p g = partial pressure of gas over melt ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

12

Remedies for Gas Bubbles

Control atmosphere

vacuum

gases with less solubility

Proper venting to let gases out

Proper design of runners and gates to avoid turbulence

• Proper design of runners and gates to avoid turbulence ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

13

Remedies for Gas Bubbles

Add metallic elements to react with gases

killed steels - highly deoxidized (Al, Si)

high shrinkage due to gas removal - piping

semi-killed steels - less deoxidized

less piping, porosity

rimmed steels - little deoxidization

blow holes in ring at rim (sometimes break through)

• little piping because gas doesn’t escape

through) • little piping because gas doesn’t escape ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S.

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

14

Porosity due to Shrinkage

Rough bubbles - voids

Stages

cooling liquid rejects latent heat at melting point

alloys become slushy - liquid and solid co-exist

cooling solid

become slushy - liquid and solid co-exist – cooling solid ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

15

Differential Cooling

Transition between thicker and thinner sections can lead to porosity

between thicker and thinner sections can lead to porosity ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof.
between thicker and thinner sections can lead to porosity ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof.

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

16

Porosity / Shrinkage Solutions

Risers allow molten metal to flow into mold to make up for shrinkage

Design flow so no part freezes early

large channels

• “Flexible” molds

allow metal to shrink, not hold metal

molds – allow metal to shrink, not hold metal ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof.

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

17

Porosity / Shrinkage Solutions

Heating or cooling certain areas to maintain

uniform cooling (thermit

or chills)

areas to maintain uniform cooling (thermit or chills) • Uniform part thickness – leads to uniform

Uniform part thickness

leads to uniform cooling, less residual stress

– leads to uniform cooling, less residual stress ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S.

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

18

Chills

Chills ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011 19
Chills ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011 19

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

19

Pipe Defect

Pipe Defect • Due to shrinkage giving rise to a funnel-like cavity • Solutions – insulate

Due to shrinkage giving rise to

a funnel-like cavity

Solutions

insulate top (glass wool) heat top (exothermic mixture - thermit)

(glass wool) – heat top (exothermic mixture - thermit) ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof.

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

20

Microstructure

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011
ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems
Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

21

Grains on Willie B’s head

Grains on Willie B’s head ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT
Grains on Willie B’s head ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

22

Microstructure - Dendrites

Microstructure - Dendrites • Finer structure at walls • Grains / dendrites grow to center ME

Finer structure at

walls

Grains / dendrites

grow to center

structure at walls • Grains / dendrites grow to center ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems
structure at walls • Grains / dendrites grow to center ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

23

Microstructure - Dendrites

Microstructure - Dendrites ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011 24
Microstructure - Dendrites ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011 24
Microstructure - Dendrites ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011 24

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

24

Microstructure

Post-treatment may be necessary to get desired properties - grain structure

annealing

tempering

cold working

structure – annealing – tempering – cold working ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S.

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

25

Design Rules Summary

Uniform wall thickness

Flat parting lines

Gradual thickness transitions

Draft for removal

tapers: 0.5 to 2 degrees

Surface of mold gives

surface of part

0.5 to 2 degrees • Surface of mold gives surface of part ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes
0.5 to 2 degrees • Surface of mold gives surface of part ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes
0.5 to 2 degrees • Surface of mold gives surface of part ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

26

Sand Casting Rules

Sand Casting Rules ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011 27
Sand Casting Rules ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011 27

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

27

Economics Example - Optical Bench

Economics Example - Optical Bench ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT
Economics Example - Optical Bench ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT
Economics Example - Optical Bench ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

28

Requirements

Casting of Al-Si alloy

Number

one-off

preliminary run (100)

production run (10,000)

High precision required

machining required

pick cheapest casting method

– machining required – pick cheapest casting method ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S.

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

29

Alternative Processes

Sand casting

Alternative Processes • Sand casting • Low pressure casting • Permanent mold casting • Die casting

Low pressure casting

Permanent mold casting

Die casting

casting • Permanent mold casting • Die casting ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S.
casting • Permanent mold casting • Die casting ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S.
casting • Permanent mold casting • Die casting ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S.

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

30

Cost Equation

C

C

m

C

c

C

L

n n

C = cost/part

C m = material cost

C c = capital cost

C L = labor cost

n = number produced

n = production rate

cost • n = number produced  • n = production rate ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

31

Process Costs

Process Sand Low Permanent Die Casting Casting Pressure Mold Material, C m ($) Labor, C
Process Sand Low Permanent Die Casting Casting Pressure Mold

Process

Sand

Low

Permanent

Die Casting

Casting

Pressure

Mold

Process Sand Low Permanent Die Casting Casting Pressure Mold

Material, C m ($)

Labor, C L ($/hr)

Capital, C C ($)

Rate,

n

(#/hr)

1 1 1 1 20 20 20 20 0.9 4.4 700 3000 6.25 22 10
1
1
1
1
20
20
20
20
0.9
4.4
700
3000
6.25
22
10
50
1 1 20 20 20 20 0.9 4.4 700 3000 6.25 22 10 50 ME 6222:

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

32

Process Economics

Process Economics ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011 33
Process Economics ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011 33

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

33

Process Selection

Probably pick low pressure casting, as a preliminary run of 100 is assured.

If production run is needed, die casting

will probably be used.

The tough part is getting the process

cost data.

used. • The tough part is getting the process cost data. ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

34

Production of Aluminum Auto Parts

Main Characteristic Casting Gravity A Low-Pressure Die Casting B High-Pressure Die Casting (Pores

Main

Characteristic

Casting

Gravity

A

Low-Pressure

Die Casting B

High-Pressure

Die Casting

(Pores Free) C

Squeeze

Casting

D

Pouring/Filling

Ladle

Air pressure

High-speed and

Relatively low-

Method

through stalk

high-pressure

speed and

 

injection by

high-pressure

hydraulic piston

injection

Filling Time (s)

10-30

10-30

1

10

Operating

1

1+(0.2-0.5)

100-500

500-1,000

Pressure (atm.)

Cycle Time

5-10

5-10

1-2

2

(min.)

Die/Mold

High

High

Low

Low-medium

Temperature

Dimensional

+

++

+++

+++

Accuracy

Design

+++

++

+

+

Availability

Productivity

+

++

+++

+++

Quality

+

++

+-+++

+++

Cost

+

+

+++

+++

Machining

Many

Many

Few

Few

Required

Main Parts

Intake manifold,

Cylinder block,

Cylinder block,

Piston, disk-

(other than

cylinder block

cylinder head,

oil pan, cylinder

brake caliper,

wheels)

and head,

suspension,

head cover,

power steering

piston

member

transaxle case

toe control hub,

head, suspension, head cover, power steering piston member transaxle case toe control hub, knuckle

knuckle

member transaxle case toe control hub, knuckle ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S.

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

35

Advantages of Casting

Near- or net- shape

Less scrap

Intricate shapes

Large hollow shapes

No limit to size

shapes • Large hollow shapes • No limit to size ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

36

Disadvantages of Casting

Shrinkage, porosity, cracks

No strain hardening

can be brittle

Tooling can be expensive

part shape depends on tool (mold)

Microstructure can be difficult to control

non-uniform cooling

faster on outside produces finer grain structure there

– faster on outside produces finer grain structure there ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof.

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

37

Summary

Defects

Design rules

Economics

Summary • Defects • Design rules • Economics ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S.

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

38

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011 39

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2011

39