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GENERAL CHEMISTRY

Principles and Modern Applications PETRUCCI HERRING MADURA


TENTH EDITION

BISSONNETTE

Chemical Reactions
PHILIP DUTTON
UNIVERSITY OF WINDSOR DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY AND BIOCHEMISTRY

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General Chemistry: Chapter 3

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Chemical Compounds
CONTENTS 4-1 Chemical Reactions and Chemical Equations 4-2 Chemical Equations and Stoichiometry 4-3 Chemical Reactions in Solution

4-4 Determining the Limiting Reactant


4-5 Other Practical Matters in Reaction Stoichiometry

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General Chemistry: Chapter 3

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4-1 Chemical Reactions and Chemical Equations

As reactants are converted to products we observe:


Color change Precipitate formation Gas evolution Heat absorption or evolution

Chemical evidence may be necessary.


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Figure 4-1 Precipitation of silver chromate Slide 4 of 24 General Chemistry: Chapter 3


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Figure 4-2 Evidence of a chemical reaction Slide 5 of 24 General Chemistry: Chapter 3


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Chemical Reactions
Nitrogen monoxide + oxygen nitrogen dioxide Step 1: Write the reaction using chemical symbols. Step 2: Balance the chemical equation.

2 NO + 1 O2 2 NO2

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General Chemistry: Chapter 4

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Molecular Representation

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General Chemistry: Chapter 4

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Balancing Equations
An equation can be balanced only by adjusting the coefficients of formulas.

Never introduce extraneous atoms to balance.

NO + O2 NO2 + O
Never change a formula for the purpose of balancing an equation.

NO + O2 NO3
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Balancing Equation Strategy Balance elements that occur in only one compound on each side first. Balance free elements last. Balance unchanged polyatomics (or other groups of atoms) as groups. Fractional coefficients are acceptable and can be cleared at the end by multiplication.

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General Chemistry: Chapter 4

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States of Matter
(g) gas (l) liquid (s) solid

Thus, the equation for combustion of triethylene glycol can be written as

2 C6H14O4(l) + 15 O2(g)

12 CO2(g) + 14 H2O(l)

Another commonly used symbol for reactants or products dissolved in water is (aq) aqueous solution
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General Chemistry: Chapter 3

4-2

Chemical Equations and Stoichiometry

Stoichiometry includes all the quantitative relationships involving: atomic and formula masses chemical formulas. chemical equations

Mole ratio or stoichiometric factor is a central conversion factor.


General Chemistry: Chapter 4
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KEEP IN MIND

that it is important to include units and to work from a balanced chemical equation when solving stoichiometry problems.

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General Chemistry: Chapter 3

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Figure 4-3 A generalized stoichiometry diagram Slide 13 of 24 General Chemistry: Chapter 3


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Figure 4-4 The reaction of 2 Al(s) 6 HCl(aq) Slide 14 of 24

2 AlCl3(aq) 3 H2(g)
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General Chemistry: Chapter 3

4-3

Chemical Reactions in Solution

Close contact between atoms, ions and molecules necessary for a reaction to occur.
Solvent We will usually use aqueous (aq) solution. Solute A material dissolved by the solvent.

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General Chemistry: Chapter 4

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Molarity Molarity (M) =

Amount of solute (mol solute) Volume of solution (L)


C = n V

If 0.440 mol of urea is dissolved in enough water to make 1.000 L of solution the concentration is:

curea =

0.440 mol urea = 0.440 M CO(NH2)2 1.000 L

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General Chemistry: Chapter 4

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Solution Dilution
n M= V

Mi Vi

Mf Vf

Mi Vi = ni = nf = Mf Vf

Mf =
Figure 4-6

Mi Vi Vf

= Mi

Vi Vf

Visualizing the dilution of a solution Slide 17 of 24 General Chemistry: Chapter 4


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Figure 4-5 Preparation of 0.250 M K2Cr2O7 Example 4-9 illustrated Slide 18 of 24 General Chemistry: Chapter 4
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4-4 Determining Limiting Reagent The reactant that is completely consumed determines the quantities of the products formed.

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General Chemistry: Chapter 4

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4-5

Other Practical Matters in Reaction Stoichiometry

Theoretical, Actual and Percent Yield


Theoretical yield is the expected yield from a reactant. Actual yield is the amount of product actually produced.

Actual yield Percent yield = 100% Theoretical Yield

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General Chemistry: Chapter 4

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Theoretical, Actual and Percent Yield

actual yield = theoretical yield quantitative Side reactions reduce the percent yield. By-products are formed by side reactions.

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General Chemistry: Chapter 4

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Consecutive Reactions, Simultaneous Reactions and Overall Reactions


Multistep synthesis is often unavoidable. Reactions carried out in sequence are called consecutive reactions.

When substances react independently and at the same time the reaction is a simultaneous reaction.

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General Chemistry: Chapter 4

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Overall Reactions and Intermediates The Overall Reaction is a chemical equation that expresses all the reactions occurring in a single overall equation. An intermediate is a substance produced in one step and consumed in another during a multistep synthesis.

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General Chemistry: Chapter 4

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End of Chapter Questions

Initial problem solving is linear and often based on memorizing solutions for particular situations. a
b c

Answer

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General Chemistry: Chapter 4

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