Anda di halaman 1dari 34

Trigonometric Methods

Analytical Methods for Engineers


By Brendan Burr
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Trigonometric Methods
Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................... 2
TASK 1 ................................................................................ 5
1.1 A 4.2 m long ladder is placed against a perpendicular
wall with its foot 60 cm from the wall. .................................. 5
Find how far up the wall the ladder reaches in feet. .............. 5
Solution:- ......................................................................................... 5
Check:- ............................................................................................. 5
If the foot of the ladder is moved 20 cm towards the wall how
far does the top of the ladder rise in inches ? ....................... 6
Solution:- ......................................................................................... 6
Check:- ............................................................................................. 6
1.2 From a point on horizontal ground a surveyor measures
the angle of elevation of an aerial as 20 . He moves 50 m
closer to the aerial and measures the angle of elevation as 25
. Determine the height of the aerial. .................................. 7
Solution:- ......................................................................................... 7
Check:- ............................................................................................. 9
1.3 A ship X sails at a steady speed of 50 km/hr in a direction
of W 30 N, i.e a bearing of 300 from port. At the same time
another ship Y leaves port at a steady speed of 40 km/hr in a
direction of N 20 E i.e a bearing of 20 from port.
Determine their distance apart after 5 Hrs. ......................... 10
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 10
1.4 ................................................................................... 11
Determine the resultant of the 2 forces shown ................... 11
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 11
Determine the angle it makes with the 50 N force. .............. 12
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 12
1.5 Solve triangle ABC given that angle C=90, angle A=35
and AC=5 cm. .................................................................... 13
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 13
TASK 2 .............................................................................. 14
2.1 (a) Convert the following Cartesian co-ordinates into Polar
co-ordinates correct to 1 decimal place in degrees. (-2.2, 5.5)
........................................................................................ 14
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 14
2
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Trigonometric Methods
Check:- ........................................................................................... 14
....................................................................................... 14
(b) Convert the following Polar co-ordinates into Cartesian
co-ordinates correct to 3 decimal places. (6.4, 130 ) ......... 15
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 15
Check:- ........................................................................................... 15
2.2 If the diameter of a circular wheel is 100 cm determine :-
........................................................................................ 16
(a) The radius ................................................................ 16
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 16
....................................................................................... 16
(b) The circumference ........................................................ 16
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 16
2.3 A train is travelling at 108 km/hr and has wheels of
diameter 80 cm. Determine the angular velocity of the wheels
in:- .................................................................................. 17
Radians/sec ...................................................................... 17
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 17
Revs/min. .......................................................................... 17
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 17
(b) If the speed remains constant for 2.7 km determine the
no. of revolutions made by a wheel assuming no slipping
occurs. .............................................................................. 18
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 18
2.4 The voltage in an alternating circuit at any time t seconds
is given by: volts Determine :- ....................................... 19
(a) Amplitude ................................................................. 19
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 19
(b) Periodic time .............................................................. 19
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 19
(c) Frequency .................................................................. 19
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 19
(d) The voltage when t = 0 s ........................................... 20
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 20
(e) The voltage when t = 5 ms ............................................ 20
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 20
Check:- ........................................................................................... 20
3
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Trigonometric Methods
2.5 A complex voltage waveform v is comprised of a 141.4 v
rms fundamental voltage at a frequency of 200 Hz, a 40 %
third harmonic component leading the fundamental voltage
at zero time by radians and a 20 % fifth harmonic
component lagging the fundamental by radians. ............... 21
a) Using harmonic synthesis determine the expression that
represents the voltage waveform v. ................................... 21
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 21
b) Using Graphmatica S/W obtain a graph of the complex
voltage waveform representing the expression for voltage
over one cycle. .................................................................. 23
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 23
TASK 3 .............................................................................. 24
3.1 Prove the following trigonometric identity : .................. 24
..................................................................................... 24
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 24
Check:- ........................................................................................... 24
3.2 Solve the following trigonometric equation for values of t
from 0 to 360 . ............................................................ 25
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 25
Check:- ........................................................................................... 26
Solve the trigonometric equation for values of from 0 to 2
rads. ................................................................................. 27
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 27
3.4 Express in the form .................................................... 29
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 29
Check:- ........................................................................................... 30
3.5 Hence solve the equation in the range ......................... 31
. ....................................................................................... 31
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 31
Check:- ........................................................................................... 32
EVALUATION ..................................................................... 33
CONCLUSION ..................................................................... 33
Books ............................................................................... 34
Catalogues ........................................................................ 34
Websites ........................................................................... 34
4
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Trigonometric Methods
Task 1
1.1 A 4.2 m long ladder is placed against a perpendicular wall with its
foot 60 cm from the wall.
Find how far up the wall the ladder reaches in feet.
Solution:-
ft m 1 2808398950 . 3 1
m c
m b
a
2 . 4
6 . 0
?
1
1
1

ft c
ft b
a
7795275591 . 13
1 9685039370 . 1
?
1
1
1

2 2
1
2
1
2
1 1
2
1
2
1
2
1
6 . 0 2 . 4

+
a
b c a
c b a
2 2
1
2
1
2
1 1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1 9685039370 . 1 7795275591 . 13

+
a
b c a
c b a
m a 156921938 . 4
1
ft a 63819534 . 13
1

ft a 64 . 13
1

Check:-
Convert meters to feet.
63819534 . 13 1 2808398950 . 3 156921938 . 4
5
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Trigonometric Methods
If the foot of the ladder is moved 20 cm towards the wall how far does the
top of the ladder rise in inches ?
Solution:-
in m
ft m
3700787402 . 39 1
1 2808398950 . 3 1

m c
m b
a
2 . 4
4 . 0
?
2
2
2

ft c
ft b
a
7795275591 . 13
1 3123359580 . 1
?
2
2
2

2 2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
4 . 0 2 . 4

+
a
b c a
c b a
2 2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1 3123359580 . 1 7795275591 . 13

+
a
b c a
c b a
m a 180908992 . 4
2
ft a 71689302 . 13
2

m
answer a a
7 0239870540 . 0
... 16 . 4 ... 18 . 4
1 2


ft
answer a a
07869768 . 0 6382 . 13 7169 . 13
1 2


94437216 . 0 12 07869768 . 0
The Ladder rose up the wall by
9444 . 0
inches.
Check:-
Convert meters to feet.
6 0786976839 . 0 1 2808398950 . 3 7 0239870540 . 0
Convert feet to inches.
9443722075 . 0 12 6 0786976839 . 0
6
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Trigonometric Methods
1.2 From a point on horizontal ground a surveyor measures the angle of
elevation of an aerial as 20 . He moves 50 m closer to the aerial and
measures the angle of elevation as 25 . Determine the height of the
aerial.
Solution:-
( ) ( )
( )
( )
b
SIN
SIN
SIN
b
SIN
SINB
b
SINA
a

5
155 50
155 5
50
m b 45 . 242
( )
( ) ( ) 20 45 . 242 50 2 45 . 242 50
2
2 2
2 2 2
COS c
C abCOS b a c
+
+
m c 212 . 196
7
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Trigonometric Methods
( )
( ) 212 . 196 65

COS f
e D COS f
m f 92 . 82
2 2
2 2
92 . 82 212 . 196

d
f e d
m d 83 . 177
8
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Trigonometric Methods
Check:-
So:
f i
a d g
A D G
H E
C I
h b

+
+

( )
( ) 83 . 227 20

TAN i
g I TAN i
m i 92 . 82
9
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Trigonometric Methods
1.3 A ship X sails at a steady speed of 50 km/hr in a direction of W 30 N,
i.e a bearing of 300 from port. At the same time another ship Y
leaves port at a steady speed of 40 km/hr in a direction of N 20 E
i.e a bearing of 20 from port. Determine their distance apart after 5
Hrs.
Solution:-
km
km
200 5 40
250 5 50


( )
( ) ( ) 80 200 250 2 200 250
2
2 2
2 2 2
COS c
C abCOS b a c
+
+
km c 78 . 291
10
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Trigonometric Methods
1.4
Determine the resultant of the 2 forces shown
Solution:-
( )
( ) ( ) 125 50 30 2 50 30
2
2 2
2 2 2
COS c
C abCOS b a c
+
+
N c 56 . 71
11
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Trigonometric Methods
Determine the angle it makes with the 50 N force.
Solution:-
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
56 . 71
125 30 SIN
A SIN
c
C SIN a
A SIN
C SIN
c
A SIN
a

O
A 09 . 20
O O
O O O O
O O O
O O
91 . 214 91 . 34 180
91 . 214 09 . 20 125 360
09 . 20 91 . 34 55
91 . 34 09 . 20 125 180
0 0
+



12
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Trigonometric Methods
1.5 Solve triangle ABC given that angle C=90, angle A=35 and AC=5 cm.
Solution:-
O O O
B 35 90 180
O
B 55
( ) 5 35 TAN a
cm a 5 . 3
2 2
5 5 . 3 + c
cm c 1 . 6
13
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Trigonometric Methods
Task 2
2.1 (a) Convert the following Cartesian co-ordinates into Polar
co-ordinates correct to 1 decimal place in degrees. (-2.2, 5.5)
Solution:-
By Pythagoras:
923681288 . 5
2 . 2 5 . 5
2 2

+
r
r
9 . 5 r UNITS
RADS
TAN
O
O
O
19028995 . 1
19859051 . 68
2 . 2
5 . 5
180
1
180

,
_

RADS
O
O
O
O
951302704 . 1
8014095 . 111
19859051 . 68 180
180
180

( )
O
8 . 111 9 . 5 5 . 5 , 2 . 2
Check:-
Using the Calculator:
( )
8014095 . 111
923681288 . 5
5 . 5 , 2 . 2

r
POL
14
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Trigonometric Methods
(b) Convert the following Polar co-ordinates into Cartesian co-
ordinates correct to 3 decimal places. (6.4, 130 )
Solution:-
O O O
50 130 180
( )
( ) 113840702 . 4 130 4 . 6

COS x
COS r x
114 . 4 x
( )
( ) 902684436 . 4 130 4 . 6

SIN y
SIN r y
903 . 4 y
( ) ( ) 903 . 4 , 114 . 4 130 , 4 . 6
O
Check:-
Using the Calculator:
( )
902684436 . 4
113840702 . 4
130 , 4 . 6


Y
X
REC
15
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Trigonometric Methods
2.2 If the diameter of a circular wheel is 100 cm determine :-
(a) The radius
Solution:-
2
100
2

Radius
Diameter
Radius
cm Radius 50
(b) The circumference
Solution:-
50 2
2

ce Circumfren
r ce Circumfren
cm nce Circumfere 16 . 314
16
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Trigonometric Methods
2.3 A train is travelling at 108 km/hr and has wheels of diameter 80 cm.
Determine the angular velocity of the wheels in:-
Radians/sec
Solution:-
m r
m D
3
10 400
8 . 0

Sec RAD
r
v
/
60 60
000 , 108
/ 000 , 108

v
hr m v
Sec m v / 30
3
10 400
30


Sec RAD / 75
Revs/min.
Solution:-
RAD v
O
3 360 Re
Min REV N
Sec REV N
Sec RAD
/ 60
2
75
/
2
75
/ 75

Min REV N / 197 . 716


17
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Trigonometric Methods
(b) If the speed remains constant for 2.7 km determine the no. of
revolutions made by a wheel assuming no slipping occurs.
Solution:-
m ce Dis
km ce Dis
2700 tan
7 . 2 tan

nce Circumfere
ce Dis
N
r nce Circumfere
tan
2


4 . 0 2
2700

N
REVS N 3 . 1074
18
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Trigonometric Methods
2.4 The voltage in an alternating circuit at any time t seconds is given by:
/4) + t (200 si n 100 = v volts
Determine :-
(a) Amplitude
Solution:-
Amplitude = 100V
(b) Periodic time
Solution:-
100
1
1
100
2
2
2
200
2 200
2

T
T
P
f
P
Hz f
f
f
f


mS P
T
10
(c) Frequency
Solution:-
Hz Frequency 100
19
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Trigonometric Methods
(d) The voltage when t = 0 s
Solution:-

,
_

+
4
0 200 100

SIN v
V v 71 . 70
(e) The voltage when t = 5 ms
Solution:-
( )
,
_

+

4
10 5 200 100
3

SIN v
V v 71 . 70
Check:-
20
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Trigonometric Methods
2.5 A complex voltage waveform v is comprised of a 141.4 v rms
fundamental voltage at a frequency of 200 Hz, a 40 % third harmonic
component leading the fundamental voltage at zero time by
4


radians and a 20 % fifth harmonic component lagging the fundamental
by
3

radians.
a) Using harmonic synthesis determine the expression that represents
the voltage waveform v.
Solution:-
Fundamental Frequency
200 2
200

Hz f
O
400
mS T
T
f
T
5
200
1
1

(Grid Range)
4 . 141 2
4 . 141

PEAK
RMS
V
V
V V
PEAK
200
RD
3 Harmonic
600 2
600
3

Hz f
1200
V V
RD
200 % 40
3

V V RD 80
3

21
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Trigonometric Methods
TH
5 Harmonic
1000 2
1000
5

Hz f
2000
V V
TH
200 % 20
5

V V TH 40
5

( )
,
_

+
,
_

+ +
3
2000 40
4
1200 80 400 200

t SIN t SIN t SIN v


22
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Trigonometric Methods
b) Using Graphmatica S/W obtain a graph of the complex voltage
waveform representing the expression for voltage over one cycle.
Solution:-
23
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Trigonometric Methods
Task 3
3.1 Prove the following trigonometric identity :
1
2 2
+ si n cos
Solution:-
2 2 2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
:
:
c b a Pythagoras
a
c b
a
c
a
b
SIN COS So
b
c
TAN
b
c
ADJ
OPP
TAN
a
c
SIN
a
c
HYP
OPP
SIN
a
b
COS
a
b
HYP
ADJ
COS
+
+
+ +






1 :
2
2
2 2
+
a
a
SIN COS So
Check:-
Solve Triangle a=5, b=4 and c=3
1
5
3
5
4
5
3
5
4
2 2

,
_

+
,
_

SIN
COS
24
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Trigonometric Methods
3.2 Solve the following trigonometric equation for values of t from 0 to
360 . 4 = t si n 3 + t
si n
5
2
Solution:-
( ) ( )
0 4 3 5
:
:
0 4 3 5
2
2 2
2
+

+
x x
So
x SINt
x t SIN
Let
SINt t SIN
Use Formula Method to find values of x:
a
ac b b
x
2
4
2
t

0
0 4 3 5
2
2
+ +
+
c bx ax
x x
( )
10
89 3
5 2
4 5 4 3 3
2
t

x
x
( )
RADs t
SIN t
SINt
x
x
699 . 0
6433981132 . 0
6433981132 . 0
6433981132 . 0
10
89 3
1

( )
! ! !
243398113 . 1
243398113 . 1
243398113 . 1
10
89 3
1
ERROR t
SIN t
SINt
x
x

25
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Trigonometric Methods
RADs t 6989289233 . 0
O
t 04567748 . 40
RADs t 44266373 . 2 6989289233 . 0
O O
t 9543225 . 139 04567748 . 40 180
Check:-
26
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Trigonometric Methods
Solve the trigonometric equation

cos 8 = )
6
- ( si n 5 for values of
from 0 to 2 rads.
Solution:-
LEFT HAND SIDE:

,
_

6
5

SIN
( ) COSA SINB COSB SINA B A SIN . .
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

1
]
1

,
_


,
_

,
_

,
_

COS SIN SIN


COS SIN COS SIN SIN
COSA SINB COSB SINA B A SIN
.
2
1
2
3
. 5
6
5
.
6 6
. 5
6
5
. . 5 5
BOTH SIDES:





TAN
COS
SIN
SIN COS
SIN COS
SIN COS COS
COS SIN COS

,
_

,
_


3 5
21
3 5 21
2
3 5
5 . 10
2
3 5
2
5
8
2
5
2
3 5
8
27
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Trigonometric Methods

,
_


3 5
21
1
TAN

,
_

,
_

,
_



3 5
21
180
1
TAN
O
RADs
58908947 . 67
17965215 . 1

O
RADs
4109105 . 112
961940504 . 1

O
RADs
6 . 67
18 . 1

O
RADs
4 . 112
96 . 1

28
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Trigonometric Methods
3.4 Express t cos 7.8 t si n 5.5 + in the form ). + t ( si n R
Solution:-
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )

,
_

+


t +
t +

a
b
TAN
b a R
Pythagoras
b SIN R
a COS R
Let
t bCOS t SIN a t SIN R
SIN t COS COS t SIN R t SIN R
1
2 2
:
:
.



2 2
8 . 7 5 . 5
8 . 7
5 . 5
:
+

R
b
a
So
54410813 . 9 R

,
_


5 . 5
8 . 7
1
TAN
RADs
O
9566 . 0
81 . 54

OR:
RADs
O
O
185 . 2
19 . 125
81 . 54 180


+

( ) ( ) ( ) + + t SIN t COS t SIN 544 . 9 8 . 7 5 . 5


Where

= 0.9566368995 OR -2.184955754
29
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Trigonometric Methods
Check:-
30
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Trigonometric Methods
3.5 Hence solve the equation 4.5 = t cos 7.8 t si n 5.5 + in the range
2 t 0 .
Solution:-
( )
( )

,
_

+
+
+

54410813 . 9
5 . 4
9566368995 . 0
54410813 . 9
5 . 4
9566368995 . 0
5 . 4 9566368995 . 0 54410813 . 9
1
SIN t
t SIN
t SIN

O
O
RADs SIN
Or
RADs SIN
So
8686109 . 151 650607291 . 2
54410813 . 9
5 . 4
:
13138907 . 28 4909853625 . 0
54410813 . 9
5 . 4
:
1
1

,
_


,
_

9566368995 . 0 4909853625 . 0
4909853625 . 0 9566368995 . 0

+
t
t

9566368995 . 0 650607291 . 2
650607291 . 2 9566368995 . 0

+
t
t

67986779 . 26 360
67986779 . 26
465651537 . 0 2
465651537 . 0




t
t
t
RADS t
O

O
t
RADS t
05735405 . 97
693970392 . 1

O
t
RADS t
3201322 . 333
81753377 . 5

31
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Trigonometric Methods
Check:-
32
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Trigonometric Methods
Evaluation
In Task 1, I was faced with calculating in imperial, which is something I very
rarely have to do. Due to my lack of knowledge with this form of
measurement I calculated it fully in both ways (metric and imperial) to make
sure I got the correct answer at the end.
I was also asked to calculate the height of an aerial with minimal information.
This meant having to create three triangles and solving all three to get the
answer.
I found that I was able to test my competence with using the Sine and Cosine
Rules as well as basic Pythagoras Theorem work.
In Task 2, I had to represent the direct relationship between Cartesian co-
ordinates and Polar co-ordinates. This was relatively easy to pick up due to
previous work completed on Cartesian and Polar.
There was also a requirement to understand the calculation and relationship
between Revolutions of a wheel and Distance, which I was able to
understand.
Linking with work we have previously done in the course, we were asked to
determine the various characteristics of a voltage waveform, such as
Amplitude, Periodic Time, Frequency and the Voltage at two different
instances. I could then enter the voltage expression into Graphmatica and
evaluate points of y dependant on the value of x, which was either 0S or 5mS,
to allow me to check my workings.
Harmonic waveforms are something I can relate slightly to work, as testing on
audio systems on the aircraft make irregular sinusoidal waveforms which are
presented on the test equipment. Working out the expression that goes with
this is potentially beneficial to this work.
For Task 3, I had to prove trigonometric identities and equations. The
problem I found was when it came to checking the answer for 3.2. This was
because I couldnt represent the final evaluated x value in Degrees, it would
only come up in Radians. I was forced to leave it in the end and presume that
because I had converted it from Radians to Degrees, the check would count
as correct.
Expressing trigonometric equations in a different form involved following and
understanding examples, as a minor error could result in a completely
different answer when it came to question 3.4 and 3.5. I performed a check at
the end of each, to ensure that the correct answer had been achieved.
Conclusion
I found that I spent a lot of time in the presentation as I have done with all my
previous assignments. This helps to make the answers clear and separates
them from the workings out. I will continue to do this in future assignments as
it helps me when checking the work at the end as well.
I found that I couldnt check all of my answers as some only had one method
of working out. I will however continue checking as many answers as I can as
this ensures correctness and punctuation in the work completed.
33
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Trigonometric Methods
Bibliography
Through guidance from my lecturer, the following text books, catalogues and
websites I was able to complete this assignment:
Books
BTEC National Engineering (Mike Tooley & Lloyd Dingle)
ISBN: 978-0-7506-8521-4
Success in Electronics (Tom Duncan & John Murray)
ISBN: 0-7195-4015-1
Higher Engineering Mathematics (John Bird)
ISBN: 0-7506-8152-7
Catalogues
N/A
Websites
N/A
34