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# Investigate Circuits with

Feedback
Electronics
By Brendan Burr

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Circuits with Feedback

1.1. Derive from first principles an expression for the closed
loop voltage gain of a F/B amplifier......................................5
Solution:-.........................................................................................5
2.1 Describe the following types of negative feedback : .......6
Voltage ..............................................................................6
Solution:-.........................................................................................6
Current ..............................................................................6
Solution:-.........................................................................................6
Shunt ................................................................................7
Solution:-.........................................................................................7
Series ................................................................................7
Solution:-.........................................................................................7
2.2 Summarize the effects of the above types on circuit
performance in the form of a table.......................................8
Solution:-.........................................................................................8
3.1. Design only 1 of the following types of amplifier circuits,
that uses negative feedback:-..............................................9
(a) Operational Amplifier OR (b) Emitter Follower................9
Solution:-.........................................................................................9
3.2 Produce a circuit diagram of the resultant design showing
all component values...........................................................9
Solution:-.........................................................................................9
3.3 Use a 1 kHz input sine wave signal of amplitude 5 V peak
to peak. to test your design using Croc Clips or MultiSim.......9
Solution:-.........................................................................................9
3.4 Record the results of the simulation in the form of input
and output waveforms.........................................................9
Solution:-.........................................................................................9
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## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Circuits with Feedback

4.1 Use Croc Clips or MultiSim to simulate a single stage
circuit. Investigate the effect of applying feedback in terms
of performance of the Voltage Gain of a Non Inverting
Operational Amplifier circuit in the following 2
configurations:-.................................................................10
(a) Open Loop
...............................................................10
Solution:-.......................................................................................10
(b) Closed Loop ................................................................10
Solution:-.......................................................................................10
4.2 Record your results in the form of :-.............................10
(a) Circuit diagrams .......................................................10
Solution:-.......................................................................................10
(b) Voltage waveforms ......................................................11
Solution:-.......................................................................................11
(c) Table of input v output voltage levels............................12
Solution:-.......................................................................................12
(d) Table of Voltage gains..................................................12
Solution:-.......................................................................................12
4.3 Use Croc Clips or MultiSim to simulate a multi stage
circuit...............................................................................13
Investigate the effects of applying feedback in terms of
performance of the Input Resistance of a Unit Gain Voltage
Follower (first stage) connected to an Inverting Operational
Amplifier circuit (second stage) in the following 2
configurations :.................................................................13
(a) Open Loop
...............................................................13
Solution:-.......................................................................................13
(b) Closed Loop ................................................................13
Solution:-.......................................................................................13
4.4 Record your results in the form of :-.............................13
(a) Circuit diagrams ..........................................................13
Solution:-.......................................................................................13
(b) Voltage waveforms.......................................................14
Solution:-.......................................................................................14
(c) Table of input voltage v current ...................................16
Solution:-.......................................................................................16
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## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Circuits with Feedback

## (d) Table of input resistance values....................................16

Solution:-.......................................................................................16
EVALUATION.....................................................................17
CONCLUSION.....................................................................17
APPENDIX 1......................................................................18
APPENDIX 2......................................................................19
APPENDIX 3......................................................................20
APPENDIX 4......................................................................21
APPENDIX 5......................................................................22
Books...............................................................................23
Catalogues........................................................................23
Websites...........................................................................23

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Circuits with Feedback

1.1. Derive from first principles an expression for the closed loop voltage
gain of a F/B amplifier.
(You must Include a block diagram as well as showing all calculations)
Solution:-

Derivation of Expression
V f = VO Starting Point
The total input voltage at the terminals of the amplifier is given by:
Vi V f Vi VO

<1

But:
VO = (Vi VO ) AV
VO = Vi AV VO AV
VO AV VO = Vi AV
VO (1 AV ) = AV Vi
VO
AV
=
Vi
1 AV

OR

AV ' =

AV
1 AV

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Circuits with Feedback

2.1

## Describe the following types of negative feedback :

Voltage
Solution:See Appendix 1 for the Topology
Voltage feedback is where the output voltage is fed back into the input
of an amplifier. This can act as a source to increase stability,
bandwidth, input impedance and reduce distortion of the voltage
waveform.
As negative feedback, the change in voltage input is attenuated to
ensure any large gains do not affect the output by a dramatic amount.
The circuit design in Appendix 1 shows that the input of the amplifier
samples the output voltage.
The circuit in Appendix 1 is also known as the series-shunt circuit
because the connections are in series to the input and then the
feedback is shunted (in parallel) to the output.
Current
Solution:See Appendix 2 for the Topology
Current feedback is supplied back to the input of the amplifier from the
output. This can act as a source to increase stability, bandwidth, input
impedance and reduce distortion of the current waveform.
As negative feedback, the change in current input is attenuated to
ensure any large gains do not affect the output by a dramatic amount.
The circuit design in Appendix 2 shows that the input of the amplifier
samples the output current.
The circuit in Appendix 2 is also known as the shunt-series circuit
because the feedback connections are shunted (in parallel) to the input
and then the feedback is in series to the output.

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Circuits with Feedback

Shunt
Solution:See Appendix 3 for the Topology
Shunt feedback is where the input to the amplifier is current and the
output is voltage.
This type of amplifier is often used as a current to voltage
converter.
The circuit in Appendix 3 is also known as the shunt-shunt circuit
because the feedback connections are shunted (in parallel) to the input
and then the feedback is also shunted (in parallel) with the output.

Series
Solution:See Appendix 4 for the Topology
Series feedback is where the input to the amplifier is voltage and the
output of the amplifier is current.
This type of amplifier is often used as a voltage to current
converter.
The circuit in Appendix 4 is also known as the series-series circuit
because both the input and output connections are in series with one
another.

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Circuits with Feedback

2.2

form of a table.

Solution:-

Current Feedback
Type

Input Impedance
(ZIN)

Output Impedance
(ZOUT)

Shunt Voltage
Shunt Current

Decreased
Decreased

Decreased
Decreased

Decreased
Increased

Voltage Feedback
Type

Input Impedance
(ZIN)

Output Impedance
(ZOUT)

Series Voltage
Series Current

Reduced
Reduced

Increased
Increased

Decreased
Increased

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Circuits with Feedback

3.1. Design only 1 of the following types of amplifier circuits, that uses
negative feedback:(a)

Operational Amplifier

OR

(b)

Emitter Follower

3.2

## Produce a circuit diagram of the resultant design showing all component

values.

Solution:See Appendix 5
3.3

## Use a 1 kHz input sine wave signal of amplitude 5 V peak to peak. to

test your design using Croc Clips or MultiSim.

Solution:See Appendix 5
3.4

Record the results of the simulation in the form of input and output
waveforms.

Solution:See Appendix 5

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Circuits with Feedback

4.1

## Use Croc Clips or MultiSim to simulate a single stage circuit.

Investigate the effect of applying feedback in terms of performance of
the Voltage Gain of a Non Inverting Operational Amplifier circuit in
the following 2 configurations:-

(a)

Open Loop

(b)

Closed Loop

4.2

(a)

Circuit diagrams

Solution:-

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## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Circuits with Feedback

(b)

Voltage waveforms

Solution:-

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## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Circuits with Feedback

(c)

Solution:-

Voltage In
1 uV
10 uV
100 uV
1 mV
10 mV
100 mV
1V
10 V

(d)

Open Loop
Voltage Out
20 mV
200 mV
2V
20 V
200 V
2,000 V
20,000 V
200,000 V

Av
20,000 dBs
20,000 dBs
20,000 dBs
20,000 dBs
20,000 dBs
20,000 dBs
20,000 dBs
20,000 dBs

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Voltage In
1 uV
10 uV
100 uV
1 mV
10 mV
100 mV
1V
10 V

Closed Loop
Voltage Out
2u V
20 uV
200 uV
2 mV
20 mV
200 mV
2V
20 V

Av
2 dBs
2 dBs
2 dBs
2 dBs
2 dBs
2 dBs
2 dBs
2 dBs

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Circuits with Feedback

4.3

## Investigate the effects of applying feedback in terms of performance of the

Input Resistance of a Unit Gain Voltage Follower (first stage)
connected to an Inverting Operational Amplifier circuit (second stage)
in the following 2 configurations :
(a)

Open Loop

(b)

Closed Loop

4.4

(a)

Circuit diagrams

Solution:-

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## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Circuits with Feedback

(b)

Voltage waveforms

Solution:-

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## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Circuits with Feedback

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## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Circuits with Feedback

(c)

## Table of input voltage v current

Solution:Closed Loop
Stage
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2

Voltage
In
1 uV
1 uV
10 uV
10 uV
100 uV
100 uV
1 mV
1 mV
10 mV
10 mV
100 mV
100 mV
1V
1V
10 V
10 V

Voltage
Out
-10 uV
-10 uV
-100 uV
-100 uV
-1 mV
-1 mV
-10 mV
-10 mV
-100 mV
-100 mV
-1 V
-1 V
-10 V
-10 V
-100 V
-100 V

Overall
Av
-10 dBs
-10 dBs
-10 dBs
-10 dBs
-10 dBs
-10 dBs
-10 dBs
-10 dBs
-10 dBs
-10 dBs
-10 dBs
-10 dBs
-10 dBs
-10 dBs
-10 dBs
-10 dBs

Current

Rin

0A
100 pA
0A
1 nA
0A
10 nA
0A
100 nA
0A
1 uA
0A
10 uA
0A
100 uA
0A
1 mA

10 K

10 K

10 K

10 K

10 K

10 K

10 K

10 K

Open Loop
Stage
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2

(d)

Voltage
In
1 nV
1 nV
10 nV
10 nV
100 nV
100 nV
1 uV
1 uV
10 uV
10 uV
100 uV
100 uV
1 mV
1 mV
10 mV
10 mV

Voltage
Out
-400 mV
-400 mV
-4 V
-4 V
-40 V
-40 V
-400 V
-400 V
-4 KV
-4 KV
-40 KV
-40 KV
-400 KV
-400 KV
-4 MV
-4 MV

Overall Av
-400,000
-400,000
-400,000
-400,000
-400,000
-400,000
-400,000
-400,000
-400,000
-400,000
-400,000
-400,000
-400,000
-400,000
-400,000
-400,000

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dBs
dBs
dBs
dBs
dBs
dBs
dBs
dBs
dBs
dBs
dBs
dBs
dBs
dBs
dBs
dBs

Current

Rin

0A
0.1 pA
0A
1 pA
0A
10 pA
0A
100 pA
0A
1 nA
0A
10 nA
0A
100 nA
0A
1 uA

10 K

10 K

10 K

10 K

10 K

10 K

10 K

10 K

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Circuits with Feedback

Evaluation
For Task 1, I had to derive an expression for a closed loop voltage gain in a
feedback amplifier. I managed to use my notes to comprehensively answer
this question.
I struggled to find suitable examples for Task 2 from internet based sources. I
did eventually find examples which corresponded to the handouts we had
I found that Task 3 took a while to get correct. I wasnt sure of what the input
voltage was supposed to be as I had copied 3 different values down in my
notes. After clarifying this I could then move on to analyse the output
voltages.
Another reason why it took so long to get correct was because I connected
the input signal voltage to Channel A of the Oscilloscope and then connected
the output signal voltage to Channel B of the same Oscilloscope, following the
handout. This caused the two waveforms to merge and produce a single
waveform which didnt provide any relevant information. I accidentally, but
fortunately found the Grapher application in the MultiSim 10 Software. This
provides a slightly more detailed Graph which can be used to show multiple
traces from various Oscilloscopes if necessary. By using this application I
could view the input and output voltage signals simultaneously and compare
whether there was a difference in amplitude or if there was any phase shift in
the output waveform. I noticed there was a slight lagging in the output
waveform, but after one complete cycle the output was back in phase with the
input. I think this is due to the transistor, where it doesnt draw current until
0.7V has been reached.
I had to redo most of Task 4 due to my assignment type-up becoming corrupt.
I successfully managed to represent the Open and Closed Loop circuits in
both single stage and multi stage configurations. The outputs were
representative to the amount of gain calculated which indicated that the
results I was receiving were correct. The only thing I had to change was the
+/- supply voltage to the Op Amps. This was because the waveforms would
top out at the supply voltage, so if the output was +/-10V and the supply was
+/-9V then the output voltage would only reach +/-9V and the sinusoidal
waveform would have flat peaks.

Conclusion
To conclude this assignment, I felt that it went well, apart from having to redo
Whilst working in parallel to other assignments I feel I have managed the work
load appropriately to get this assignment in on time and to a high standard.
I have checked my workings to ensure they meet the relative gains that are
expected in the formulae.
I enjoyed understanding the theory of the Emitter Follower as I soon realised
the results that I was getting were actually correct, as the Gain was supposed
to be approximately 1 as this circuit is often used as a Unity Gain Buffer.
Overall I will continue to put in the effort required to receive a decent grade in
this unit.

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## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Circuits with Feedback

Appendix 1

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## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Circuits with Feedback

Appendix 2

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## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Circuits with Feedback

Appendix 3

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## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Circuits with Feedback

Appendix 4

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## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Circuits with Feedback

Appendix 5

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## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Circuits with Feedback

Bibliography
Through guidance from my lecturer, the following text books, catalogues and
websites I was able to complete this assignment:
Books
BTEC National Engineering (Mike Tooley & Lloyd Dingle)
ISBN: 978-0-7506-8521-4
Success in Electronics (Tom Duncan & John Murray)
ISBN: 0-7195-4015-1
Higher Engineering Mathematics (John Bird)
ISBN: 0-7506-8152-7
Catalogues
N/A
Websites
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negative_feedback_amplifier
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_amplifier#Input_and_output_variables
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two-port_network#Hybrid_parameters_.28hparameters.29
http://www.electronics.dit.ie/staff/ypanarin/Lecture%20Notes/K2351/3%20Feedback.pdf

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