2 Suka0 Tidak suka

6,8K tayangan5 halamanDec 01, 2008

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PDF, TXT atau baca online dari Scribd

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

6,8K tayangan

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Good Omens: The Nice and Accurate Prophecies of Agnes Nutter, Witch
- The Law of Intuition: Lesson 8 from The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership
- The Right Stuff
- The Dream Daughter: A Novel
- Ball Lightning
- I Contain Multitudes: The Microbes Within Us and a Grander View of Life
- Sex at Dawn: How We Mate, Why We Stray, and What It Means for Modern Relationships
- Anathem
- Why Buddhism is True: The Science and Philosophy of Meditation and Enlightenment
- Predictably Irrational, Revised and Expanded Edition: The Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions
- Michael Vey 2: Rise of the Elgen
- The Comet Seekers: A Novel
- The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind: Creating Currents of Electricity and Hope
- Snakes in Suits: When Psychopaths Go to Work
- Multipliers, Revised and Updated: How the Best Leaders Make Everyone Smarter
- O Estudante Eficiente: Métodos para Aumentar a Concentração e Manter a Persistência no Estudo por um Longo Período de Tempo
- The Book of M: A Novel

Anda di halaman 1dari 5

Introduction

The purpose of torsion testing usually parallels that of uniaxial tension tests. From the

experiment, the shear elastic modulus (G), shear proportional stress (τp), shear yield

stress (τy), and the stress-strain behavior in general, can be obtained. However, in contrast

to uniaxial tension tests, the stresses are not distributed uniformly over the cross section.

Each test will be conducted until failure i.e., it will end in the buckling of the hollow

specimen or fracture for the solid specimen. Thus, this experiment will also allow

observing the different modes of failure for solid and hollow circular shafts made of

ductile or brittle materials.

Torsion loading results in twisting of one section of a body with respect to a contiguous

section. During the test the angle of twist φ and the applied torque T are measured as the

test proceeds. For a circular cross-section, in the absence of the other loads, pure shear

stress state exists at each point. Torsional elastic shear stresses vary linearly from zero at

the axis of twist to a maximum at the extreme fibers. Thus, in a solid circular bar, when

the surface fibers reach the yield shear stress they are, in a sense, supported by elastic

interior fibers. Consequently, the elastic resistance of the remainder of the section masks

the effect of yielding of the surface fibers during their early stage of yielding. Usually, it

is not until considerable yielding has taken place that any noticeable effect of nonlinearity

is apparent using a simple mechanical troptometer to measure the angle of twist φ

(calibrated in increments of 0.2 degrees). Therefore, it is practically impossible to

determine when the extreme fibers of the solid specimen in torsion start to yield. This

difficulty is overcome by the use of hollow (thin-walled) specimens, which give more

sensitive measures of the elastic-plastic transition since all the fibers are at about the

same stress. However, for thin-walled tubes with large ratios of diameter vs. thickness

(D/t > 10) there is a tendency for premature local buckling failure to occur. Therefore the

actual dimensions of the specimen used must be carefully chosen.

To test the material in torsion the proper test procedure is needed. It involves mounting a

shaft into the testing machine, applying torque incrementally and measuring both the

applied torque and the corresponding angle of twist. Using the appropriate formulae,

relationships and the measured dimensions, we can determine the shear stress and shear

strain on the shaft. Then, one can plot the torque vs. angle of twist, and shear stress vs.

shear strain from which one can find the material properties previously mentioned.

The assumptions made in this experiment include but are not limited to the following:

1. The torque is applied along the center of axis of the shaft.

2. The material is tested at steady state (absence of strain rate effects).

3. Plane sections remain plane after twisting (the circular section conforms to this

condition).

1

Apparatuses:

1. Torsion testing specimens:

• Solid (ductile) aluminum shaft,

• Hollow (ductile) aluminum shaft (both ductile specimens are made of

the same material),

• Solid (brittle) aluminum shaft.

2. Caliper

3. Troptometer

4. Torsion testing machine

5. Measuring tape

6. Safety glasses

1. Measure the diameter of the test specimen using the caliper (take an average of 5

measurements).

2. Slide the shaft into the troptometer and tighten down the two fastening screws to the

shaft.

3. If the hollow shaft of aluminum is used, slide two steel inserts into the ends where the

sample will be clamped down.

4. Clean the clamps used to hold the shaft in place.

5. Insert the shaft into the right clamps’ chucks in the testing machine. Tighten the

clamp ensuring that the grip is very tight.

6. Slide the other clamp over the other end of the shaft, and tighten down tightly as well.

7. Adjust the troptometer to the correct position from both ends (i.e. do not let it contact

with any part of the testing machine.).

8. Measure the length between the troptometer clamps Lt using the tape measure. This

length will be used in calculations later.

9. Next, measure the length between the torsion machine's clamps, Lc.

Note : While inserting the specimen into the clamps, move the weighing house to the right

until close to or stopped by the shaft end bearing against the inside of the chuck.

10. Make zero the torque indicator by aligning the red needle with the black one on the

torque indicator. Also, use the zeroing lever to make sure that the needles point to

zero.

11. Make zero the troptometer indicator by hand.

12. Turn the crank manually forwards (counter-clockwise) and observe the troptometer

indicator. You want to increase the angle of twist by 1° increments up to12°.

13. At each interval as describe in the above step, read the measurement (using the red

needle) displayed by the torque gage. NOTE: The torque gage has to be read from 0

to 10,000 in-lb. Hence, every reading that you get on the regular scale must be

multiplied by 10 for the correct results.

14. Also take the reading off the scale on the right (rotating) clamp housing. This should

be done at every even degree that is reached by the troptometer.(i.e. at 2°, 4°, 6° etc.)

15. Construct the following table and tabulate the torque T, and the corresponding angle

of twist of the troptometer φt, and clamp φc:

2

Torque (T) Angle of twist of Angle of Shear stress Shear strain

[in-lb] troptometer, (φt) twist of (τ) [psi] (γ) [in/in]

[°] / [rad] clamp, (φc)

[°] / [rad]

16. Once 12° is reached, unload the specimen by turning the crank backwards

(clockwise) and take the torque gage reading and the angle of twist of the clamp at 1°

intervals (read off the black needle this time). All the while, watch the torque gage

making sure that it has not reached zero yet. Tabulate this data as a continuation on

the same table used in step 15.

17. Watch for the torque gage to read zero. At this point, take down the troptometer

reading and the angle of twist of the clamp.

18. Next reload the specimen by turning the crank manually forwards (counter-

clockwise) and observe the troptometer indicator. You want to increase the angle of

twist by 1° increments up to the final angle of 20°.

19. At each interval as describe in the above step, read the measurement (using the red

needle) displayed by the torque gage. NOTE: The torque gage has to be read from 0

to 10,000 in-lb. Hence, every reading that you get on the regular scale must be

multiplied by 10 for the correct results

20. When φt = 20o totally loosen the troptometer and let it hang loosely and twist the

specimen to failure. The hollow aluminum shaft is considered to have failed when it

buckles.

Note the angle of twist that was needed to fracture or buckle the specimen from the

angle of twist indicator located on the right rotating arm of the torsion machine, (φc)f.

It is best to count the number of rotations and then later convert it to degrees when

writing the report. Also, record the final torque reading of the specimen at failure, Tf.

1. Insert the brittle (cast aluminum) shaft into the machine's clamps and tighten them.

Twist the specimen until failure and observe the failure mode.

Analysis:

1. For two ductile shafts (hollow and solid) complete the above table by using the

following equations. Use the torque and the troptometer angles of twist φt (not the

angle of twist of the clamp φc, it will be used later to calculate the fracture strain γf =

(φc)f r/Lc ):

(a) τ = T r/Ip - valid only in the elastic range, for both solid and hollow shafts.

(b) τavg = T/2π(ravg)2t - valid only for the hollow shaft in the elastic and inelastic ranges.

(c) γ = φt r/Lt - valid in the elastic and inelastic ranges for both shafts.

3

In order to find the actual shear stress for the inelastic loading portion of the solid

shaft (since there are no equations to calculate them), continue on with step 2 and plot,

first the shear stress vs. shear strain diagram for the hollow shaft. Using this plot, cross-

referenced the shear stress from the calculated shear strains attained from the solid shaft

data (see hint on page 5). We are able to do this because the stresses are nearly uniform

throughout the wall thickness of the hollow shaft as compared to the solid one (both

shafts are made of the same material). The cross-referenced shear stress can then be

tabulated in your table as the “actual” shear stresses at the surface of the solid shaft.

• Torque (ordinate) vs. angle of twist (abscissa)

• Shear stress (ordinate) vs. shear strain (abscissa)

There should be 4 graphs in all, two for each specimen.

• Proportional shear stress (τp) for the hollow shaft.

• Yield shear stress based on a 0.2% offset (τy) for the hollow shaft.

• Shear modulus of elasticity (G) during loading and unloading for both shafts.

• Residual shear strain (γr) for both shafts

• Next, starting at the point of residual strain γr, calculate the new proportional

limit (τp), yield point (τy) based on a 0.2% offset, shear modulus of elasticity

(G). In addition, calculate the fracture strain (γf) and corresponding fracture

strength (τf) in torsion. Compare and discuss in detail the differences between

these new: τp, τy and G values and those obtained in the beginning of the

torsion test experiment. Explain any observed differences concisely.

Note:

• The point of inflection at the end of the elastic portion of the loading curve is where

τp is located.

• Where the loading curve meets the 0.2% offset line is where you will find τy.

• The shear elastic modulus, G, usually is not obtained as the shear stress, τ, divided by

the corresponding shear strain, γ, but rather the slope of the linear portion of the

stress-strain (τ-γ) curve. This slope is calculated by dividing the change of shear

stress, Δτ, by the corresponding change of shear strain, Δγ, in each linear range of

loading and unloading case from the stress-strain curves, i.e. G = Δτ/Δγ. The shear

stress vs. shear strain graph should have two curves: one corresponding to the initial

loading up to 12o with subsequent unloading to zero torque and the other reloading

curve which starts from the residual shear strain (γr) up to 20° and then to failure, both

drawn on the same plot (vary them by color or some other means).

• The residual shear strain, γr, is determined by measuring the strain between the zero

shear strain and the value after unloading to zero torque. (For optional extra credit:

the residual shear stress in the outside fibers of the solid shaft, τr, can be estimated

as: τr = τmax - Δτ, where due to elastic unloading Δτ = ΔT r/Ip = Tmax r/Ip.)

4

4. Discuss the failure modes for all three specimens based on the relation between pure

shear and normal stresses (see the helpful figure below).

a) Explain why, in torsion test, the ductile solid shaft sheared on a right section

whereas the brittle (cast aluminum) solid shaft fractured on a helicoidal path.

b) Explain why the brittle cast aluminum specimen fractured at a “negative-

slope” 45° angle while the ductile hollow aluminum specimen buckled at a

“positive-slope” 45° angle. (The figure below should be a good hint.)

c) Why did the hollow specimen experience local-buckling (the twisting shape at

failure) under torsion? What would happen to the twisting angles of local-

buckling if the torsion was done in the opposite direction?

5. It was observed that we had to use cross-referenced shear stresses from the hollow

shaft τ vs. γ curve to predict the “actual” stresses on the surface of solid shaft during

inelastic loading. We want to investigate the difference between this “actual” shear

stress and the one we would get from equation (a) in step 1 above. Plot the shear

stress vs. shear strain graphs for the ductile solid shaft again but this time draw two

curves: one based on the cross-referenced shear stresses and the other based on the

shear stresses obtained from equation (a) of step 1 (see hint below). Compare the two

and give a thorough analysis on why there is a difference between them.

FROM

EQUATION (a)

τ

τ

o

FROM

FOR CROSS-REF

HOLLOW

SHAFT FOR SOLID

SHAFT

γ γ

same γ

- Torsion of Cylindrical RodsDiunggah olehStephen Mirdo
- Torsion Test discussion By shanDiunggah olehshangovinna_10781090
- Torsion report.pdfDiunggah olehKalKatu MaLam
- Torsion Test ReportDiunggah olehShengyang Wang
- TorsionDiunggah olehWilson Teng
- Why Perform a Torsion TestDiunggah olehschoffil
- Torsion Lab ReportDiunggah olehNerdy Ali
- Lab 3 TorsionDiunggah olehFarid Najand
- Torsion LabDiunggah olehjeffreycychiu
- Experiment 5 - Tensile TestDiunggah olehSubuk T. Rathod
- Lab 4-TORSION TEST.pdfDiunggah olehJesse Lee
- Torsion Formal Report.docxDiunggah olehEng RuiJun
- Torsion TestDiunggah olehDhedhe Prasetya
- Mechanics of Materials - Beam Deflection TestDiunggah olehDavid Clark
- Torsion TestDiunggah olehmohanadymt
- Tensile TestDiunggah olehmer2408
- CVE 230. Lab Report 4 (Torsion Testing).Diunggah olehJuan Villa
- Report torsion newDiunggah olehHepi_Reenzxs_4735
- Tensile testDiunggah olehHarsha Vardhana
- Torsion TestDiunggah olehankitsuchanti
- Torsion TestDiunggah olehEmaan W Ka
- TorsionTest Lab ReportDiunggah olehPranksterz Starz
- torsion test(experiment 2).docxDiunggah olehNirmal Chandra
- Tension Test ReportDiunggah olehzgts
- Torsion TestDiunggah olehAsssassin92
- Tensile Testing 1Diunggah olehapi-3764139
- 10 Torsion TestDiunggah olehfrankjono
- Thin Cylinder [Sec 2-Group 6]Diunggah olehDir'z Memoir
- Tension ReportDiunggah olehDevruwan Wijetilleke
- Torsion LabDiunggah olehAmy Parker

- Shaft DesignDiunggah olehmeenakumari05
- TorsionDiunggah olehDanut Calugar
- UNIT 3 Torsion and SpringDiunggah olehl8o8r8d8s8i8v8
- shafts subjected to loadDiunggah olehMaria Mehar
- 3 TorsionDiunggah olehBharat Jajoria
- Torsion TestDiunggah olehAsssassin92
- Relationship of Torque and Shaft Size _ Plant EngineeringDiunggah olehkhin_aungshwe
- 2-40-139486466624-29Diunggah olehParag Naik
- Buckling and Torsion of Steel Angle Section BeamsDiunggah olehp_meulendijks108
- Design of ShaftsDiunggah olehRamesh Nutakki
- Global Stiffness Analysis of Biw StructureDiunggah olehesatjournals
- Thesis ExampleDiunggah olehJigar Kishor Joshi
- Torsion in Concrete Beams.pptDiunggah olehMisqal A Iqbal
- Lecture 10 - Di PriscoDiunggah olehJose Leonardo Quintero Güell
- Steif Chapter 4 ExcerptDiunggah olehbmyertekin
- 1-s2.0-S1991790217300053-mainDiunggah olehCah Yani
- Low Node DensityDiunggah olehanu swami
- MohrsCircle2.pptxDiunggah olehHatem Abdelnabi
- Torsion Spring Design InfoDiunggah olehashish19851
- Drill Pipe Performance Sheet 5.875 XT57 G105Diunggah olehGarcia C L Alberto
- MOS Projects OldDiunggah olehAli Akhter
- Cap12-Mott Machine Elements in Mechanical Design 6 EdDiunggah olehWilberFabián
- MD2Diunggah olehJun Arro Estrella
- Advanced strength of materials paper modelDiunggah olehdurgaraokamireddy
- Final Jacking MethodDiunggah olehShubhamShukla
- Solution CH3 (1)Diunggah olehroundstorm1
- Strength of Materials qUES BANKDiunggah olehNishanth Shannmugam
- Teague's ShaftDiunggah olehSurasan Thepsiri
- NOTCH FACTORDiunggah olehbennyferguson
- Chapter3 Torsion FinalDiunggah olehNaveen Kumar

## Lebih dari sekadar dokumen.

Temukan segala yang ditawarkan Scribd, termasuk buku dan buku audio dari penerbit-penerbit terkemuka.

Batalkan kapan saja.