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If external stimulus is applied to the brain, it becomes possible to entrain

the brain frequency from one brain state to another. For example, if a person is in
the beta state (highly alert) and a stimulus of 10Hz is applied to his/her brain for
some time, the brain frequency is likely to change towards the applied stimulus.
The effect will be relaxing to the person. This phenomenon is also called
frequency following response.

When the brain's state is close to the applied stimulus, entrainment works
more efficiently. Thus, when doing a sweep from one frequency to another, the
starting frequency should be as close to the current brain state as possible. The
sweep speed should be such that the brain's state changes steadily with it, so
that the difference never gets very large. In practice, it is difficult to determine
the brain state without complex EEG measurement equipment. However, you can
quite safely assume that during the day your brain is in the beta state (about
20Hz) and you can start a frequency sweep from there. If you are already
somewhat relaxed, you can use a start frequency of 15Hz or a few Hz lower.

Stimulating the brain

The easiest way of applying stimulus to the brain is via ears and eyes. Since
humans cannot hear sounds low enough to be useful for brain stimulation, special
techniques must be used. One such special technique used is called binaural

If the left ear is presented with a steady tone of 495Hz and the right ear a steady
tone of 505Hz, these two tones combine in the brain. The difference, 10Hz, is
perceived by the brain and is a very effective stimulus for brainwave entrainment.
This 10Hz is formed entirely by the brain. When using stereo headphones, the left
and right sounds do not mix together until in your brain. The frequency
difference, when perceived by brain this way, is called a binaural beat.

To get a stimulus of 10Hz, you may use tones of 495Hz and 505Hz, or 400Hz and
410Hz, or 862Hz and 872Hz, or so on. The only requirements are that the tone is
heard well enough and that it is below about 1000Hz. Below 1000Hz, the
wavelength of the sound is sufficiently small so that the sound waves curve
around the skull.
Stimulating the brain with visual stimulus

Visual stimulation is easier than aural stimulation because low frequencies can
readily be used. A frequency of 10Hz, for example, is generated when a led is
flashed on and off 10 times a second in the front of your eyes.

When visual stimulus is in synch with aural stimulus, effects are highly increased
over using only visual or only aural stimulus.

Applying a stimulus to the brain will eventually bring the brain's state closer to
the stimulus frequency. This topic describes some possible effects achievable by

Note: Just passively listening to binaural beats does not necessarily alter your
state of consciousness. For example, willingness and ability to relax and focus
attention affects how effective the binaural beat stimulus is for inducing state

Helping in meditation

Meditation is essentially about willingly being able to alter one's brain frequency
to a desired state. While meditators have traditionally used several years to learn
the techniques of meditation, you can now attain the same effect with brainwave
entrainment. No special training or great discipline is required. Good meditation
frequencies are in the alpha range, from 8Hz to 13Hz.

When a certain brainwave state is experienced and practiced over a period of

time, the brain will "learn" the state change and it will become easier to self-
produce the desired brainwave state at will. Thus, using brainwave entrainment,
you can expect to get some of its effects later even without any external

Reducing learning time

The theta state (4Hz–7Hz) has been found to increase learning capabilities. In
fact, children spend more time in theta state than adults, which probably explains
the accelerated learning capabilities of children.

Alpha frequencies are also useful for learning purposes. You can play language
cassettes, subliminal tapes, etc. during an entrainment session for a maximum
Reducing sleep needs

Some people have found that half an hour a day of the Theta state can replace up
to 4 hours of sleep.

Treatment of certain mental diseases

Brainwave entrainment is used in treatment of depression, low self-esteem,

attention deficit disorder, drug and alcohol addiction and autism, to name a few.

Brainwave entrainment has also been found helpful in alleviating headaches and

EEG (electroencephalography) technology is used to measure brain's electrical

vibrations from the surface of the scalp. The resulting EEG pattern will contain
frequency elements mainly below 30Hz. The frequencies are categorized into four
states as follows.

State Frequency State of mind

Delta 0.5–4Hz Deep sleep

Theta 4–8Hz Drowsy (also first stage of sleep)

Alpha 8–14Hz Relaxed but alert

Beta 14–30Hz Highly alert and focused

The dominant frequency in the brain's EEG pattern determines what shall be
called the current state of the brain. If the amplitude of the alpha range
frequencies is highest, then the brain is said to be in the alpha state. The purpose
of BrainWave Generator is to affect the brain's state to achieve different results

Note: Brain's EEG pattern always consists of a wide range of different frequencies.
The most dominant of them determines the current state of mind, but note that
this is not any "exact frequency the brain is operating on". There are always also
other frequency components present.
The Four Brain States: Choosing the Programs that are Right for

Beta Alpha Theta Delta

Vibrations from rhythmic sounds have a profound effect on our brain

activity. In shamanic traditions, drums have long been used to transport the
shaman out of his or her body into other realms of reality through the use of
constant rhythmic vibrations. Researcher Melinda Maxfield, studying the
Shamanic State of Consciousness, found that the steady rhythmic beat of the
drum struck four and one half times per second was the key to transporting a
shaman into the deepest part of his shamanic state of consciousness.

It is no coincidence that 4.5 beats, or cycles, per second corresponds to

the trance-like state of theta brain wave activity. In direct correlation, we see
similar effects brought on by the constant and rhythmic drone of Tibetan
Buddhist chants that transport the monks and even other listeners into
realms of blissful meditation.

The gentle pulsating rhythms of Brain Sync tapes act in a similar

fashion, yet because the frequencies are computer generated, they are
precise, consistent and can be targeted to induce highly specific and desired
brain states. Just as we can tune a radio to get a particular station, with Brain
Sync technology we can tune our consciousness to dial-in a wide variety of
brain states.

You have your very own signature brain wave activity, unique to you. It
has a rhythm and pattern - and it incorporates Beta, Alpha, Theta, and Delta
frequencies at varying levels over the course of a day as your brain
modulates them to match your activities. Brain Sync audio programs amplify
a single frequency or a carefully balanced combination of frequencies to
achieve a specific purpose.

So how do you choose the programs that are right for you? Consider the
qualities each frequency promotes as we describe them below. Listen to the
audio samples we've provided, then select the audio programs that best
support your personal desires, preferences, and goals.


You are wide-awake, alert. Your mind is sharp, focused. It makes connections
quickly, easily and you're primed to do work that requires your full attention.
In the Beta state, neurons fire abundantly, in rapid succession, helping you
achieve peak performance. New ideas and solutions to problems flash like
lightning into your mind. Beta training is one of the frequencies that
biofeedback therapists use to treat Attention Deficit Disorder.

Beta-centered programs help you prepare to take an exam, play sports, give
a presentation, analyze and organize information, and other activities where
mental alertness and high levels of concentration are key to your success.

Beta waves range between 13-40 HZ. The Beta state is associated with peak
concentration, heightened alertness, hand eye coordination and visual acuity.
Nobel Prize Winner, Sir Francis Crick and other scientists believe that the
40HZ beta frequency used on many Brain Sync tapes may be key to the act
of cognition.



When you are truly relaxed, your brain activity slows from the rapid patterns
of Beta into the more gentle waves of Alpha. Your awareness expands. Fresh
creative energy begins to flow. Fears vanish. You experience a liberating
sense of peace and well-being. In biofeedback, Alpha training is most
commonly recommended for the treatment of stress.
Alpha-centered programs help you tap your creativity and are excellent for
problem solving, finding new ideas and practicing creative visualization.
Choose Alpha programs when you want to attain deep levels of relaxation
that are so essential to your health and well-being.

Alpha waves range between 7-12 HZ. This is a place of deep relaxation, but
not quite meditation. In Alpha, we begin to access the wealth of creativity
that lies just below our conscious awareness - it is the gateway, the entry
point that leads into deeper states of consciousness. Alpha is also the home
of the window frequency known as the Schuman Resonance - the resonant
frequency of the earth's electromagnetic field.



Going deeper into relaxation, you enter the elusive and mysterious Theta
state where brain activity slows almost to the point of sleep, but not quite.
Theta is the brain state where magic happens in the crucible of your own
neurological activity. Theta brings forward heightened receptivity, flashes of
dreamlike imagery, inspiration, and your long-forgotten memories. Theta can
bring you deep states of meditation. A sensation of "floating." And, because it
is an expansive state, in Theta, you may feel your mind expand beyond the
boundaries of your body.

Theta rests directly on the threshold of your subconscious. In biofeedback, it

is most commonly associated with the deepest levels of meditation. Theta
also plays an important part in behavior modification programs and has been
used in the treatment of drug and alcohol addiction. Finally, Theta is an ideal
state for super-learning, re-programming your mind, dream recall, and self-
Theta waves range between 4-7 HZ. Theta is one of the more elusive and
extraordinary realms we can explore. It is also known as the twilight state
which we normally only experience fleetingly as we rise up out of the depths
of delta upon waking, or drifting off to sleep. In Theta, we are in a waking
dream, vivid imagery flashes before the mind's eye and we are receptive to
information beyond our normal conscious awareness. Theta has also been
identified as the gateway to learning and memory. Theta meditation
increases creativity, enhances learning, reduces stress and awakens intuition
and other extrasensory perception skills.


Detached Awareness

Long, slow, undulating. Delta is the slowest of all four brain wave frequencies.
Most commonly associated with deep sleep, certain frequencies in the Delta
range also trigger the release of Human Growth Hormone so beneficial for
healing and regeneration. This is why sleep - deep restorative sleep - the kind
that Delta frequencies help induce is so essential to the healing process.

Delta is the brain wave signal of the subconscious, the seat from which
intuition arises. That means Delta-based programs are not only an ideal
choice for their sleep and deep regeneration potential, but also when you
want to access your unconscious activity and help that wellspring of
information flow to your conscious mind for clearing and for empowerment.
Delta waves range between 0-4 HZ.