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International Conference on Enabling Science and Nanotechnology 2012 (ESciNano 2012)

5-7 January 2012, Persada Johor International Convention Center, Johor Bahru, MALAYSIA
ESciNano 2012 http://www.fke.utm.my/mine/escinano2012
Mobility Degradation in a Nano-MOSFET due to Ballistic and High-Field Effects
Michael L. P. Tan
a
, Munawar A Riyadi
a
, Vijay K. Arora
a,b
a
Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, Johor 81310, Malaysia
b
Division
of Engineering and Physics, Wilkes University, Wilkes-Barre, PA18707, U. S. A.,
E-Mail: michael@fke.utm.my
The ballistic transport has been intensively discussed for years in the search for future devices
with higher performance. The mobility is expected to be higher in a ballistic channel due to
absence of scattering in a channel with reduced length below the scattering limited mean free
path (mfp). However, almost all experimental observations [1-3] so far reveal degradation of
mobility when the channel length is in the ballistic regime. Riyadi and Arora[4-5] have provided
an excellent explanation that agrees well with the experimental results mobility degradation in
channels with lengths below the long-channel mfp. The injection from ballistic contacts is
highlighted that increases the effective mfp, called ballistic mfp ( / )
B o inj i
v v

= " " that is higher


than the long channel mean free path
o
" by injection velocity ratio /
inj i
v v to channel velocity
i
v .
The ballistic mfp is higher, yet the mobility is amazingly lower. The length-limited mobility is
given by
- )
B
L
L o
e

=
"
(1 (1)
o

is the low-field, long sample mobility.


inj
v is the injection velocity depending on the metal
being used for the contacts as electrons are injected into the ohmic contact with the Fermi
velocity[6] with the highest probability. In this communication, we report the high-field
degradation of the mobility when the voltage V across the channel is above the critical voltage
2 2
/
c i L
V v = " with - )
B
L
L o
e

=
"
" " (1 .
2 c
V is always larger than
2 2
/
c i o
V v

= " appropriate for long-
channel mfp. This changes the degradation due to high electric field when applied voltage V is
sufficiently low, contrary to what Robertson and Dumin thought on interpreting the experimental
data. The drift response to a high electric fieldE is given by [7]
2 2
2 2
tanh tanh
D u u
c c
V
v v v
V
| | | |
= =
| |
\ . \ .
E
E
(2)
where
2 2 c c
V L = E is the critical electric field for 2D channel on the onset of saturation. The
general length-limited mobility /
L D
v = E as compared to long-channel mobility
o

is given
by
2
2
tanh
( )
c
L
o
c
V
V
V
V
V

| |
|
\ .
= (3)
with
/
2 2
(1 )
B
L
c c
V V e

=
"
(4)
2 c
V plays a critical role in determining whether or not high-field effects are important. In the
case of low electric field,
2 c
V V << , ( )
2 2
tanh
c c
V V V V , the high-field effects are negligible
and the mobility degradation arises due to length-limited ballistic effects as given by Eq. (1).
Experimental data provided by Robertson and Dumin [2] was used for verification of this general
formula. Fig. 1 shows the calculated
2 c
V and
2 c
V

at given parameters.
9781457707988/12/$26.002012IEEE
International Conference on Enabling Science and Nanotechnology 2012 (ESciNano 2012)
5-7 January 2012, Persada Johor International Convention Center, Johor Bahru, MALAYSIA
ESciNano 2012 http://www.fke.utm.my/mine/escinano2012
The critical voltage reduces in the shorter channel length which explains the needs of lowering
the bias voltage for reducing high-field effects. As temperature rises, the critical voltage
increases. For given voltage (V=0.1 V in the experiment), it is revealed that
2 c
V V

> except for


L < 300, 165, 65 and 20 nm for T=4.2, 100, 200 and 300K, respectively. In the case of
2 c
V V << , the device operates in low electric field, hence the high field effects are negligible.
However, as the applied voltage V increases and
2 c
V V > , the high field effects are clearly visible
as seen in Fig. 2. The mobility drops substantially when V=1V that is much higher than the
critical voltage, as illustrated in Fig.2. As a result, effective mobility is shifted down, with
mobility in lowest temperature suffer the most degradation. We conclude that formalism
described by the non-equilibrium Arora distribution function (NEADF) elucidates new light and
give new directions to developers and designers of devices at decananometer scale.
References
[1] J. Lusakowski, et al., "Ballistic and pocket limitations of mobility in nanometer Si metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors,"
Applied Physics Letters, vol. 87, p. 053507, 2005.
[2] P. J. Robertson and D. J. Dumin, "Ballistic transport and properties of submicrometer Silicon MOSFET's from 300 to 4.2 K," IEEE
Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 33, pp. 494-498, 1986.
[3] F. Andrieu, et al., "Strain and channel engineering for fully depleted SOI MOSFETs towards the 32 nm technology node,"
Microelectronic Engineering, vol. 84, pp. 2047-2053, Sep-Oct 2007.
[4] M. Riyadi, et al., "Ballistic mobility degradation in scaled-down channel of a MOSFET," in ISDRS'09. International Semiconductor
Device Research Symposium, Maryland, USA, 2009, pp. 1-2.
[5] M. A. Riyadi and V. K. Arora, "The channel mobility degradation in a nanoscale metal--oxide--semiconductor field effect transistor
due to injection from the ballistic contacts," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 109, p. 056103, 2011.
[6] G. W. Hanson, Fundamental of Nanoelectronics. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice-Hall, 2008.
[7] V. K. Arora, "Quantum engineering of nanoelectronic devices: the role of quantum emission in limiting drift velocity and diffusion
coefficient," Microelectronics Journal vol. 31, pp. 853-859, 2000.
0 500 1000 1500 2000
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
L (nm)
V
c


,

V
c

(
V
)
300K
200K
100K
4.2K
0.1 V
V
c
V
c
Fig. 1. The calculated critical voltage
2 c
V

and
2 c
V as a function
of temperature T and length L
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
T (K)
m
o
b
i
l
i
t
y

(
c
m
2
/
V
s
)
0.2 m
0.7 m
1.2 m
1.7 m
V=0.1 V
V=0.5 V
V=1.0 V
Fig. 2. The mobility degradation due to the influence of high
field effect (V = 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 V). Experimental data from [2]