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 EFY LAB age value is 2.5V, and if the duty cycle
is 75%, the average voltage is 3.75V

ulse-width modulation (PWM) and so on. The maximum duty cycle
or duty-cycle variation methods can be 100%, which is equivalent to a storage capacitor to pro-
are commonly used in speed DC waveform. Thus by varying the vide stable voltage to the
control of DC motors. The duty cycle pulse-width, we can vary the average circuit.
is defined as the percentage of digital voltage across a DC motor and hence Thus, by varying
‘high’ to digital ‘low’ plus digital ‘high’ its speed. VR1 the duty cycle can
pulse-width during a PWM period. The circuit of a simple speed con- be changed from 0% to
troller for a mini DC motor, such 100% and the speed of
as that used in tape recorders and the motor from ‘stopped’
toys, is shown in Fig. 2. condition to ‘full speed’
Fig. 3: Pin
Here N1 inverting Schmitt trig- configuration in an even and continu-
ger is configured as an astable of BC337A ous way. The diodes ef-
Fig. 1: 5V pulses with 0% through 50% duty cycle multivibrator with constant period fectively provide differ-
but variable duty ent timing resistor values during
cycle. Although the charging and discharging of timing ca-
total in-circuit resis- pacitor C1.
tance of VR1 during The pulse or rest period is approxi-
a complete cycle is mately given by the following equa-
100 kilo-ohms, the tion:
part used during Pulse or Rest period ≈ 0.4 x C1
positive and negative (Farad) x VR1 (ohm) seconds.
periods of each cycle Here, use the in-circuit value of
can be varied by VR1 during pulse or rest period as ap-
changing the posi- plicable.
tion of its wiper con- The frequency will remain constant
tact to obtain variable and is given by the equation:
pulse-width. Schmitt Frequency ≈ 2.466/(VR1.C1) ≈ 250
Fig. 2: DC motor speed control using PWM method gate N2 simply acts Hz (for VR1=100 kilo-ohms and C1=0.1
as a buffer/driver to µF)
Fig. 1 shows the 5V pulses with 0% drive transistor T1 during positive in- The recommended value of in-cir-
through 50% duty cycle. cursions at its base. Thus the average cuit resistance should be greater than
The average DC voltage value for amplitude of DC drive pulses or the 50 kilo-ohms but less than 2 mega-
0% duty cycle is zero; with 25% duty speed of motor M is proportional to ohms, while the capacitor value should
cycle the average value is 1.25V (25% the setting of the wiper position of VR1 be greater than 100 pF but less than
of 5V). With 50% duty cycle the aver- potmeter. Capacitor C2 serves as a 1 µF.