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PAKISTAN and US Relations

PAKISTAN and US Relations


Name:
Gulraiz Khalid , Ahsan Nazar & Maryam Anwar

Reg Num:
L1F09BBAM0178, L1S10BBAM013 & L1S12BBAM2022

Section: D Subject: International Relations Submitted To: Professor. Zahid Aziz Dated: 13 March 2012

University Of Central Punjab

PAKISTAN and US Relations

Introduction:
In international relations, neither there are eternal friends nor foes; the only thing which remains eternal, is the national interest of nation-stats. This assignment examines the history of US-Pakistan relations and the present standoff of the relations after NATO attacks on salala check post on 26 November 2011. After the World War I and II and at the end of the cold war US was considered the worlds most powerful nation state. (2011). the 1947 act created two dominions, Indian Union and Pakistan. It was the complete end of British control and Muslims succeeded in achieving their dream of having a separate Muslim state. Pakistan emerged on the map of the world on the basis of the two-nation theory. Pakistan and United States relationship has its roots in the cold war. Pakistan is the important country in Asia in which US is interested. Us is interested in Pakistan on the basis of regional terrorism, weapons proliferation, ongoing Kashmir issue and tensions between the two countries Pakistan and India. Pakistan is facing serious issues of domestic terrorism and human rights violation because it is considered as the base of terrorist groups and these groups have the supporters in Kashmir, India and Afghanistan. Pakistan was the first country in South Asia to sign an agreement with US which entered into force December 15, 1950. US was the first country which offered Pakistan for financial aid soon after the independence. Pakistan requested the US for $ 2 billion for military and financial aid. Pakistan became closer to US during second phase of their foreign policy when it depended on American support for political and economic aid. The incidence of September 9/11/2001 has greatly affected the relations of Pakistan and United States. The relationship dramatically changed after the attacks on the United States. Bush needs the supporters in the region so they enlisted the Pakistan as an ally in the war on terror. President Musharraf agrees to join the forces with the United States and serve the US interests. Musharraf also granted the US access to the Pakistans airfield. The long border between Afghanistan and Pakistan, coupled with the tribal connections between both countries and united stated could only succeed in their goals by the collaboration of Pakistan. Pakistan plays the important role in the global war on terror but they were also accused of supporting Taliban and Al Qaeda presence in its northern provinces. It was true that the Pakistanis dont ally with the US; majority was with the Taliban round about 83% of people. 82% even considered the Osama Bin Laden the holy

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PAKISTAN and US Relations

warrior instead of the terrorist. After the attacks in US, the terrorism in Pakistan was on the rise. The presence of US in Pakistan has increased the anti-Americanism. US say Pakistan has not done enough against the Al Qaeda and the Taliban. The Taliban and Al Qaeda gathered support in Pakistan's tribal areas. As a result, US planned to capture the top Al Qaeda members in the Pakistans tribal territory but they were feared that it would endanger delicate relations with Pakistan. The tension between Pakistani military and intelligence support for violent extremists and popular anti-Anti Americanism begins to strain myth of perfect relationship between Musharraf and the U.S. President Musharraf resigns. His resignation is largely under pressure from the United States. His resignation signals his perceived failure to halt the activities of violent extremists in the Northwest provinces bordering Afghanistan. Pakistans civilian president election was meant to solve the problem of former military head. It was believed that Musharraf was supporting military and intelligence elements in Pakistan which themselves support Taliban and Al Qaeda fighters. When Asif Ali Zardari was appointed the new civilian president, Bush announced his happiness on the selection of Zardari.

Post NATO attack 26 November, 2011 situation:


The 2011 NATO attack in Pakistan also known as the Salala incident occurred when U.S.-led NATO forces engaged Pakistani security forces at two Pakistani military check posts along the Afghanistan-Pakistan border on Saturday 26 November 2011. Two NATO Apache helicopters and two Eagle fighter jets entered by varying estimates as little as 200 meters (660 ft) to up to 2.5 kilometers (1.6 miles) into the Pakistani border area of Salala in the Baizai subdivision of Mohammad Agency, FATA at 2 a.m. local time, from across the border in Afghanistan and opened fire at two border patrol checkposts, killing up to 24 Pakistani soldiers and wounding 13 others. This attack resulted in a deterioration of relations between Pakistan and the United States. The Pakistani public reacted with protests all over the country and the government took measures adversely affecting the US exit strategic from Afghanistan including the evacuation of Shamsi Airfield and closure of the NATO supply line. According to Afghan and U.S. officials, the incident started after US-Afghan coalition forces, which were conducting an operation against the Afghan Taliban in Afghanistan's eastern Kunar Province, were fired upon from border positions within

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PAKISTAN and US Relations

Pakistan. "There was firing coming from the position against Afghan army soldiers who requested support", said one Afghan official in Kabul. One U.S. official said NATO Forces had informed the Pakistani armys 11th Corps command near the western border that operations against Taliban insurgents would take place on that day. Pakistani General Abbas admitted in a press conference that coalition forces had "informed our military earlier, much earlier, that they will be conducting an operation there." The incident sparked outrage and controversy in Pakistan, which termed the attack an "unprovoked and indiscriminate firing," an "irresponsible act," and a "stark violation" of its sovereignty. Leaders of the Pakistani military establishment viewed NATO's attacks on the army check posts as intentional, pre-planned and premeditated. Pakistan rejected claims of any firing having emanated from its side as a prelude to the encounter, saying that the soldiers who were manning the post were asleep and resting when NATO launched the assault at night.

After effects of NATO attacks:


Closure of NATO supply lines Pakistan immediately closed all NATO supplies to Afghanistan in the aftermath of the attack. NATO trucks had been using the supply routes, in Khyber Agency (through the Khyber Pass at Torkham) and Balochistan (near Chaman), to supply U.S. and international forces fighting in Afghanistan. US policy makers tried to find alternative routes through Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan but these are longer and less effective than routes through Pakistan. According to figures released by The Pentagon in January 2012, the United States was paying six times more to send supplies to troops in Afghanistan via alternative supply routes following the closure of Pakistani routes. US asked to vacate Shamsi airfield On 26 November, the same day the incident occurred, Pakistan ordered the U.S. to shut down and vacate the Shamsi Airfield in the southwestern Balochistan province within a deadline of 15 days. In early December, the US military personnel occupying the

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PAKISTAN and US Relations


base, along with all military equipment, were shifted to the Bagram Air Base in Afghanistan via US military aircraft. Pakistan's refusal to attend Bonn Conference

In the wake of the NATO attacks, the Pakistani government refused to attend the Bonn conference scheduled on 5 December 2011. The event in Bonn, Germany is an important international conference on Afghanistan. The conference was generally regarded as a disappointment, partially because of Pakistan's absence. Revision of western-border rules of engagement Pakistan also strengthened its air defenses and surveillance along the Afghanistan border as a precaution against any future incursions. Pakistan's army chief General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani issued directions to commanders posted at the border to fire without permission if any further aggression is received. On 27 November 2011, NATO issued an apology for what it called a "tragic unintended incident". In addition, NATO chief Anders Fogh Rasmussen is reported to have written to Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani commenting that "the deaths of Pakistani personnel are as unacceptable and deplorable as the deaths of Afghan and international personnel". The commander of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), General John R. Allen, presented condolences to the family members and loved ones of the dead soldiers and ordered a "thorough investigation" into the matter.

CONCLUSION:
Pakistan had never been so tough on the U.S., but the NATO's killing of Pakistani soldiers in "unprovoked" raids brought the government under tremendous pressure to review its relations with the U.S. as enough is enough. The stand Pakistani leaders have shown since the November 26 NATO strikes is very clear that they have now made mind to review what the majority in Pakistan considers un-natural alliance with the U.S. Pakistan's decision to close NATO supply line, orders U.S. to vacate its airbase, boycott the Bonn Conference and reject U.S. regret reflect the country's seriousness to review its relationship with the United States. This has been a long awaited call from

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PAKISTAN and US Relations


political parties, former diplomats, and retired army generals, members of civil society and media to review the countrys foreign policy towards Washington.

Now Pakistan has started reviewing of its relations with the U. S Important decisions after the NATO attack have set tone for U.S. ties review. Foreign Ministry sources say that Pakistan has called ambassadors from several important capitals to seek their input for the new foreign policy and new relationship with the U.S. It is the hope of the majority of the Pakistanis that the parliament will chalk out a relationship with the U.S. on the basis of mutual respect in real terms and that Pakistan will never bow before U.S. pressure.

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