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Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel


(AESS)
By RB Haria Priya Utama

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Introduction
This presentation was developed as a teaching aid with the support of the American Institute of Steel Construction Construction. It is primarily intended to be used by Construction Management programs to supplement classes in Construction Methods and Materials, Estimating, Scheduling, and Structures. The presentation materials would also be applicable in Architecture and Civil Engineering programs. You will need to enable Macros in PowerPoint to use these functions. Because viruses are sometimes t B i ti transmitted through Macros, the default itt d th hM th d f lt security setting for PowerPoint is usually High. This must be changed to Medium before opening the presentation. The security setting can be changed by first closing the presentation. In PowerPoint select Tools|Macro|Security Select Medium Reopen this Tools|Macro|Security Medium. presentation and select Enable Macros when prompted by the Security Warning. See the Slide Notes for additional information

This presentation contains several interactive Macros.

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Steel gives the architect the flexibility to create the desired aesthetic effect using the structural members

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Exposed steel will require special processing th t will i i that ill impact th cost t the t and schedule

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Expectations must be clearly communicated in the plans and specifications to avoid conflicts

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Architecturally Exposed Structural S l S l Steel


Architects frequently designate exposed steel as Architecturally Exposed Structural ( ) Steel (AESS) in accordance with Section 10 of the AISC Code of Standard Practice (CSP) The designer must clearly communicate expectations for construction professionals to t properly estimate, schedule and l ti t h d l d fabricate these structures
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AESS Presentation Outline


Typical applications Project management Processing issues Case study University of Michigan y y g Health Services Cardiovascular Center

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Typical Applications
The entire structure or key portions may use AESS Popular applications include
Hanging walkways F Framing i atriums and l bbi i in t i d lobbies Office interiors Canopies Airport terminals
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Ca opy and Canopy a d Hanging Walkway

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Atriums and Lobbies

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Office Interiors

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Airport po Terminals

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Typical Applications
Common structural components include
Wide flange sections Curved members Hollow structural sections (HSS) Built up tapered members Built-up Open web beams T Trusses Cables and rods
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Curved Members
Mashantucket Pequot Museum Ledyard, Connecticut

Modern steel fabrication technology allows fabricators to t h l ll f bi t t cold curve or heat bend beams.
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Round HSS
Round HSS with tapered ends

Fabrication of joints in Round HSS

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Built up Built-up Tapered Members

Hawaii Convention Center

Northwest Community Hospital Wellness Center

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Open Web Beams


Open web beams are lighter and aesthetically attractive.

Computer-controlled cutters provide design flexibility. fle ibilit


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Project Management Outline


AISC Code of Standard Practice SEAC/RMSCA guidelines Structural steel delivery process Mockups Managing AESS risk g Scheduling Estimating
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Code of Standard Practice


Section 10 of the CSP establishes default standards for tolerances and finish of members designated as AESS in the contract documents Designers may find some requirements are not applicable to their projects CSP alone d l does not clearly communicate t l l i t expected quality
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SEAC/RMSCA Guidelines
Article published in May 2003 M d Modern St l Steel Construction [1] presents guidelines developed by the Structural Engineers Association of Colorado/Rocky Mountain Stee Co st uct o Steel Construction Association for describing, estimating and specifying desired AESS results lt Also available at http://www.aisc.org/AESS and in MSWord format format.
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SEAC/RMSCA Sample Board


The SEAC/RMSCA sample board provides a comparison of standard finished surfaces and AESS finishes that may be specified This standard sample board can serve as a mockup during the design phase so the designer can clearly communicate expectations for AESS to potential bidders
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SEAC/RMSCA Sample Board

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Cost Matrix
The article provides guidance to estimate the cost impact of requiring higher level finishes that are generally more stringent than the Code of Standard Practice These may be desired if members will be viewed from a very close perspective by occupants in the finished structure

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AISC Co of Standard ode Prac ctice Section

2.2.10 2.2.11 2.2.12 2.2.13 -------

Specification Section (Fa abrication) 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.2.6 2.2.7 2.2.8 2.2.9

Specification Section (E Erection) 2.2 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.3.5 ----------------3.3.6 336 3.3.7 3.3.8

FABRICATION AND ERECTION CLASSIFICATIONS


SPECIAL CARE IN PROCESSING AESS TOLERANCES: ONE-HALF STANDARD WELDS GROUND SMOOTH WELDS CONTOURED & BLENDED CONTINUOUS WELDS WELD SHOW THROUGH MINIMIZED COPING AND BLOCKING TOLERANCES MINIMIZED JOINT GAP TOLERANCES MINIMIZED PIECE MARKS HIDDEN SURFACE DEFECTS MINIMIZED MILL MARKS REMOVED GRINDING OF SHEARED EDGES ROLLED MEMBERS: MINIMIZE DISTORTION
POWER TOOL CLEANING CLEANING (SSPC-SP3) CATEGORYBOLT HEAD ORIENTATION DICTATED 1: INTERIOR ENVIRONMENT - LOW END FINISH COMMERCIAL BLAST CLEANING (SSPC-SP6) CATEGORY 2: FIELD WELDING AIDS REMOVED END FINISH INTERIOR ENVIRONMENT - HIGH RANGE OF COST INCREASE OVER POWER TOOL CLEANING (SSPC-SP3) CLOSE 3: EXTERIOR ENVIRONMENT - LOW END FINISH CATEGORY WELD ACCESS HOLES AT FULL PEN WELDS

SURFACE PREPARATION CLASSIFICATIONS SEAL WELDS TO CLOSE OPEN GAPS PRIMER AND FINISH COATING CLASSIFICATIONS

RANGE IN COST EXTERIOR OVER STANDARD HIGH END FINISH CATEGORY 4: INCREASE ENVIRONMENT - STRUCTURAL STEEL
ACCUMULATED RANGE OF COST INCREASE CATEGORY 5: GALVANIZING

RANGE OF COST INCREASE SHOP PRIMED WITH NO FINISH COAT

SEAC
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Sample Specification in the SEAC/RMSCA G id li Guidelines


A generic specification was developed to provide guidance to architects and engineers for specifying AESS It can be edited with appropriate parts included in the structural steel specification for the project P i i Provisions should b adopted with d h ld be d t d ith due consideration for the cost/schedule impact
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Choose steel for structure

Design development

Contract documents

Bidding

Structural Steel Delivery Process

Sample board or Mockup

General contract award

Steel contract execution

Award lower subcontracts

Order steel

Erection and shop drawings

Deliver material

Shop drawing approval

Shop drawing approval

Fabricate steel

AESS quality assurance

Deliver

Deliver steel

Click buttons for detailed description Adapted from [2]

Erect steel

Field painting 26

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Mockups
Mockups are samples of finished steel surfaces f They range from simple connections to full-scale components f ll l t They should be designed to clarify key issues of th architects aesthetic i f the hit t th ti requirements that the sample board and specification do not adequately address Along with the specification, they should serve to prevent disputes over quality
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Managing AESS Risk


Establishing realistic expectations Fostering good communication between architect and fabricator Developing a clear bid package Specifying the use of an acceptable, qualified fabricator

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Establishing Realistic Expectations


The owner, architect and general contractor must understand what level of p finish can be produced on structural steel for the budgeted cost pp judged point Appearance must be j g from the p of view of people using the facility Similar completed p j p projects and mockups p of typical AESS members and joints should be reviewed during design development d l t
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Fostering Good Communication


The owner architect structural engineer owner, architect, and steel fabricator must communicate desires, capabilities, desires capabilities and cost impact When required, owner/architect must review and approve the quality of finish on mockups and initial pieces quickly to prevent delay in fabrication SEAC/RMSCA sample board facilitates communication b f i ti before biddi bidding
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Developing Clear Bid Package


The CSP will be referenced in the specification as the standard for those members designated as AESS The owner/architect may select higher quality finishes on some members which must m st be clearl defined refer to clearly SEAC/RMSCA specification for examples When clarification is required mockups required, should be fabricated to the requirements of the specification
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Specifying Qualified Fabricator


While there is no certification for AESS fabricators, an AISC certified f b i t is f bi t tifi d fabricator i prepared to follow the quality plan required for AESS Bidders can be required to document experience, experience qualifications and references for submission with bid package Involve the fabricator in the design process to recommend cost control measures
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Scheduling
Fabrication effort, surface preparation and coating may require additional time in schedule Dry-to-handle requirement for paint takes much longer than dry-to-touch Additional time is required to finish temporary connections and apply top coat of paint after erection Allow for fabrication and approval of mockups when required
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Estimating
AESS cost impact must be evaluated throughout design/bidding/construction Cost impacts include
Surface preparation I Improved finishes and coatings d fi i h d ti Use of more expensive sections
C Curved vs. straight d t i ht HSS vs. rolled
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Cost Impact
Premium for AESS member fabrication may be as much as 200% primarily due to increased labor Special care and handling and finishing after erection add significant cost Overall project cost can be controlled by specifying only the required level of finish on the appropriate members
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Cost Impact Illustrator


Project Cost 100% $10,000,000
Structural Steel $1,000,000 Fabrication $400,000 AESS 0% $0

10 %

All Other 90% $9,000,000

40 %

Erection $400,000 AESS 0% $0

40 %

Other 20% $200,000

non-AESS 100% $400,000

non-AESS 100% $400,000

Percent AESS Members AESS Fabrication Premium AESS Erection Premium

0% 75 % 75 %

Calculate

Reset

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AESS Processing Issues


Fabrication Erection Fabrication/Erection F b i ti /E ti Surface Preparation and Painting

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Fabrication
Coping and Blocking Tolerances Minimized

Grinding of Sheared Edges

Hollow Structural Sections


AISC Code of Standard Practice [3]

Joint Gap Tolerances Minimized

Section 10.2.4. All copes, miters and cuts in surfaces that are exposed to view shall be made with uniform gaps of 1/8 in. [3 mm] if shown as open joints, or in reasonable contact if shown without gap.

Mill Marks

Piece Marks Hidden

Rolled Members: Minimize Distortion

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Erection
Bolt Head Orientation Dictated Close Weld Access Holes at Full Pen Welds

Field Welding Aids Removed


AISC Code of Standard Practice [3]

Use Padded Slings

No specific requirements.

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Fabrication/ Erection E ti
Continuous Welds Special Care in Processing AESS Members
AISC Code of Standard Practice [3]

Tolerances: One-Half Standard

No specific requirements.

Welds Contoured & Blended

Welds Ground Smooth

Weld Show Through Minimized


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Surface Preparation and Painting


Requirements for surface preparation and painting usually refer to specifications from the Society for Protective Coatings for Coatings, example
SSPC SP3 Power Tool Cleaning SSPC-SP3, SSPC-SP6, Commercial Blast Cleaning

See www.sspc.org for more information sspc org

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Case Study
Architects vision Bid package Mockups Clarification Fabrication F b i ti Erection Finish painting
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University of Michigan Health Services C di S i Cardiovascular C t l Center


The project required approximately 3400 tons of steel of which 150 tons of AESS was used in the winter garden and 245 tons of AESS in two bridges The winter garden is primarily composed of round HSS Th b id The bridges are rectangular HSS t l

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Architect s Architects Vision

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Bid Package [4]


Plans with designated AESS members Specification provisions under Structural Steel section Excerpts from Architecturally Exposed Structural St l St t l Steel section ti

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AESS Plans

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Plans

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AESS Specification Excerpts


Section 05120 Structural Steel Part 2 Products
2.1 Materials
B. Steel for Architecturally Exposed Steel B. M. Paint Shop Primer (Architecturally Exposed Steel, Interior) M. N. Paint Shop Primer (Architecturally Exposed Steel Exterior) N. N Steel,

3.3 Shop Painting


C. Painting
6. Architecturally Exposed Steel 6.

Section 05121 Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel Part 1 General


1.3 Standards
A. Except as modified A.

1.4 Submittals
B. Samples B.

1.5. Product Handling 1.5 15


Click buttons for complete specification language. Click again to hide text.

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AESS Specification Excerpts


Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel Part 2 Products P d t
2.2 Materials
C. Metallic Filler C.

2 3 Fabrication 2.3
D. AESS members D. E. Cut tubular members E.

2.4 Connections
B. Continuously weld joints B.

2.6 Surface Preparation and Preconstruction Priming


A. Clean A. B. Cl B. B Cleaning i

Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel Part 3 Execution


3 1 Erection 3.1.
E. All temporary E.
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Mockups/Samples (1.4 Submittals)


Samples: Submit samples of each type of weld for architecturally exposed structural steel. Sample welds shall be 8 inches long and shall show finish, cleaning, and shop primer if required in the finished work.

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Clarification
The steel fabrication and erection on this project were bid as a fixed price contract to the general contractor Requirements of Section 10 of the CSP controlled Except as modified Except modified The steel fabricator communicated with the th architect d i biddi and after hit t during bidding d ft contract award
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Fabrication

Shop fabrication of winter garden components

Fabricated truss stored prior to delivery and erection

TC

Joint finished by grinding and application of Devon Plastic Steel 10240 Adhesive

Trusses prepared for temporary 52 connection (TC)

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Erection
Ironworkers finishing connections

Temporary connection must be cut off in the field and finished to hide joint (click to finish) Finished connections ready for final painting
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Finish Painting
The steel fabricator/erector subcontracted finish painting to be completed after erection The center is scheduled to open Spring 2007

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Conclusion
AESS provides opportunities for artistic expression unavailable with other construction materials Steel constructors can meet the architects clearly stated expectations on schedule y p Assistance is available to architects, g construction managers, fabricators and erectors through the AISC Steel Solutions Center solutions@aisc.org, 866-ASK-AISC
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References
[1] AISC (2003) Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel, a Supplement to Modern Steel C St l Construction, American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc.. Chicago, IL M t ti A i I tit t f St l C t ti I Chi IL., May 2003 [2] AISC (1999) Construction Management of Steel Construction, American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., Chicago, IL. [3] AISC (2005) Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges, American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., Chicago, IL. [4] Shepley Bullfinch Richardson and Abbott, University of Michigan Health Services Cardiovascular Center Plans and Specifications Boston MA. Specifications, Boston, MA

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