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Aliran energi merupakan rangkaian urutan pemindahan bentuk energi satu ke bentuk energi yang lain dimulai dari

sinar matahari lalu ke produsen, ke konsumen primer (herbivora), ke konsumen tingkat tinggi (karnivora), sampai ke saproba[1], aliran energi juga dapat diartikan perpindahan energi dari satu tingkatan trofik ke tingkatan berikutnya. Pada proses perpindahan selalu terjadi pengurangan jumlah energi setiap melalui tingkat trofik makan-memakan. Energi dapat berubah menjadi bentuk lain, seperti energi kimia, energi mekanik, energi listrik, dan energi panas. Perubahan bentuk energi menjadi bentuk lain ini dinamakan transformasi energi.[2][3]

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EKOLOGI
Ekologi adalah cabang ilmu pengetahuan yang mempelajari tentang hubungan makluk hidup dan lingkungannya. Bumi memiliki banyak sekali jenis-jenis mahkluk hidup, mulai dari tumbuhan dan binatang yang sangat kompleks hingga organisme yang sederhana seperti jamur, amuba dan bakteri. Meskipun demikian semua mahkluk hidup tanpa kecuali, tidak bisa hidup sendirian. Masing-masing tergantung pada mahkluk hidup yang lain ataupun benda mati di sekelilinganya. Misalnya seekor kijang membutuhkan tumbuh-tumbuhan tertentu untuk makanan, jika tumbuhan di lingkungan sekitarnya dirusak maka kijang tersebut harus berpindah atau mati kelaparan. Sebaliknya tumbuhan agar bisa hidup juga tergantung pada binatang untuk memenuhi kebutuhan nutrisinya. Kotoran binatang, bangkai binatang maupun tumbuhan, menyediakan berbagai nutrisi yang bermanfaat bagi tanaman.

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Your browser support inline currently con display inline Your browser support inline Ecology is the scientific study of the relation of living currently con display inline organisms with each other Your browser and their surroundings. support inline Ecosystems are defined by a currently con web, community, or network display inline of individuals that arrange into a self-organized and complex hierarchy of pattern VIDE and process. goat 'c time' Ecosystems create a VIDE biophysical feedback Venus between living (biotic) and VIDE nonliving (abiotic) skydiv components of an succes environment that generates AUDI and regulates the exper biogeochemical cycles of the anima planet. Ecosystems provide VIDE goods and services that slowly sustain human societies and VIDE general well-being. skulls Ecosystems are sustained by VIDE biodiversity within them. frenzy VIDE Biodiversity is the full-scale swifts of life and its processes, Wall including genes, species and VIDE ecosystems forming lineages

nakan Gmail ikut menekan ol di bawah ini. Greek root of the word food or feeding. -webs primarily ng relations or ong species. within ecosystems zed into vertical and mensions. The vertical presents feeding become further m the base of the food ard top predators. The mension represents e or biomass at each hen the relative biomass of each eding group is stacked pective trophic levels y sort into a pyramid [85] Functional oadly categorized as r primary producers), (or consumers), and decomposers). can be further subdifferent functional ding: primary trict herbivores), nsumers (predators usively on nd tertiary consumers at feed on a mix of d predators).[86] o not fit neatly into a tegory because they t and animal tissues. It gested that omnivores r functional influence because relative to ey are comparatively grazing

that integrate into a complex and regenerative spatial arrangement of types, forms, and interactions. Ecology is a sub-discipline of biology, the study of life. The word "ecology" ("oekologie") was coined in 1866 by the German scientist Ernst Haeckel (18341919). Haeckel was a zoologist, artist, writer, and later in life a professor of comparative anatomy. Mempelajari ekologi sangat penting, karena masa depan kita sangat tergantung pada hubungan ekologi di seluruh dunia. Meskipun perubahan terjadi di tempat lain di bumi ini, namun akibatnya akan kita rasakan pada lingkungan di sekitar kita. Meskipun ekologi adalah cabang dari biologi, namun seorang ahli ekologi harus menguasai ilmu lain seperti kimia, fisika, dan ilmu komputer. Ekologi juga berhubungan dengan bidang ilmu-ilmu tertentu seperti geologi, meteorologi, dan oseanografi, guna mempelajari lingkungan dan hubungannya antara tanah, air, dan udara. Pendekatan dari berbagai ilmu membantu ahli ekologi untuk memahami bagaimana lingkungan nonhidup mempengaruhi mahkluk hidup. Hal ini juga bisa membantu untuk memperkirakan atau meramalkan dampak dari masalah lingkungan seperti hujan asam atau efek rumah kaca. Ahli ekologi mempelajari organisasi alam dalam tiga tingkatan: 1. Populasi, 2. Komunitas, 3. Ekosistem Ancient philosophers of Greece, including Hippocrates and Aristotle, were among the earliest to record notes and observations on the natural history of plants and animals; the early rudiments of modern ecology. Modern ecology mostly branched out of natural history science that flourished in the late 19th century. Charles Darwin's evolutionary treatise and the concept of adaptation as it was introduced in 1859 is a pivotal cornerstone in modern ecological theory.

Ecology is not synonymous with environment, environmental-ism, natural history or environ-mental Mereka menganalisa struktur, aktifitas dan perubahan yang terjadi di dalam dan diantara tingkatan-tingkatan ini. science. Ecology is closely related to the biological Ahli ekologi biasanya bekerja di lapangan, mempelajari disciplines of physiology, cara kerja alam. Mereka sering berada di wilayah yang evolution, genetics and terisolasi seperti di sebuah kepulauan dimana hubungan antara tanaman dan binatang mungkinlebih sederhana dan behavior. An understanding of how biodiversity affects mudah untuk dipahami. Misalnya ekologi dari Isle ecological function is an Royale sebuah pulau di danau Superior telah dipelajari

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secara luas. Banyak ilmuwan yang mengfokuskan pada cara memecahkan suatu masalah, seperti bagaimana cara mengendalikan efek kerusakan polusi udara dan air yang osition of dead organic berpengaruh terhadap mahkluk hidup. as leaves falling on or, turns into soils that POPULASI oduction. The total anet's soil ecosystems Populasi adalah sekelompok mahkluk hidup dengan pedosphere where a spesies yang sama, yang hidup di suatu wilayah yang oportion of the Earth's sama dalam kurun waktu yang sama pula. Misalnya orts into other trophic semua rusa di Isle Royale membentuk suatu populasi, ebrates that feed and begitu juga dengan pohon-pohon cemara. Ahli ekologi eaves, for example, memastikan dan menganalisa jumlah dan pertumbuhan r bits for smaller dari populasi serta hubungan antara masing-masing the feeding chain. spesies dan kondisi-kondisi lingkungan. these are the at regulate soil Faktor yang menentukan populasi 8][89] Tree roots, a, worms, ants, Jumlah dari suatu populasi tergantung pada pengaruh dua pedes, spiders, kekuatan dasar. Pertama adalah jumlah yang sesuai bagi rds, reptiles, populasi untuk hidup dengan kondisi yang ideal. Kedua nd other less familiar adalah gabungan berbagai efek kondisi faktor lingkungan work to create the yang kurang ideal yang membatasi pertumbuhan. Faktorof life in soil faktor yang membatasi diantaranya ketersediaan jumlah As organisms feed and makanan yang rendah, pemangsa, persaingan dengan ugh soils they mahkluk hidup sesama spesies atau spesies lainnya, iklim splace materials, dan penyakit. mportant ecological d bioturbation. oil microorganisms d by and feed back ic dynamics of the r surface ecology. cal studies of soils gin for bioturbation to the Cambrian period. such as the evolution mphibians moving he Devonian period ificant role in the Jumlah terbesar dari populasi tertentu yang dapat of soils and didukung oleh lingkungan tertentu disebut dengan ophism. kapasitas beban lingkungan untuk spesies tersebut. Populasi yang normal biasanya lebih kecil dari kapasitas ophic groups sort out beban lingkungan bagi mereka disebabkan oleh efek y into pyramidic cuaca yang buruk, musim mengasuh bayi yang kurang because it requires

important focus area in ecological studies. Ecosystems sustain every life-supporting function on the planet, including climate regulation, water filtration, soil formation (pedogenesis), food, fibers, medicines, erosion control, and many other natural features of historical, spiritual or scientific value life processes and adaptations distribution and abundance of organisms the movement of materials and energy through living communities the successional development of ecosystems, and the abundance and distribution of biodiversity in context of the environment. There are many practical applications of ecology in conservation biology, wetland management, natural resource management (agriculture, forestry, fisheries), city planning (urban ecology), community health, economics, basic & applied science and it provides a conceptual framework for understanding and researching human social interaction (human ecology). Ecosystems are confronted with natural environmental variations both over time and by differences between locations. The variations occur over vastly different

daptations to become esizer or a predator, isms have the eeded to combine . This explains why aptations to trophism anizes different mergent functional Trophic levels are part c or complex systems ystems.[91][92] Each contains unrelated rouped together share common nctions. Grouping similar species into a m gives a image of the larger sign.

pecies is a species that onately connected to in the food-web. cies have lower levels the trophic pyramid e importance of their ny connections that a cies holds means that he organization and ntire communities. keystone species nge of dramatic ects that alters trophic her food-web and can cause the other species in the

nhydra lutris) are ted as an example of a cies because they sity of sea urchins that If sea otters are m the system, the until the kelp beds d this has a dramatic

bagus, perburuan oleh predator, dan faktor-faktor lainnya. ranges in terms of magnitudes as well as Faktor-faktor yang merubah populasi distances and time periods. It can take thousands of years Tingkat populasi dari spesies bisa banyak berubah for ecological processes to sepanjang waktu. Kadangkala perubahan ini disebabkan mature, for example, for all oleh peristiwa-peristiwa alam. Misalnya perubahan curah the successional stages of a hujan bisa menyebabkan beberapa populasi meningkat forest. The area of an sementara populasi lainnya terjadi penurunan. Atau ecosystem can vary greatly munculnya penyakit-penyakit baru secara tajam dapat from tiny to vast. A single menurunkan populasi suatu spesies tanaman atau hewan. tree is of little consequence Sebagai contoh peralatan berat dan mobil menghasilkan to the classification of a gas asam yang dilepas ke dalam atmosfer, yang forest ecosystem, but bercampur dengan awan Dan turun ke bumi sebagai critically relevant to the hujan asam. Di beberapa wilayah yang menerima hujan smaller organisms living in asam dalam jumlah besar populasi ikan menurun secara and on it. Several generations tajam. of an aphid population can exist over the lifespan of a KOMUNITAS single leaf. Each of those aphids, in turn, support Sebuah komunitas adalah kumpulan populasi tumbuhan diverse bacterial dan tanaman yang hidup secara bersama di dalam suatu communities. Fine scale lingkungan. Serigala, rusa, berang-berang, pohon cemara structure of aphid dan pohon birch adalah beberapa populasi yang populations can be membentuk komunitas hutan di Isle Royale. Ahli ekologi constrained by influences mempelajari peranan masing-masing spesies yang from the growth of the tree, berbeda di dalam komunitas mereka. Mereka juga that is related to site specific mempelajari tipe komunitas lain dan bagaimana mereka variables, such as soil type, berubah. Beberapa komunitas seperti hutan yang moisture content, slope of the terisolasi atau padang rumput dapat diidentifikasi secara land, and forest canopy mudah, sementara yang lainnya sangat sulit untuk closure, all phenomena on a dipastikan. much larger scale than the world of the aphid Sebuah komunitas tumbuh-tumbuhan dan binatang yang community. Likewise, finer mencakup wilayah yang sangat luas disebut biome. scale dynamics operating in Batas-batas biome yang berbeda pada umumnya the aphid populations can ditentukan oleh iklim. Biome yang utama termasuk impart influence on tree diantaranya padang pasir, hutan, tundra, dan beberapa growth rates, i.e. influences tipe biome air. from the small to the big. The scale of ecological dynamics can operate as a closed island with respect to local site variables, such as aphids migrating on a tree, while at the same time remain open with regard to broader scale

mmunity structure.[96] ea otters, for example, have indirectly led to n of the Steller's Sea damalis gigas).[97] ystone species been used extensively tion tool, it has been being poorly defined ational stance. It is to experimentally each different hat species may hold a . Furthermore, fooduggests that keystone not be all that s therefore unclear y the keystone species applied

Peran suatu spesies di dalam komunitasnya disebut peran ekologi (niche). Sebuah peran ekologi terdiri dari caracara sebuah spesies berinteraksi di dalam lingkungannya, termasuk diantaranya faktor-faktor tertentu seperti apa yang dimakan atau apa yang digunakan untuk energi, predator yang memangsa, jumlah panas, cahaya atau kelembaban udara yang dibutuhkan, dan kondisi dimana dapat direproduksi. Ahli ekologi memiliki catatan yang panjang tentang beberapa spesies yang menempati peran ekologi tinggi tertentu dalam komunitas tertentu.Berbagai penjelasan banyak yang diusulkan untuk hal ini. Beberapa ahli ekologi merasa bahwa hal ini disebabkan karena kompetisi jika dua spesies mencoba untuk mengisi peran ekologi "niche" yang sama, selanjutnya kompetisi untuk membatasi berbagai sumber daya akan menekan salah satu spesies keluar. Ahli lainnya berpendapat bahwa sebuah spesies yang menempati peran ekology yang tinggi, melakukannya karena tuntutan fisik yang keras tentang peran tertentu tersebut di dalam komunitas. Dengan kata lain hanya satu spesies yang menempati peran ekologi "niche" bukan karena memenangkan kompetisi dengan spesies lainnya, tetapi karena hanya satu-satunya anggota komunitas yang memiliki kemampuan fisik memainkan peran tersebut. Perubahan komunitas yang terjadi disebut suksesi ekologi. Proses yang terjadi berupa urutan-urutan yang lambat, pada umumnya perubahannya dapat diramalkan yakni dalam hal jumlah dan jenis mahkluk organisme yang ada di suatu tempat . Perbedaan intensitas sinar matahari, perlindungan dari angin, dan perubahan tanah dapat merubah jenis-jenis organisme yang hidup di suatu

influences, such as atmosphere or climate. Hence, ecologists have devised means of hierarchically classifying ecosystems by analyzing data collected from finer scale units, such as vegetation associations, climate, and soil types, and integrate this information to identify larger emergent patterns of uniform organization and processes that operate on regional, local, and chronological scales. There are different views on complexity and how it relates to ecology. One perspective lumps things that we do not understand into this category by virtue of the computational effort it would require to piece together the numerous interacting parts. Alternatively, complexity in life sciences can be viewed as emergent self-organized systems with multiple possible outcomes directed by random accidents of history; an extension of the first perspective. Global patterns of biological diversity are complex. This biocomplexity stems from the interplay among ecological processes that operate and influence patterns that grade into each other, such as transitional areas or ecotones that stretch across different scales. "Complexity in ecology is of at least six distinct types:

of the ecosystem was ed in 1935 to describe in biomes that form whole and a responsive system physical and mplexes. Within an ere are inseparable organisms to the biological of their environment y are adapted.[99] are complex adaptive re the interaction of form self-organizing ss different scales of ce.[100] This section y areas of ecosystem are used to inquire, nd explain observed odiversity and nction across different anization.

nits of organization hrough reference to

de of space and time Communities of or example, are bitrarily defined, but of life integrate at ls and organize into x wholes. Biomes, for a larger unit of that categorize e Earth's ecosystems ding to the structure ion of 01] Different ave applied different efine continental f biomes dominated unctional types of mmunities that are tribution by climate, weather and other al variables. Examples mes include: tropical mperate broadleaf and s, temperate deciduous tundra, hot desert, and 102] Other ave recently started to her types of biomes, uman and oceanic . To a microbe, the is a habitat and a 03] The microbiome ely discovered nces in molecular have revealed a ess of microbial he planet. The obiome plays a le in the ecological stry of the planet's

wilayah. Perubahan-perubahan ini dapat juga merubah populasi yang membentuk komunitas. Selanjutnya karena jumlah dan jenis spesies berubah, maka karakteristik fisik dan kimia dari wilayah mengalami perubahan lebih lanjut. Wilayah tersebut bisa mencapai kondisi yang relatip stabil atau disebut komunitas klimaks, yang bisa berakhir hingga ratusan bahkan ribuan tahun.

Para ahli ekologi membedakan dua tipe suksesi yakni primer dan sekunder. Di dalam suksesi primer organisme mulai menempati wilayah baru yang belum ada kehidupan seperti sebuah pulau baru yang terbentuk karena letusan gunung berapi. Sebagai contoh anak krakatau yang terbentuk sejak 1928 dari kondisi steril, kini telah dihuni oleh puluhan spesies.

Suksesi sekunder terjadi setelah komunitas yang ada menderita gangguan yang besar sebagai contoh sebuah komunitas klimaks (stabil) hancur karena terjadinya kebakaran hutan. Komunitas padang rumput dan bunga liar akan tumbuh pertama kali. Selanjutnya diikuti oleh tumbuhan semak-semak. Terakhir pohon-pohonan baru muncul kembali dan wilayah tersebut akan kembali menjadi hutan hingga gangguan muncul kembali. Dengan eory has been used to demikian kekuatan-kekuatan alam yang terakhir menyebabkan terjadinya komunitas klimaks (stabil). emergent regulatory t the planetary scale. Sebagai tambahan para ahli ekologi memandang kebakaran dan gangguan alam besar lainnya sebagai hal cale of ecological

spatial, temporal, structural, process, behavioral, and geometric." Small scale patterns do not necessarily explain large scale phenomena, otherwise captured in the expression 'the sum is greater than the parts'. Ecologists have identified emergent and selforganizing phenomena that operate at different environmental scales of influence, ranging from molecular to planetary, and these require different sets of scientific explanation. Longterm ecological studies provide important track records to better understand the complexity of ecosystems over longer temporal and broader spatial scales. The International Long Term Ecological Networkmanages and exchanges scientific information among research sites. The longest experiment in existence is the Park Grass Experiment that was initiated in 1856.Another example includes the Hubbard Brook study in operation since 1960. To structure the study of ecology into a manageable framework of understanding, the biological world is conceptually organized as a nested hierarchy of organization, ranging in scale from genes, to cells, to tissues, to organs, to organisms, to species and up to the level of the biosphere.

is the biosphere: the ecosystems on the gical relations lux of energy, d climate all the way netary scale. For dynamic history of CO2 and O2 of the atmosphere has determined by the of gases coming ion and is, with levels ver time and in e ecology and plants and ] When subarts are organized into are oftentimes perties that describe the system. This the sis,[26] and is an olism applied in eory.[106] The e planet acts as a ory or holistic unit The Gaia hypothesis ere is an emergent p generated by the of living organisms s the temperature of atmospheric ithin a narrow selfnge of tolerance

yang dapat diterima dan tetap diharapkan.

Together these hierarchical scales of life form a panarchy. Ecosystems are primarily researched at three key levels of organization organisms, populations, and communities. Ecologists study ecosystems by sampling a certain number of individuals that are representative of a population. Ecosystems consist of communities interacting with each other and the environment. In ecology, communities are created by the interaction of the populations of different species in an area. Biodiversity (an abbreviation of biological diversity) describes the diversity of life from genes to ecosystems and spans every level of biological organization. Biodiversity means different things to different people and there are many ways to index, measure, characterize, and represent its complex organization. Biodiversity includes species diversity, ecosystem diversity, genetic diversity and the complex processes operating at and among these respective levels. Biodiversity plays an important role in ecological health as much as it does for human health. Preventing or prioritizing species extinctions is one way to preserve biodiversity, but populations, the genetic diversity within them and

EKOSISTEM Sebuah ekosistem adalah level paling kompleks dari sebuah organisasi alam. Ekosistem terbentuk dari sebuah komunitas dan lingkungan abiotiknya seperti iklim, tanah, air, udara, nutrien dan energi. Ahli ekologi sistem adalah mereka yang mencoba menghubungkan bersama beberapa perbedaan aktifitas fisika dan biologi di dalam suatu lingkungan. Penelitian mereka seringkali terfokus pada aliran energi dan perputaran material-material yang ada di dalam sebuah ekosistem. Mereka biasanya menggunakan komputer yang canggih untuk membantu memahami data-data yang dikumpulkan dari penelitian di lapangan dan untuk memprediksi perkembangan yang akan terjadi.

evolution are ster disciplines of the Natural selection, life lopment, adaptation, and inheritance are concepts that thread ecological and theory. al, behavioral and/or for example, can be evolutionary trees to

Sebagian besar ekosistem memiliki suatu variasi produsen, konsumen dan pengurai yang membentuk sebuah rantai makanan yang saling tumpang tindih yang dinamakan jaringan makanan. Jaringan-jaringan makanan terutama sekali terdapat di ekosistem wilayah tropis dan ekosistem lautan.

orical development of elation to their roles in different cumstances. In this he analytical tools of d evolutionists ey organize, classify te life through ematic principals, ogenetics or the tem of 07] The two ten appear together, e title of the journal ology and 08] There is no sharp arating ecology from d they differ more in applied focus. Both scover and explain unique properties s operating across ial or temporal scales on.[26][109][110] undary between evolution is not it is understood that udy the abiotic and that influence the process.

Beberapa spesies makan banyak jenis makanan tetapi ada juga yang membutuhkan makanan yang khusus. Konsumen pertama seperti koala dan panda terutama makan satu jenis tanaman. Makanan utama koala adalah eucalyptus dan makanan utama panda adalah bambu. Jika tanaman-tanaman ini mati maka kedua binatang tersebut juga ikut mati. Aliran Energi Para ahli ekologi mengkategorikan elemen-elemen yang membentuk atau yang memberi efek pada sebuah ekosistem menjadi 6 bagian utama berdasarkan para aliran energi dan nutrien yang mengalir pada sistem: 1. Matahari 2. Bahan-bahan anorganik 3. Produsen 4. Konsumen Pertama 5. Konsumen Kedua 6. Pengurai

ecological processes, such as migration, are being threatened on global scales and disappearing rapidly as well. Conservation priorities and management techniques require different approaches and considerations to address the full ecological scope of biodiversity. Populations and species migration, for example, are more sensitive indicators of ecosystem services that sustain and contribute natural capital toward the well-being of humanity. An understanding of biodiversity has practical application for ecosystembased conservation planners as they make ecologically responsible decisions in management recommendations to consultant firms, governments and industry. There are many definitions of the niche dating back to 1917, but G. Evelyn Hutchinson made conceptual advances in 1957 and introduced the most widely accepted definition: "The niche is the set of biotic and abiotic conditions in which a species is able to persist and maintain stable population sizes." The ecological niche is a central concept in the ecology of organisms and is sub-divided into the fundamental and the realized niche. The fundamental niche is the set of environmental conditions under which a

s are motile to some plants express avior, including communication.[113] cology is the study of its ecological and implications. he study of observable behavior in nature. clude investigations rm of plants, mobile n, zooplankton ward the female egg, n of fungi by weevils, ance of a salamander,

Sebuah ekosistem yang sederhana dapat digambarkan seperti berikut. Matahari menyediakan energi yang hampir dibutuhkan semua produsen untuk membuat makanan. Produsen terdiri dari tanaman-tanaman hijau seperti rumput dan pohon yang membuat makanan melalui proses fotosintesis. Tanaman juga membutuhkan bahan-bahan abiotik seperti air dan pospor untuk tumbuh. Yang termasuk konsumen pertama diantaranya tikus,

erings of kelinci, belalang dan binatang pemakan tumbuhan ][115][116][117][118] lainnya. Ular, macan dan konsumen kedua lainnya atau yang biasa disebut dengan predator adalah pemakan the central unifying binatang. Pengurai seperti jamur dan bakteri, menghancurkan tanaman dan binatang yang telah mati havioral menjadi nutrien-nutrien sederhana. Nutrien-nutrien ] Behaviors can be raits and inherited in tersebut kembali ke dalam tanah dan digunakan kembali oleh tanaman-tanaman. me way that eye and n. Behaviors evolve adapted to the Tingkatan-tingkatan energi yang berkesinambungan yang cause they are subject berlangsung dalam bentuk makanan ini disebut rantai of natural makanan. Di dalam sebuah rantai makanan yang ] Hence, behaviors sederhana rumput adalah produsen, konsumen pertama ve, meaning that they seperti kelinci memakan rumput. Kelinci selanjutnya onal utilities that dimakan oleh konsumen kedua misalnya ular atau macan. roductive success for Bakteri pengurai menghancurkan sisa-sisa rumput yang ls that inherit such mati, kelinci, ular, dan macan yang tidak termakan, sama his is also the halnya seperti menghancurkan kotoran binatang. inition for fitness in ch is a measure of success over nerations.[34]

species is able to persist. The realized niche is the set of environmental plus ecological conditions under which a species persists. The Hutchisonian niche is defined more technically as an "Euclidean hyperspace whose dimensions are defined as environmental variables and whose size is a function of the number of values that the environmental values may assume for which an organism has positive fitness." The habitat of a species is a related but distinct concept that describes the environment over which a species is known to occur and the type of community that is formed as a result. More specifically, "habitats can be defined as regions in environmental space that are composed of multiple dimensions, each representing a biotic or abiotic environmental variable; that is, any component or characteristic of the environment related directly (e.g. forage biomass and quality) or indirectly (e.g. elevation) to the use of a location by the animal."For example, the habitat might refer to an aquatic or terrestrial environment that can be further categorized as montane or alpine ecosystems. Biogeographical patterns and

y interactions are an concept into food-web ll as behavioral ] Prey species can ent kinds of aptations to ch as avoid, flee or y prey species are ultiple predators that degree of danger adapted to their and face predatory nisms must balance budgets as they invest spects of their life as growth, feeding, lizing, or modifying Hypotheses posited in ology are generally ptive principals of optimization or ][5][122] For

Energi yang berpindah melalui sebuah ekosistem berada dalam sebuah urutan transformasi. Pertama produsen merubah sinar matahari menjadi energi kimia yang disimpan di dalam protoplasma (sel-sel tumbuhan) di dalam tanaman. Selanjutnya konsumen pertama memakan tanaman, merubah energi menjadi bentuk energi kimia yang berbeda yang disimpan di dalam sel-

sel tubuh. Energi ini berubah kembali ketika konsumen kedua makan konsumen pertama.

Sebagian besar organisme memiliki efisiensi ekologi yang rendah. Ini berarti mereka hanya dapat merubah sedikit bagian dari energi yang tersedia bagi mereka untuk disimpan menjadi energi kimia. Contohnya tanaman-tanaman hijau hanya dapat merubah sekitar 0,1 hingga 1 % tenaga matahari yang mencapainya ke dalam protoplasma. Sebagian besar energi yang tertangkap di flight initiation bakar untuk pertumbuhan tanaman dan lepas ke dalam rs where expected lingkungan sebagai panas. Begitu juga herbivora atau r fitness is which depends on the binatang pemakan tumbuhan dan karnivora binatang pemakan daging merubah energi ke dalam sel-sel tubuh fitness, benefits y not fleeing, energetic hanya sekitar 10 hingga 20 % dari energi yang dihasilkan and expected fitness oleh makanan yang mereka makan. edation risk."[124] eafhoppers (Eurymela e protected by ants x purpureus) in a ationship. The ants afhoppers from in return the eeding on plants dew from their anus energy and nutrients ts.[125]

ensitive predator pothesis predicts that ssess the degree of by different predators eir behavior according els of risk."[123]

ual displays and encountered in the ology of animals. The dise, for example, rate ornaments and courtship. These e a dual purpose of lthy or well-adapted nd desirable genes. e displays are driven ection as an t of quality of traits suitors

gical behaviors are e social insects, slime al spiders, human naked mole rats where

Karena begitu banyaknya energi yang lepas sebagai panas pada setiap langkah dari rantai makanan, semua ekosistem mengembangkan sebuah piramida energi. Tanaman sebagai produsen menempati bagian dasar piramid, herbivora (konsumen pertama) membentuk bagian berikutnya, dan karnivora (komsumen kedua) membentuk puncak piramida. Piramid tersebut mencerminkan kenyataan bahwa banyak energi yang melewati tanaman dibandingkan dengan herbivora, dan lebih banyak yang melalui herbivora dibandingkan

range distributions are explained or predicted through knowledge and understanding of a species traits and niche requirements. Species have functional traits that are uniquely adapted to the ecological niche. A trait is a measurable property, phenotype, or characteristic of an organism that influences its performance. Genes play an important role in the development and expression of traits. Resident species evolve traits that are fitted to their local environment. This tends to afford them a competitive advantage and discourages similarly adapted species from having an overlapping geographic range. The competitive exclusion principle suggests that two species cannot coexist indefinitely by living off the same limiting resource. When similarly adapted species are found to overlap geographically, closer inspection reveals subtle ecological differences in their habitat or dietary requirements. Lately this paradigm has been refuted because there are many examples of species that do follow exactly the same successful strategy. A familiar example being the Chiffchaff and the Willow Warbler, but also trees in a rain forest, very similar water beetles , algae and prairie birds can be very similar.

has evolved. Social lude reciprocally haviors among kin es.[34][116][127] ors evolve from kin ection. Kin selection uism through genetic whereby an altruistic ing to death is the survival of genetic uted among surviving e social insects, s, bees and wasps are ly studied for this type p because the male ones that share the make-up as every the colony.[34] In up selectionists find altruism among nonves and explain this tion acting on the by it becomes dvantageous for r members express aviors to one another. re predominantly groups that are y selfish.

dengan karnivora. Di dalam ekosistem-ekosistem daratan piramida energi tersebut menghasilkan sebuah piramida biomasa (berat). Ini berarti bahwa berat total dari tanaman-tanaman adalah lebih besar dibandingkan dengan berat total herbivora yang melampaui berat total karnivora. Tetapi di dalam lautan biomasa (berat) tanaman-tanaman dan binatangbinatang adalah sama. Ahli-ahli ekologi mengumpulkan informasi pada sebuah piramida biomasa pada Isle Royale. Mereka meneliti hubungan piramida diantara tanaman, rusa dan serigala. Dalam sebuah penelitian mereka menemukan bahwa diperlukan tanaman seberat 346 kg untuk makanan rusa seberat 27 kg. Rusa seberat inilah yang diperlukan untuk makanan serigala seberat 0,45 kg.

Mathematical modelling has shown that two successful strategies are possible: being similar enough to a successful species, or being dissimilar enough. According to the models it is the lumps of very similar species can take the classical place of the species in the competitive exclusion principle based models

teractions can be host and associate A host is any entity another that is called [129] Host and tionships among re mutually or beneficial are called If the host and physically connected, ip is called pproximately 60% of example, have a ationship with ycorrhizal fungi. ants and fungi

Organisms are subject to environmental pressures, but they are also modifiers of their habitats. The regulatory feedback between organisms Perputaran material-material and their environment can modify conditions from local Semua benda hidup terdiri dari unsur-unsur kimia (e.g., a beaver pond) to tertentu dan senyawa-senyawa kimia. Diantaranya adalah global scales (e.g., Gaia), air, karbon, hidrogen, nitrogen, oksigen, fospor dan over time and even after sulfur. Semua material-material ini berputar melalui death, such as decaying logs ekosistem secara terus menerus. Perputaran fospor or silica skeleton deposits misalnya, semua organisme membutuhkan fospor. from marine organisms. The Tanaman mengambil senyawa fospor dari dalam tanah process and concept of dan binatang memperoleh fospor dari tanaman dan ecosystem engineering has binatang lainya yang dimakan. Pengurai mengembalikan also been called niche fospor ke dalam tanah setelah tanaman dan binatang mati. construction. Ecosystem engineers are defined as: "...organisms that directly or indirectly modulate the availability of resources to other species, by causing physical state changes in biotic or abiotic materials. In so doing they modify, maintain and create habitats." The ecosystem engineering concept has stimulated a new appreciation for the degree of influence that organisms have on the ecosystem and evolutionary process. The

bohydrates for ents.[130] Symbiosis ndirect mutualisms ganisms live apart. For pical rainforests Earth's atmosphere. n the equatorial e planet supply he atmosphere that ies living in distant of the planet. This s called m because many other eceive the benefits of o cost or harm to the species supplying the The host and tionship is called one species benefits er suffers. among species or bers of the same ined as reciprocal such as grasses r growth space.

Di alam ekosistem-ekosistem yang tidak terganggu jumlah fosfor adalah tetap, tetapi ketika sebuah ekosistem terganggu terutama oleh aktifitas manusia, fospor seringkali bocor keluar. Hal ini akan mengurangi kemampuan ekosistem untuk mendukung kehidupan tanaman. Salah satu contoh adalah ketika manusia merubah hutan menjadi lahan pertanian. Dengan tidak adanya hutan yang melindungi maka fospor hanyut bersama tanah dan tersapu ke dalam sungai atau danau. Hal ini sangat mengganggu pertumbuhan algae. Pada akhirnya fospor terjebak di dalam endapan lumpur di dasar danau atau lautan. Karena kehilangan fospor maka petani harus membeli pupuk yang mahal untuk mengembalikan unsur fospor tersebut kedalam tanah

ogical study systems m include, fungusemploying ymbiosis, bacteria guts of insects and ms, the fig wasp and ollination complex, fungi and ic algae, and corals nthetic 34] Nevertheless, ms exploit host out reciprocating and en branded with a t-very-flattering s 'cheaters', obbers', and 'thieves'. eaters impose several ., via damage to their organs or propagules,

Perubahan ekosistem muncul setiap hari, secara musiman dan ketika terjadi suksesi (peralihan) ekologi sepanjang masa. Kadangkala perubahan terjadi secara berulangulang dan secara mendadak, seperti ketika terjadi kebakaran hutan atau ombak tsunami yang menyapu pantai. Perubahan yang paling terjadi dari hari ke hari terutama pada lingkaran nutrien, yang tidak kelihatan sekali, ekosistem-ekosistem kelihatannya cenderung stabil. Kestabilan yang nyata diantara tanaman dan binatang dan lingkungannya disebut keseimbangan alam. Mempelajari ekologi sangat penting, karena masa depan kita sangat tergantung pada hubungan ekologi di seluruh dunia. Meskipun perubahan terjadi di tempat lain di bumi ini, namun akibatnya akan kita rasakan pada lingkungan di sekitar kita.

terms niche construction are more often used in reference to the under appreciated feedback mechanism of natural selection imparting forces on the abiotic niche.[43][58] An example of natural selection through ecosystem engineering occurs in the nests of social insects, including ants, bees, wasps, and termites. There is an emergent homeostasis or homeorhesis in the structure of the nest that regulates, maintains and defends the physiology of the entire colony. Termite mounds, for example, maintain a constant internal temperature through the design of air-conditioning chimneys. The structure of the nests themselves are subject to the forces of natural selection. Moreover, the nest can survive over successive generations, which means that ancestors inherit both genetic material and a legacy niche that was constructed before their time Populations are also studied and modeled according to the metapopulation concept. The metapopulation concept was introduced in 1969 "as a population of populations which go extinct locally and recolonize." Metapopulation ecology is another statistical approach that is often used in conservation research.[68] Metapopulation research simplifies the landscape into patches of varying levels of

ervices of a beneficial r net effect on host PENERAPAN EKOLOGI necessarily negative comes difficult to Penerapan ekologi adalah pemanfaatan penelitian ekologi untuk mencapai tujuan-tujuan yang praktis. Penelitian ini membantu kita untuk menjaga dan mengatur sumbergeography is an sumber alam dan melindungi lingkungan. Ahli ekologi n of biology and terapan bekerja bersama para ilmuwan dari berbagai iogeography is the lapangan untuk mencoba memecahkan masalah-masalah study of the menyangkut tentang kesehatan dan kemakmuran istribution of manusia, tanaman dan binatang. d the corresponding heir traits in space Ahli-ahli ekologi kawatir tentang jumlah yang manusia 7] The Journal of habiskan terhadap sumber-sumber yang tidak dapat y was established in diperbaharui seperti batubara, gas, dan minyak, juga iogeography and polusi yang ditimbulkannya karena pemakaian yang terus e many of their menerus. Jika jumlah penduduk terus bertambah maka oots. For example, masalah-masalah kekurangan minyak, polusi, pembukaan island biogeography, hutan, kemacetan, kemiskinan dan gangguan cuaca juga the mathematician akan semakin memburuk.. Arthur and ecologist Wilson in 1967[139] is ne of the of ecological

quality. In metapopulation terminology there are emigrants (individuals that leave a patch), immigrants (individuals that move into a patch) and sites are classed either as sources or sinks. A site is a generic term that refers to places where ecologists sample populations, such as ponds or defined sampling areas in a forest. Source patches are productive sites that generate a seasonal supply of juveniles that migrate to other patch locations. Sink patches are unproductive sites that only receive migrants and will go extinct unless rescued by an adjacent source patch or environmental conditions become more favorable. Metapopulation models examine patch dynamics over time to answer questions about spatial and demographic ecology. The ecology of metapopulations is a dynamic process of extinction and colonization. Small patches of lower quality (i.e., sinks) are maintained or rescued by a seasonal influx of new immigrants. A dynamic metapopulation structure evolves from year to year, where some patches are sinks in dry years and become sources when conditions are more favorable. Ecologists use a mixture of computer

y has a long history in iences where se concerning the bution of plants and logy and evolution xplanatory context for cal studies.[137] ical patterns result cal processes that ge distributions, such and dispersal.[140] orical processes that ons or species into s.[141] The c processes that result splitting of species h of the modern f the Earth's biota. of lineages in a led vicariance

Kekawatiran semakin bertambah dengan hilangnya ekosistem alam dan banyak spesies yang hilang dengan berubahnya hutan dan padang rumput menjadi lahan pertanian, pemukiman, dan lahan kosong. Banyak orang yang beranggapan bahwa penelitian dan kegiatan para ahli ekologi bertentangan dengan para praktisi ekonomi. Tetapi para ahli ekologi yakin bahwa pengetahuan ekologi adalah sangat perlu kebaikan ekonomi dalam jangka panjang. Mereka menunjuk bahwa perawatan ekosistem alam menyediakan banyak keuntungan bagi

y and it is a sub-

y.[141][142][143] o practical n the field of y concerning stems and processes. the range and f biodiversity and ies responding to ge is a serious concern ea of research in obal warming.

masyarakat. Contohnya jika jika udara dan air bersih maka masyarakat akan menjadi sehat dan biaya perawatan kesehatan akan menjadi berkurang. Banyak ahli berpikir bahwa kita dapat menggunakan prinsip-prinsip ekologi seperti aliran energi untuk memahami ekonomi manusia secara lebih baik. Setiap orang harus belajar tentang ekologi dan lingkungan sehingga manusia dapat hidup secara harmonis dengan penghuni alam yang lain.

models and field studies to explain metapopulation structure. Community ecology is the study of the interactions among a collection of interdependent species that cohabitate the same geographic area. An example of a study in community ecology might measure primary production in a wetland in relation to decomposition and consumption rates. This requires an understanding of the community connections between plants (i.e., primary producers) and the decomposers (e.g., fungi and bacteria). or the analysis of predator-prey dynamics affecting amphibian biomass. Food webs and trophic levels are two widely employed conceptual models used to explain the linkages among species. A food web is the archetypal ecological network. They are a type of concept map that illustrate pathways of energy flows in an ecological community, usually starting with solar energy being used by plants during photosynthesis. As plants grow, they accumulate carbohydrates and are eaten by grazing herbivores. Step by step lines or relations are drawn until a web of life is illustrated.

ecology concept n MacArthur and 67) book, The Theory geography) is r/K ory, one of the first odels in ecology used e-history evolution. behind the r/K del is that natural ssures change population density. when an island is

There are different ecological dimensions that can be mapped to create more complicated food webs, including: species composition (type of species), richness (number of species), biomass (the dry weight of plants and animals), productivity (rates of conversion of energy and nutrients into growth), and stability (food webs over time). A food web diagram illustrating species composition shows how change in a single species can directly and indirectly influence many others. Microcosm studies are used to simplify food web research into semi-isolated units such as small springs, decaying logs, and laboratory experiments using organisms that reproduce quickly, such as daphnia feeding on algae grown under controlled environments in jars of water. Principles gleaned from food web microcosm studies are used to extrapolate smaller dynamic concepts to larger systems. Food webs are limited because they are generally restricted to a specific habitat, such as a cave or a pond. The food web illustration (right) only shows a small part of the complexity connecting the aquatic system to the adjacent terrestrial land. Many of these species

migrate into other habitats to distribute their effects on a larger scale. In other words, food webs are incomplete, but are nonetheless a valuable tool in understanding community ecosystems.

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