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07 Alternative energy sources (bioconversion energy)

an electric heated drop tube furnace. In the combustion test, the ignition behaviour, combustion efficiency, and NO~ emission behaviour were analysed based on the results of gas compositions along the furnace axis. The effects of co-combustion on the ash particle size at the furnace exit were also examined (e.g. by SEM). Five types of biomass, which are derived from agricultural or lumber wastes, were used as samples. Comparing the results for the cellulose and lignin with those for two types of biomass, bark may contain more lignin component than rice husks. Consequently, lignin content in the biomass may affect the combustion characteristics. irrigation/fertilization (22.45 tha -1 year 1). Length of rotation cycle greatly influenced yield; optimal rotation cycle in terms of yield was 3 or 4 years. The results clearly indicate a useful role for process models in predicting effects of management strategies on poplar yield in short rotation coppice.

04/02400 Process development of hydrogenous gas production for PEFC from biogas
Zhang, Z.-G. et al. Fuel Processing Technology, 2004, 85, (8-10), 12131229. A laboratory-scale gas processor that integrates four successive catalytic reactions: steam reforming of methane, high- and lowtemperature water gas shifts and selective oxidation of carbon monoxide, was designed and tested in this study to produce hydrogen-rich gas with CO < 10 ppm from a clean model biogas having a constant molar ratio of CH4/C02 = 1.5:1.0 for a 50-W class polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) stack. All tests to determine the optimum operating condition of each of the reactions were conducted over commercial catalysts in their manufactured shapes and sizes in order to obtain data practically valuable for scale-up of the processor. A 7-h continuous test was also finally conducted to confirm the stabilities of the catalysts and reliability of the processor. The resulting data has shown that the proposed processor is indeed functional to produce a hydrogen-rich gas with 60-70% H2 of about 1.6 t/rain at PEFC-fuel standard from the clean model biogas.

04/02395 Grey relative analysis and future prediction on rural household biofueis consumption in China
Mu, H. et al. Fuel Processing Technology, 2004, 85, (8-10), 1231-1248. By using the method of grey relative analysis, which can account for the time sequence, this paper carries out analyses for the relative relationship among the four major factors affecting the rural household biofuels consumption of each province/region in China through period 1991-1999. Based on the analytical results of the retative degrees and relative polarities, forecast models on the future consumption of crop residues and firewood in Chinese rural households are proposed. Furthermore, :he future consumption of rural crop residues and firewood up to the year of 2020 is forecasted. These four factors include population per rural household, income per rural household, educational situation of labourers per rural household and food area per rural household. Results show that these four factors are closely related to rural household biofuels consumption in China. Among these, the re!ative relationship of population and food area per rural household to rural household biofuels consumption is positive, and that of the income and educational situation of labourers per household is negative. Forecast results show that the precision accuracies of forecast models are higher. The future total rural household biofuels consumption will decrease to 3388 PJ in 2020 from 6032 PJ in 1999 in China. The average annual decline rate in this period will reach 2.8%. This indicates that the rural household energy consumption will enter into a new stage in which biofuels will be gradually replaced by the high-quality energy types (with high combustion efficiency and easy to use), such as coal, gas, LPG and electricity, along with improvements in living standards and educational level in the rural household.

04102401 Reduction of energy consumption in biodiesel fuel life cycle

Janulis, P. Renewable Energy, 2004, 29, (6), 861-871. Essential requirements for biofuel are that (a) it should be produced from renewable raw material, and (b) it should have a lower negative environmental impact than that of fossil fuels. Apart from direct assessment of the engine emissions, environmental impact is also determined by performing life cycle analysis. Life cycle energy balance depends on specific climatic conditions and the agro- and processing technologies used. Rapeseed oil methyl ester life cycle energy ratios in Lithuanian conditions have been calculated as a function of rapeseed productivity, oil pressing and transesterification technologies used. Opportunities to improve biodiesel fuel life cycle energy efficiency, by implementing new technologies in agriculture as well as in industrial processing, were reviewed. The effectiveness of new technologies was evaluated on the basis of energy balance comparison.

04/02396 Manufacture of bio-carbonized densified fuel from biomass and its precursor
Honjo, T. and Sano, H. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 2003 206,490 (Ch C10L5/44), 22 Jul 2003, AppL 2002/5,476. (In Japanese) The bio-carbonized densified fuel is manufactured by heating biomass in a oxygen-deficient atmosphere at 200-500 . The precursor may contain 1-5 weight% tar. The fuel is then manufactured by press molding of the precursor. The resulting fuel provides high energy density, energy yield, and handling property.


Respirometric biogas measurement

Oliveri, C. LaborPraxis, 2003, 27, (5), 74-76. (In German) A respirometric measurement system for anaerobic processes, Eudiomat i2 (IBUK Abwassertechnik, Konigsbron), was presented for continuous respirometric measurement of biogas and methane, suitable especially for routine tests of degradation processes in waste dumps.

04102397 Method for manufacture of carbonaceous materials having high heating value from biomass
Hanjo, T. and Sano, H. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 2003 213,273 (C1. C10B53/02), 30 Jul 2003, AppI. 2002/13,594. (In Japanese) The method is carried out by heating the biomass at 200-500 for carbonization to obtain carbonaceous materials and volatile component (e.g. wood tar, pyroligneous acids), and circulating absorption of the volatile component by cooling and impregnating in the carbonaceous materials for recovery to produce charcoal having high calorific value.

04/02403 Separation and characterization of lignin compounds from the walnut (Juglans regia) shell oil using preparative TLC, GC-MS and 1H NMR
Mathias, E. V. and Halkar, U. P. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 2004, 71, (2), 515-524. The shell of the walnut is used as a filler by a variety of industries viz. cosmetic, paper and the adhesive. It is the lignin, present in the shell that enhances the utility of the walnut shell as binders, fillers, and resin extenders. The present study is aimed at the extraction and characterization of some important lignin compounds present in the walnut shell oil. The oil was extracted by a novel method in which the shells were roasted at 250-300C. The lignin breakdown compounds of the oil were then isolated by solvent extraction using petroleum-ether (60-80 fractions), separated by preparative TLC and were fully characterized by employing GC-MS and 1H N M R techniques. UV, FTIR and HPLC data was then used to confirm the structures. The major compounds arising from lignin breakdown are thus identified as guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, 4-ethylguaiacol, 4-propylguaiacol, syringol, 4-methylsyringol, 4-ethylsyringol and 4-propylsyringol.

04/02398 Origins of partially reversed alkane ~ 3 C values for biogenic gases in China
Dai, J. et al. Organic" Geoc'hemistry, 2004, 35, (4), 405-411. J3 With increasing molecular weight, 5 C values of hydrocarbon gases change in two different manners: the normal order would be 51-'C~ < i"3 13 013 Cz < c~ "C3 < ~13 C4, whereas the reversed order would be ~5 Cl > v 13 13 13 c~'Cz > 6"3C > /5"C4. Partially reversed order is common in gas samples from sedimentary basins in China, which can be attributed to one or several of the following four mixing processes: (a) mixing of biogenic and abiogenic gases; (b) mixing of sapropelic and humic sourced gases; (e) mixing of gases from the same types of source rocks with different maturity; and (d) mixing of gases from the same source rock interval of varying maturity.

04/02404 Tar capture effect of porous particles for biomass fuel under pyrolysis conditions
Katsuhiko, I. et al. Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan, 2003, 36, (7), 840 845. In the low-temperature gasification of wood biomass, fluidized beds may exhibit defluidization problems caused by tar. These problems may be avoided by using porous particles as a bed material to capture the tar. Using wood chips, this study examines the tar capture behaviour of various porous particles and the effect of fluidization on the tar capture performance under pyrolysis conditions. The results of thermobalance experiments showed that v-alumina, sepiolite, and activated clay had high tar capture performance. The tar capture depended on the specific pore surface area and pore volume of the particles, with particles having higher pore surface and volume showing greater tar capture. Furthermore, micropores in the particles were used for

04/02399 Poplar growth and yield in short rotation coppice: model simulations using the process model SECRETS
Deckmyn, G. et al. Biomass and Bioenergy, 2004, 26, (3), 221 227. The process model SECRETS was adapted to simulate coppice growth of poplar. The effects of soil type, irrigation, nitrogen fertilization and rotation cycle on growth and yield were studied. Simulated average production on an agricultural soil was 12.4 tha -~ year -~. Poplar growth t was strongly educed on sandy soils (6 tha- y e a r - ) . Irrigation increased yield on all soil types by 25% while fertilization increased yield by 26%. The highest yield was simulated for the combined

Fuel and Energy Abstracts September 2004 337