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SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING

COMPUTER ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

LABORATRIO | PROJECTO 2

MDULO DE COMPETNCIAS LINGUSTICAS


SEBENTA_VOCABULRIO_GRAMTICA_EXERCCIOS

2009 | 2010

Ana Margarida Barata (ABT)

2009

ISEP-DEI | LAPR 2

Language Skills Module | GVP

CONTENTS
1_Verbs _The 40 Most Essential Verbs _Practice_ Revising Verbs _Common Verbs used at University Level 2_Nouns _Common Nouns and Noun Phrases used at University Level _Practice_ Enlarging Vocabulary 3_Conjunctions and Adverbs: Linking Ideas _Practice 4_Wordbuilding _ Practice 5_Passive Voice _Practice 6_Modals _Practice 7_Relative Pronouns and Relative Clauses _Practice 8_Prepositions _Time Prepositions and Expressions _Place Prepositions _Practice 9_Adjectives+Prepositions 10_Verbs+Prepositions _Prepositional verbs _Phrasal verbs _Practice 11_Making Comparisons _Practice Bibliography 2 2 2 3 4 4 5 6 8 9 10 12 12 14 15 17 18 19 19 21 22 25 26 26 27 28 29 31 33

Grammar and Vocabulary Practice

Ana Barata 2009/2010

ISEP-DEI | LAPR 2

Language Skills Module | GVP

1_VERBS
_The 40 Most Essential Verbs
Verb-inf. Past, Past Participle (Translation) Verb-inf. Past, Past Participle (Translation)

affect allow appear apply (a)rise (from) assume cause change consider constitute contain determine develop emerge find follow form include increase indicate

-ed, -ed (afectar)

investigate involve lack leave matter obtain occur produce prove provide reach reduce reflect relate

found, found (encontrar)

remain represent require result (in) seem tend

In: Eli Hinkel, Teaching Academic Esl Writing: Practical Techniques In Vocabulary And Grammar, (London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 2004), p. 193.

_Practice_ Revising Verbs


1. In the empty columns above write the past, past participle (in English) and translation into Portuguese of the verbs in the list. To enlarge your vocabulary, create semantic domains of verbs, i.e., make a list of verbs with similar meaning as shown in the example below. Complete the given list and enlarge it with verbs that appear in the texts you will deal with.

2.

Abandon give up leave accelerate access accompany accomplish appear choose continue conclude discover

discuss finish investigate leave maintain reject remove review search (for) start

Grammar and Vocabulary Practice

Ana Barata 2009/2010

ISEP-DEI | LAPR 2

Language Skills Module | GVP

_Common Verbs used at University Level


abandon accelerate access accompany accomplish accumulate achieve acquire adhere adjust administer advocate affiliate affirm agitate aid align allege allude alter analyze appeal append appraise appreciate approach arouse ascribe assemble assert assess assign assimilate assume assure attach attain avail benefit bore breed cancel capture cater cease challenge circulate clarify coincide collide commit communicate compel compensate complement complicate comply compound comprehend comprise compute conceive concentrate conclude condense conduct confer confine conflict conform confront conserve consist console constitute construct construe consult consume contact contaminate contemplate contend contract contradict contrast contribute convene converge converse convert cooperate coordinate correlate correspond create debate declare decline dedicate defect defer define deflect degenerate degrade deliberate demonstrate denote deny depress deprive derive design detect deviate devise devote dictate diffuse digest discern dispense disperse displace dispose dispute dissipate dissolve distinct distort distribute diverge dominate edit elaborate elevate elicit eliminate emancipate embody embrace emerge emphasize enable enhance enlighten enrich ensure enumerate equate err establish estimate evaluate evaporate evoke evolve exclude execute exert exemplify exhaust expand expel explain exploit export expose extract facilitate factor fare feature fluctuate focus forgo formulate found frustrate fuel fulfill function fund fuse generate grant guarantee harbor identify ignore illuminate illustrate impact implement imply import impose impress incorporate indicate induce infer inhibit injure insist inspect institute instruct integrate interact interlock interpret interrelate intersect interview intervene invade invest investigate invoke involve irrigate isolate issue justify label launch lecture legislate liberate locate maintain manifest manipulation migrate notify notate oblige obtain occupy occur orientate oscillate overlap participate perpetrate persist incline pervade plead plot postulate precede precipitate predict presume prevail proceed process proclaim procedure prohibit project propagate prosper protest provoke publish purport pursue quote react rebel recur refer reform refute reign reinforce reject release rely remove render repress reproduce repudiate require research respond restore restrict retain retard reveal reverberate reverse revise revive revolt revolve rotate route saturate schedule scheme score seek select shift shrink signify sketch specify speculate starve state stimulate stress strengthen structure subdivide subside subsidize subtle suffice sum superimpose supplement suppress survey suspend sustain switch sum tape team tire tolerate trace transact transfer transform transmit transport undergo underlie underline undertake utilize utter vary verify violate withdraw x-ray

Grammar and Vocabulary Practice

Ana Barata 2009/2010

ISEP-DEI | LAPR 2

Language Skills Module | GVP

2_NOUNS

_Common Nouns and Noun Phrases used at University Level


abstract access acid adjective adult aesthetic affect affluence aggression aid algorithm ally alternative ambiguity analogy anomaly anthropology apparatus appeal appendix approach area aristocrat arithmetic aspect aspiration assent asset astronomy atmosphere atom attitude attribute auspices awe axis battery benefit bomb bore breed bubble bulk bureaucracy calendar capture carbon career catalog category cell challenge chapter chemical circuit circumstance classic client clinic cluster code coefficient collapse column comment commodity commune competence complement complex component compound compulsion concentrate concept conduct configuration conflict confront congress conjunction consent console constant construct contact context contingent continent contract contrast controversy convert creditor crisis criterion critic crystal culture currency cycle cylinder data debate decade decimal decline deflect democracy denominator design detriment diagram diameter digest dimension discourse doctrine domestic drain drug duration dynamic economy electron element embrace emotion energy entity environment episode equilibrium equipment equivalent ethics exhaust expert exponent export extract faction factor fallacy fare feature finance fluid focus fossil fraction fragment fraud friction frontier fuel function fundamental fund geography geometry germ goal grant graph gravity guarantee harbor heredity hierarchy hypothesis image impact implement import impulse incentive incident incline income index individual inflation innovation instance instinct integer intellect interlude interval interview intimacy issue item job journal label laboratory labor launch layer lecture leisure lens locomotion logic luxury magic magnitude major margin material mathematics matrix maximum medium metabolism method microscope minimum momentum morphology motive muscle negative nerve network norm notion null objective option orbit outcome overlap parenthesis period perspective phase phenomena philosophy plot pole policy pollution portion positive postulate potential premise preposition prestige principle priority process program project propensity proportion proprietor protest prudence psychology quote radical radius range ratio rebel rectangle reform region reign release relevance research reservoir resident residue resource reverse rhythm rigor role route sanction satellite schedule scheme score section segment sequence series shift sibling site skeleton sketch sociology source species spectrum sphere statistic status stereotype stress structure style sum summary supplement surplus survey switch symbol symptom synthetic tangent tape task team technique technology telescope tense terminology territory theft theorem theory tissue tone topic trace tradition traffic trait transition treaty trend triangle usage velocity version vertical vocabulary volt volume wire x-ray

Grammar and Vocabulary Practice

Ana Barata 2009/2010

ISEP-DEI | LAPR 2

Language Skills Module | GVP

_Practice_ Enlarging Vocabulary


3. Similarly to what was suggested in the verbs section, create semantic domains of nouns and noun phrases, i.e., make a list of words/expressions with similar meaning as shown in the example. Complete the given list and enlarge it with nouns and noun phrases that appear in the texts you will deal with. Do not forget that context is essential to understand the meaning of a word!
affect feeling, emotion, sentimental competence fragment sphere (1) (2) accomplishment people course challenge discovery discussion investigation revision development opportunity mistake strategy problem subject objective -

4.

Read the following excerpt from a students term paper on the technological advancement in the 1990s. Improve the paragraph by varying the vocabulary used (verbs and nouns). Use synonyms from the list below to substitute the underlined words that are repeated.

As a development of science and technology, the research fields of human beings are changing into more variety. Medical technology is also changing, and computers are changing everything. Most of the projects cannot be completed by a person who just knows one field. These projects require a researcher who knows many disciplines. This produces a contemporary scientific research approach that is also changing. With the development of microelectronics, much progress has been achieved in electrical engineering. The research are of electrical engineering has increased much more. On the other hand, people change to care about themselves more and more. There has been much development in medical fields in recent years. Research has given us a lot of information that is always changing.
create / evolve / be familiar with / grow / strengthen / expand / develop / rise / be informed / be an expert / enhance / spread / broaden / transform / modify / have experience in / work in / improve / improvement / evolution / increase

5.

Organize a list of synonyms in the board that follows with the vocabulary included in box above.

6.

Improve the following sentence: This produces a contemporary scientific research approach that is also

changing. Replace (or omit) the underlined words by more adequate ones.
5

Grammar and Vocabulary Practice

Ana Barata 2009/2010

ISEP-DEI | LAPR 2

Language Skills Module | GVP

7.

Improve the paragraph by varying the vocabulary used (nouns and noun phrases). Find similar words/expressions to substitute the underlined words that are repeated.

The people with higher level education definitely have a better future than the people who have less. Mostly, people also choose higher education because of its status. People would rather have an average status than a low status. The reason is that the society views these people as underachievers in the community In the 21st century, one of the reasons that people will try to get higher education is to have better status. The other reason is to earn more money. With status and money, people can afford to have a higher standard of living. ______________ with higher level education definitely have a better future than the ___________ who have less. Mostly, ___________ also choose ___________________ because of its status. ___________ would rather have an average status than a low status. The ___________ is that the society views these ___________ as underachievers in the community In the 21st century, one of the ___________ that ___________ will try to get _____________________ is to have better status. The other ___________ is to earn more money. With status and money, ___________ can afford to have a higher standard of living.
3_CONJUNCTIONS AND ADVERBS: LINKING IDEAS _Noun substitution
A synonym, a more general term or a personal pronoun can be used to refer back to a previously mentioned noun, sentence or fact. E.g.:
A highly automated method was presented . The approach was to use. Large-Eddy Simulation has developed . It is gaining

_Addition
When you want simply to add a point or idea to reinforce or support what you have already said, you can use these conjunctions, adverbs and phrases: also, again, furthermore, moreover, too, in addition equally, likewise, similarly, correspondingly
E.g.:

cancel for these phases

In addition, the investigations of the present study provided guidelines Again, if there are no net forces on internal boundaries, it is possible to make constant terms in We. A, B and C Similarly, from the unit displacement in direction 2 and 3, we can get the corresponding forces.

_Sequencing: referring backwards or forwards


Time relationships may be signalled by various phrases and words, such as adjectives, adverbs and verbs or noun phrases. These can also be used to show the logical relationship between ideas or to connect what you are saying with something you said previously. Words and phrases include: so far, earlier, previous(ly), before that, until now, already, formerly at present, presently, meanwhile, at this point first of all, to begin with, to start with secondly, then, next finally, eventually, afterwards, later, above all, last but not least
E.g.:

Finally, conclusions are drawn Above all, however, models of this type are not We encounter first the problem of expressing the equations at the current or the relaxed configurations In the following I will assume that elastic strains are negligible

Grammar and Vocabulary Practice

Ana Barata 2009/2010

ISEP-DEI | LAPR 2

Language Skills Module | GVP

_Reformulation
This is where you want to express an idea in a different way, either to reinforce its importance or to make something clearer. Sometimes you want to suggest an alternative to what you said before. Phrases that can be used include: to put it simply, better, rather, that is to say in other words, alternatively, again
E.g.:

In other words, regularly antisymmetric profiles with more than two layers behave essentially as a profile of equal thickness composed of an infinite number of layers, or alternatively, a homogenous profile.

_Inference
This indicates a deduction from what you implied in the previous sentence. You can use phrases like: otherwise, or else, that being so, in that case
E.g.: It is necessary to heat the mixture to 85 or else the desired results will not be achieved.

_Highlighting
You can emphasize or pick out particular words, points or ideas by using the following phrases: namely, particularly, specifically especially, notably, mainly, mostly, chiefly
E.g.: More specifically, the authors are interested in the propagation of fractures through bonded layered media.

_Cause and effect


Words and phrases for expressing cause and effect are necessary for linking the different parts of a text. They are used to establish a logical connection between facts. This connecting function may be expressed by conjunctions, adjectives, adverbs, verbs and/or nouns. The most common phrases for introducing cause are: due to, owing to, because of, resulting from be caused by, spark off, give rise to, provoke, generate, bring about, stem from, arise out of, originate from, result from, enable the cause of, reason for, purpose of, with the aim of since, for, because Effect may be expressed by: hence, thus, consequently, as a consequence, as a result, therefore, that is why, eventually, so, finally result in, lead to, produce the result of, the consequence of
E.g.:

Owing to a shortage in food supply, large amounts of wheat had to be imported. The accident was caused by the icy conditions and not by any technical defects. This is done so that they are compatible in the statistical mean with expressions for the axis values of We therefore propose a methodological approach on the basis of ISO 14040 Life Cycle Assessment. The result of these calculations will be a balance sheet of mass and energy flows in tabular form.

_Introducing a result
Phrases for expressing result include: as a result, with the result that, so that, thus, therefore, consequently, as a consequence, hence, thereby, for this reason, because of this
E.g.: the fluid can cause additional spring forces as a result of compression and inertial forces Thus, a priori tests alone do not provide conclusive evaluation of a SGS model.

_Contrasting ideas
Useful phrases include the following: although, despite, in spite of but, however, nevertheless, nonetheless, yet on the contrary, by comparison, by contrast, in contrast to, on the one handon the other hand instead, alternatively, conversely, whereas Grammar and Vocabulary Practice Ana Barata 2009/2010 7

ISEP-DEI | LAPR 2 E.g.:

Language Skills Module | GVP

Motivated by the advantages and the adaptive potential of the dynamic modelling procedures on the one hand and by the problem of on the other hand, the present paper proposes Though this additional flow-dependent input is required, it is, however, available Despite some critical assessment of this testing methodology and despite the need for further research work The thickness shear motions are polarized in two orthogonal planes in this case so that the concept of generalized shear planes is not tested here. Nevertheless, the results provide a benchmark for comparison of profiles with the absence of polarized motions.

_Marking transition to a new topic


Useful phrases include: with reference to, with respect to, with regard to, as for let us now turn to, it follows that
E.g.:

With respect to the base parametrizations three model types are included With regards to the spatial filters involved

_Generalising
This sometimes involves the summing up of what has been said before. Phrases include the following: in general, on the whole, by and large, in total, as a rule, for the most part, broadly speaking, speaking generally, usually altogether, overall, thus, obviously
E.g.:

On the whole, sharp-cut-off type filters turned out to be more problematic from a numerical point of view and inferior to top-hat-filters In total, in nearly every respect, the best a priori test of the model/filter combinations under study was established for model 8 Obviously, the values of p and q, and consequently the form of the solutions, depend on the value of e, which is related to the material properties.

_Practice
1. Complete these sentences choosing the most appropriate linker/connector from the list.
after as soon as before once while therefore

a) Itisagoodideatofindoutwhotheinfluentialmembersare.youmeetthewholeteam. b) Ifpossible,takeaction..yousenseaconflict.Donotdelay. c) .theaimsofthesessionarecleartoeveryone,doencouragefrankandopendiscussion. d) Donotgivetoomuchattentiontoimpossiblepeople.youaretryingtoagreefutureaction. e) Brainstormpossiblesolutionsonly.youhaveidentifiedtherealreasonfortheproblem. 1.1. Now complete: Thefivelinkersyouusedinthesentencesinexercise1areusedtoexpress a)timerelations b)casualrelation c)purpose

2. Complete these sentences with the most appropriate word or phrase from the box.
however much no matter otherwise unless whatever whether or not

Therewillcontinuetobelittletrustbetweenbusinesspartnersontheweb..asystemforonline guaranteesissetup. b) .howhardwework,wellfailifwedontadoptthenewtechnology. c) Startupshavetodeliverontheirpromises,thereisnolongtermfutureforthem. d) ..youseethewebasarealworldwideopportunity,bothyourcustomersandcompetitorswill soonbeequallyglobal. e) ..thefutureholds,letsgodigitalandbeonthewinningside. Grammar and Vocabulary Practice Ana Barata 2009/2010 8

a)

ISEP-DEI | LAPR 2

Language Skills Module | GVP

f)

..youworkonyourwebsitedesign,rememberthathavingareallyappealingbusinessofferisthe mostimportantsuccessfactor.

2.1. Now complete this: The6connectorsinthepreviousexerciseareusedtoexpress a)purpose b)contrast c)conditionalrelations

3. Find words in these extracts which mean the same as after and if. a) Youmaycancelthisagreementwithin7days,providedthatnoclaimhasbeenmadeandtheservicehasnotbeenused duringthecurrentpolicyperiod. b) Onexpiryof90days,youwillnotbeentitledtoarefund. c) Intheeventthattheproductsfailtomeettherequiredstandard,pleasereturntotheaddressindicatedbelow.

4_WORD BUILDING
_Adjectives and adverbs
Form of adverbs Most adverbs can be formed by adding ly, -y, -ally, or illy, depending on the spelling of the adjective or noun on which they are based: expensive/ expensively dramatic/ dramatically full/ fully day/ daily

Adjectives vs adverbs Adjectives describe nouns. Adverbs describe verbs.


E.g.:

adjective: Weve had a dramatic increase in our orders. (Gives information about the noun increase.) adverb: Our orders have increased dramatically. (Gives more information about the verb have increased) Adverbs + adjectives Adverbs can also describe adjectives, past participles, and other adverbs: adverb + adjective: adverb + past participle adverb + adverb: She is extremely intelligent. Shes well paid. She does her job absolutely brilliantly.

Verbs and adjectives Some verbs are qualified by adjectives rather than adverbs. Most of these are verbs of appearance or verbs of the senses (not usually used in technical writing): appear look
E.g.:

be seem

become smell

feel taste

get sound

You look exhausted. Why dont you take the day off? He sounded very angry on the phone.

Good and well Good is an adjective. Well is an irregular adverb.


E.g.: Mr Hajimoto is a good programmer. (adjective+noun) Mr Hajimoto develops computer software well. (verb+adverb)

Grammar and Vocabulary Practice

Ana Barata 2009/2010

ISEP-DEI | LAPR 2

Language Skills Module | GVP

_Practice

Grammar and Vocabulary Practice

10

Ana Barata 2009/2010

ISEP-DEI | LAPR 2

Language Skills Module | GVP

Grammar and Vocabulary Practice

11

Ana Barata 2009/2010

ISEP-DEI | LAPR 2

Language Skills Module | GVP

5_PASSIVE VOICE USE AND FORM USE:


The passive structure is not a tense of the verb but a very common verb form; it has several uses and it is specially found in formal, scientific, technical and academic English. It can have a wide range of time references, either past, present, future or conditional. The most used passive tenses are present simple and continuous, past simple and continuous, present perfect simple, past perfect simple, will future, and future perfect. There are also present and past passive infinitives. The uses of the passive forms in English do not necessarily correspond to the uses in other languages. Some languages may use passive forms where English uses active forms and vice versa. Your written work will certainly be improved if you adopt this so-called impersonal style whenever appropriate, so pay attention to the following example and to the passive structure presented below.
Example: The advantages of computers as an aid in language learning can be demonstrated by a very simple experiment in the context of a school. Last year computers were used by a group of children in their English learning classes in a villages primary school. the verbs in bold/italic are in the passive.

FORM: Verb to be in the appropriate verb tense + Past Participle of the main verb in the sentence.
Examples:

Active: They play computer games everyday. (Present Simple) Passive: Computer games are played (by them) everyday. (Present Simple) Active: Last month people held a manifestation against the rise in taxes. (Past Simple) Passive: Last month a manifestation against the rise in taxes was held. (Past Simple) Active: Someone has brought that computer to be fixed. (Present Perfect) Passive: That computer has been brought to be fixed. (Present Perfect) Active: Someone is leaving a computer to be fixed next door. (Present Continuous) Passive: A computer is being left to be fixed next door. (Present Continuous)

Verbs with two objects can be made passive in two ways (idiomatic passive) it depends on the subject you want to emphasize.
Examples:

James was given a present.

A present was given to James.

Common verbs of this type: bring, give, lend, pass, pay, promise, sell, show, send, tell

_Practice
1.

Fill in the gaps in these sentences with the appropriate passive form of the verbs in brackets. a) The Analytical Engine, which ________________________________ (to design) by Babbage in the 19th, __________________________ (can / to visit) in the Science Museum in London. century, Babbages inventions b) If science had been more developed in the 19th ________________________________ (to build). c) The first digital computer _______________________ (to develop) in the University of Pennsylvania and it _______________________ (to call) ENIAC. d) Due to researches in war time, enormous advances ___________________________ (to make) in computer technology. e) During that period machines like the Mark I, and later the EDVAC, the UNIVAC and the Z3 ______________________________ (to devise). f) Before the development of Internet, the ARPANET ________________________ (to test) by the US Defense Department.

Grammar and Vocabulary Practice

12

Ana Barata 2009/2010

ISEP-DEI | LAPR 2

Language Skills Module | GVP

g) The changes that are taking place in our present society _________________________ (can / to ignore / negative). h) Many families __________________________ (already / to interview) for the survey on the impact of computers in human beings life, but many others ____________________________ (still / to ask) to participate. 2. The sentences below are in the active voice. Turn them into the passive. a) Sometimes, science fiction writers give the wrong impression about technology. b) The audience applauded the professor at the end of the lecture. c) The binary code can represent any number greater than zero. d) Computers have already simulated events like landings on the moon. e) Around the 1970s IBM released the first personal computer. f) In a few years time, probably computers will control the world even more than they control today.

3. Rewrite these sentences beginning with the underlined words. a) Thieves robbed a woman. __________________________________________________________ b) They offered Nancy a salary increase. ___________________________________________________ c) We need to correct the mistakes. _____________________________________________________ d) Someone reported the experiment had been a success. ___________________________________ e) They are testing a new drug. ________________________________________________________ 4. Active or Passive? Choose the correct verb forms in this news report about a storm. Millions of pounds worth of damage has caused/has been caused by a storm which swept/was swept across the north of England last night. The River Ribble burst/was burst its banks after a heavy rain. Many people rescued/were rescued from the floods by fire-fighters, who received/were received hundreds of calls for help. Wind speeds reached/were reached ninety miles an hour in some places. Roads blocked/were blocked by fallen trees, and electricity lines brought/were brought down, leaving thousands of homes without electricity. Everything possible is doing/is being done to get thing back to normal, a spokesman said/was said. 5. Read the story and write the missing words. Use one word only in each gap. During periods of terrorist activity by the IRA, people in Britain are always (1)_________________ warned to look out for bombs. Any bag or parcel without an owner (2)_____________________ seen as a risk to the public. Some time ago a cardboard box was found at the entrance to Bristol Zoo one day. It was noticed (3)___________________ a visitor and reported to the director. Clearly, if it was a bomb and it went off, people might (4)_____________________ killed. Thus army bomb experts (5)_________________ called in, and the box was safely blown up in a controlled explosion. Soon afterwards (6)______________________ was reported that the box had (7)_________________ left there by a boy wanting to find a new home for his pet rat. He was tired of the rat, he explained, but he was unwilling to have it put to sleep (8)____________ a vet, so he left it in a box outside the zoo. The director of the zoo (9)____________ thought (10)___________ be unenthusiastic about looking after peoples unwanted pets. 6. Write a second sentence having the same meaning as the first one. Use the word in brackets. a) We have to test these products. (be) b) They pay doctors a lot of money. (are) c) I hope they interview me for the job. (to) d) We will analyse the characteristics of a specific paradigm. (be) e) Someone was using the laboratory late at night. (being) f) Everyone agreed that the plan should go ahead. (it)

g) They say writing is essential in your degree. (be)


Grammar and Vocabulary Practice

13

Ana Barata 2009/2010

ISEP-DEI | LAPR 2

Language Skills Module | GVP

6_MODALS _Characteristics:
Modal auxiliaries do not change their form they do not have the third person present simple s and do not form tenses. Modal auxiliaries are always followed by a verb infinitive (without to). The meaning of modal auxiliaries depends on the context they are used. Read the explanations that follow attentively:

MEANING / FUNCTION Ability

MODAL AUXILIARY can / cant / cannot (Present) could / couldnt (Past) be able to (used instead of can to
form other tenses)

USE: EXAMPLES
Sofia can speak French and English fluently. Can you lift a 19 monitor alone, Alice? Of course I can! Jane could already swim very well when she was 9. Paul couldnt play the guitar when he was 6. Will you be able to teach Joan how to play that game? (Future) Jim had never been able to dance so well before! (Past Perfect) Can I leave earlier, please? (Neutral) You cant go out tonight. End of discussion!, his father pointed. Could I leave earlier? (Polite) - No, you cant. May I leave earlier? (Very Polite) Yes, you may. You wont be allowed to go camping in summer if you fail. (Future)

Permission
(asking for, giving and refusing permission)

can / cant could may allowed / not allowed to (used


instead of can to form other tenses)

Possibility or uncertainty

may / might (Present)

Joan might go to Sweden next year. (It is possible) I may/might have some news for you next week. (Perhaps I will; it is uncertain) He could be stuck in the traffic (Perhaps he is.) Maria might/ may/ could have taken the bus. (Its possible, perhaps she did.) President Bush cant win the next election. (Its impossible.) He must be at an important meeting. (Im sure he is.) She cant be in Greece! I saw her today! (Im sure she isnt.) Charles cant have bought a new car. He is completely broken! (Im sure he didnt.)

could (uncertainty, especially when


used with be) (Present)

might have/ may have/ could have + past participle (Past) Impossibility or certainty must / cant (Present)

must have / cant have + past participle (Past)

Obligation

must / have to

1. When explaining that something is necessary: I must finish this information sheet before 8 p.m.. = I have to finish this information sheet before 8 p.m.. 2. When describing official rules or any rule from an external authority: If the traffic lights are red, you have to stop. 3. Emphasis to show that an action is very important: You must be here by 8.00, or the bus will leave without you.

mustnt (describes something that is


forbidden)

You mustnt smoke in a gas station. You dont have to turn on the central heating. Its automatic. When I was in kindergarten we had to wear uniform. Joseph didnt have to do any homework yesterday. 14
Ana Barata 2009/2010

dont have to (describes an


unnecessary action)

had to / didnt have to (used to


express the past)
Grammar and Vocabulary Practice

ISEP-DEI | LAPR 2

Language Skills Module | GVP

Advice and opinion

should / shouldnt (Present)

Advice: (I think) you should talk to your teacher about it. Opinion: I think the police shouldnt be soft with criminals. Expectation: They should arrive at 10 a.m.. The same use as should / shouldnt (more formal): The police ought not to be soft with criminals. In my opinion youd better stay at home and rest. You look tired. Wed better not forget to turn off the computer!

ought to / ought not to (Present) had better (non-modal) (Present)

Used in the past, they often describe a criticism: should have / shouldnt have + past participle (Past) You should have worked harder! = ought to have / ought not to have You shouldnt have eaten so much yesterday! + past participle (more formal)

Asking, accepting and refusing Asking for information Making an offer to do something Offers and preferences

can / will / would

Can you help Joan? Sorry, I cant/ Of course I can. (neutral) Will you wait a few minutes? (formal) Would you wait a moment, please? (formal)

can / could / would

Can you tell me the time were having exam? (neutral) Could you tell me? (more polite) Would you mind telling me? (most polite)

shall would would rather (+ verb infinitive) would prefer (+ gerund / noun)

Shall I carry this suitcase for you? Offering: Would you like a soft drink? Asking preferences: Do you prefer westerns or sci-fi films? Id rather watch a western today. Id prefer watching a western. Id prefer tea, please. Ill be back in a few minutes. I wont do anything silly, dont worry! Can you turn on the lights, please? (neutral) Could you turn on the lights, please? (more polite) Would you mind helping me? (most polite)

Promises Requests

will / will not = wont can / could / would

Suggestions

shall / could

Shall we go to the cinema tonight? We could go to the cinema. Other expressions used with this meaning: How about going to the theatre? Lets go to the caf. Why dont we visit Joan next weekend?

_Practice
1. Choose the correct option in brackets o complete the sentences. a) Thechemistwasopen,soluckilyI___________________buysomeaspirin.(can/cant/didcan/wasableto) b) Susanhastoworkveryhard.I___________________doherjob,Imsure.(cant/couldnt/dont/shouldnt) c) Wehadapartylastnight._____________________spendallmorningclearingupthemess.(Imusthave/Ivebeento/ Ivehadto/Ivemust) d) Therewasnooneelseattheboxoffice.I_________________________inaqueue.(didntneedtowait/mustntwait/ neednthavewaited/needntwait) e) _____________________Icarrythatforyou?~Oh,thankyou.(Do/Shall/Will/Would) Grammar and Vocabulary Practice Ana Barata 2009/2010 15

ISEP-DEI | LAPR 2

Language Skills Module | GVP

2. Must / Have to / Need to 2.1. Complete the rule below: Intheirpositiveform,must,haveto,andneedtohaveasimilarmeaning.Weusethemtosaysomethingisnecessaryor obligatory.Butintheirnegativeform,themeaningsareverydifferent.

Tosaysomethingiswrongorprohibited,weuse.. Tosaysomethingisnotnecessary,weuseor.

3. Complete these sentences with dont have to or mustnt. Itseasytomakeageocacheandyou______________spendalotofmoney. You____________________leaveyourgeocacheinadangerousplace. You____________________putthingslikeknives,drugs,alcohol,orfireworksinthecontainer. Ifyoufindacache,you__________________leaveamessageonthewebsite,butitsniceifyoudo. You__________________breaktheserules:takesomething,andwriteinthelogbook. Somepeoplewritejokesandstoriesinthelogbooks.Itsnice,butyou___________________ Leavethecachewhereyoufindit.You______________________moveacachetoanewlocation. You____________________leavefoodingeocaches,becauseanimalswillsmellitanddestroythecontainer. You_____________________beveryrichtobuyaGPS.Theystartatabout$100. You_____________________speakEnglishtoplaygeocatching.Itsplayedallovertheworld. 3. Put in could or was/were able to. Sometimes either is possible. Use a negative if necessary. a) Suddenlythelightswentout.We__________________seeathing. b) Thecomputerwaswrong,butluckilyEmma___________________putitrightagain. c) Therewasabigpartylastnight.You_______________________hearthemusichalfamileaway. d) Ilearnttoreadmusicasachild.I_______________________readitwhenIwasfive. e) Thetrainwasfull.I________________________findaseatanywhere. 4. Read about each situation and then make a request. Use the word in brackets in the correct form. a) Itiscoldintherestaurant.Askthewaitertoshutthewindow.(could) b) Youarebuyingapen.Asktheassistantforareceipt.(can) c) Youwanttoknowthetime.Asksomeoneinthestreet.(could) d) Youarecarryingatray.Asksomeonetoclearaspaceonthetable.(would) 5. Complete the dialogues with might have, couldnt have, must have been a) Mathew:Imsurethecomputerdidntmakeamistake.Thatsimpossible. Emma:No,ofcourse___________________________________________. b) Mark:Icantseetheletterherenow.Soclearlysomeonepostedit. Alan:Yes,____________________________________________________. c) Natasha:ItspossibleEmmadidnthearthealarm. Rachel:Well,Isuppose_________________________________________. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j)

d) Sarah:Henrydroveat100milesanhour.Dontyouthinkthatsdangerous? Mark:Yes,Ido._________________________________________________. e) Daniel:IjustdontbelievethatAndrewhasfailedtheexam. Vicky:Andrew?Impossible!_______________________________________.

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6. Read this extract from an agreement between an internet service provider and customers. Find phrases with the verb be which mean the same as must or must not.

All new customers are required to submit a signed copy of the applicable Server and Domain Registration Agreements. Accounts still outstanding on the last day of the month are subjected to immediate termination. You are prohibited from sending unsolicited bulk mail messages (junk mail or spam). Virtual Servers which use CPU processing capacity on the Physical Server in excess of the designed processing capacity will be subject to immediate deactivation.

7. Rewrite each of these sentences using one of the following modal forms: should (not), must (not), need to, need not, have to, do not have to.

a) The company rules do not allow you to take money out of the country. b) The company does not expect you to sign until you have legal advice. c) The insurer does not recommend that you lend your car to another driver. d) The company requires you to sign by the end of the month. e) The insurer strongly advises that you let them know if you change job. f) The company prohibits you from holding a non-European account.

7_RELATIVE PRONOUNS AND RELATIVE CLAUSES


o o o o A geek is a computer expert who is extremely intelligent and devoted to his profession. The computer (which / that) you bought has got a large hard disk capacity! Bill Gates, who is the main responsible for the development of Microsofts products, is one of the richest men in the world. Internet, which is an extraordinary source of information, is used by almost everyone around the world.

Relative Pronouns:
WHO (subject) WHOM (object; obligatory after a preposition) WHICH refers only to things THAT refers to things and people WHOSE (possession) refers to both things and people

Defining Relative Clause It is essential to the meaning of the sentence; it defines the subject. It is not between commas.
E.g.: The girl who was sitting next to you in the English class is very nice.

Contact Clause: The relative pronoun may be omitted if it is not the subject of the relative clause:
E.g.: They didnt have the computer program I wanted.

When the preposition is entirely independent from the verb, it always precedes the relative:
E.g.: The speaker asked a question to which I didnt know the answer.

The relative pronoun that can only be used in defining relative clauses instead of who, whom, which. A preposition can never be placed before the relative that: Defining relative clauses occur both in spoken and in written English. Grammar and Vocabulary Practice 17
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Non-Defining Relative Clause It gives additional information, which is not necessary to the grammatical sense of the sentence; It is enclosed by commas; The relative pronoun cannot be omitted; The relative pronoun that can never be used; The preposition governing the relative is usually placed just before the relative and not at the end:
E.g.: He promised to support my position, for which I was profoundly grateful.

Non-defining relative clauses are rarely used in spoken language, but are quite used in written English.

_Practice
1. Complete the following sentences with the missing relative pronoun. Add commas when necessary. 1. Hackersarepeople__________abilitytobreakcomputercodesisextraordinary. 2. KevinMitnick___________hackedintotheNorthernAmericanDefenceinColoradoSpringsstartedhiscareerhacking intobankingnetworks. 3. Thesystem__________usestwodigits,0and1,iscalledthebinarysystem,. 4. Amegahertz___________isequivalenttoonemillioncyclespersecondistheunittomeasuretheprocessorspeed. 5. Themicrocomputer__________wehaveboughtisprogrammableinBASIConly. 2. Complete the conversation with who, which or that. Emma:Shallwehavesomethingtoeat? Matthew:Yes,butnothere.Idontlikecafs____________donthavechairs.Imnotoneofthosepeople________caneat standingup. Emma:Theresanotherrestaurantoverthere. Matthew: It looks expensive, one of those places ___________ charge very high prices. The only customers ________ can affordtoeattherearebusinessexecutives__________gettheirexpensespaid.Anyway,Icantseeamenu. 3. Leaving out the relative pronoun: complete the script of these TV advertisements, using a relative clause without a pronoun. a)Freshosoap.Beautifulpeopleuseit.Itsthesoap b)AnEverymancar.Youcanaffordit. c)Hijack.Peoplewanttoseethisfilm. d)GreenwaySupermarket.Youcantrustit. e)Coolmagazine.Youngpeoplereadit. f)Jupiterchocolates.Youlllovethem. 4. Who, whom, whose, which, where and why. Complete this advertisement with the correct relative.

ThetownofKeswick,____________liesattheheartofLakeDistrict,istheperfectplaceforaholiday,andtheDerwentHotel, _____________overlooksthetown,istheperfectplacetostay.RobinandWendyJackson,_____________boughtthissmall hotel three years ago, have already won an excellent reputation. Robin, _____________ cooking is one of the reasons ______________theDerwentissopopular,wasonceYoungChefoftheYear.Thecomfortofguests,_______________the owners treat almost as members of the family, always come first. Peter Ustinov, _____________ once stayed at the hotel, describeditasmarvellous.AndtheLakeDistrict,__________hassomuchwonderfulsceneryand_____________thepoet Wordsworthlived,willnotdisappointyou.

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5. Rewrite the following sentences using a relative pronoun. Use commas appropriately and make contact clauses whenever possible. a) Internetisusedinalmosteveryschoolnowadays.Itisanextraordinarysourceofinformation. b) TheinstructionsarekeptintheROMsection.Theycannotbechangedorerased. c) Floppydisksareveryusefultotransferacopyofafiletoanothercomputer.Theyarestoragedevices.

d) TheRAMcapacityisveryimportantinacomputer.Itcanbeimprovedbyaddingextrachips. e) TheengineeristeachingAlgorithmicLanguageandProgramming.Itoldyouabouthim. f) g) ComputerScienceengineershavetoworkhard.Theywanttobesuccessful. Imwaitingforthebus.Itislate.

h) Laurapaintedapicture.Itisbeingshowninanexhibition. i) j) AuntJoanisabitdeaf.Shedidnthearthephone. Illseeyounearthepostoffice.Wemeettheretheotherday.

8_PREPOSITIONS _Time prepositions and expressions In


Years Months Seasons Centuries in 2005 in November in the autumn in the 21st Century on Thursday at 4.00 at night I didnt feel nervous during the performance. the seventeenth of September 7 September or September the seventeenth September 7th on my birthday at midday at midnight Parts of the day in the morning in the afternoon in the evening

On At

Days Times Night

During Calendar references

Periods of time We say: We write: Dates

7th September

are written DAY/MONTH/YEAR in British English: 07/09/2005 tomorrow (30th October) the day after tomorrow (31st October) yesterday (28th October) the day before yesterday (27th October)

Day references

If TODAY is 29th October:

Periods of the day

this morning yesterday morning tomorrow morning

this afternoon yesterday afternoon tomorrow afternoon

tonight last night tomorrow night

For

For refers to a period of time: e.g.: I have lived here for two years. Since refers to a point at the beginning of a period of time: 19

She studied German for three years.

Grammar and Vocabulary Practice

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Language Skills Module | GVP

Since Ago Once One day

e.g.: I have lived here since 2003. Ago refers to a point in the past: e.g.: We arrived four hours ago.

She has been waiting since 3.30. I knew that ages ago!

Once refers to a state in the past: e.g.: Once Jim owned a motorbike. (He doesnt own it anymore.) One day can refer to PAST or FUTURE: e.g.: One day Kathy was walking in the garden when she met Brian. One day you will be successful computer science engineers! Now refers to an exact moment, or a general state: e.g.: You have to finish now! John used to study civil engineering but now hes studying computer science. Nowadays is used when we generalize about the present: e.g.: Nowadays almost all types of jobs are dependent on computers. Then refers in the past to the following moment e.g.: We had a pizza in a nice restaurant, and then we went to the cinema. Afterwards can be used in the same as then is used: e.g.: We had a pizza in a nice restaurant, and afterwards we went to the cinema. When after is used there is an object (1) or a gerund (2): e.g.: (1) After dinner we went to the cinema. After that we went home. (2) After having dinner went to the cinema. After that we went home. Later means at a later time: e.g.: Mr. Smith isnt here at the moment. Can you come back later?

Now Nowadays

Then Afterwards After Later

Until By

Until refers to the latest point in a period of time: e.g.: She waited for Alex until 6.00, and then she left. Ill be here until the end of December. By means at a time before: e.g.: John studied the whole afternoon, so by 7.00 he was exhausted. (not exactly at 7.00, but not later than that time.) We use at last when we are pleased that a long wait has ended: e.g.: At last Jane arrived! In the end describes the final result: e.g.: I studied a lot for maths but in the end I failed. At the end describes a point at the end of something: e.g.: At the end of the semester well have exams. On time means at the hour which was arranged: e.g.: The conference started exactly on time. In Time means with enough time to do something: e.g.: We arrived in time to have a cup of coffee before the conference started.

At last In the end At the end

On time In time

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_Place prepositions in inside out in and inside


In generally describes things contained by something else. e.g.: There are some cups in that cupboard. We use inside to emphasize the idea of containing. e.g.: Luckily there was nobody inside the blazing house. Compare: Kate is in. (she's at home) Kate is out. (she's not at home) Kate is inside. (in the house, not outside in the garden)

There are many expressions with in. This is a selection.


a country a city street road mirror hole l crack hand armchair country hospital prison My parents are in Canada at the moment. My sister lives in Madrid. Jack lives in Garden Avenue. She was walking in the road, not on the pavement. Tony could see his face in the mirror. There was a hole in my shoe. Ellen had a bunch of flowers in one hand. She sat in an armchair. Paul and Mary live in the country, not in the city. Sally is ill, and is in hospital. Keith stole some money and ended up in prison .

on

on
On generally describes a thing on the surface of another thing. Don't leave your bag on the floor.

Expressions with on.


transport chair television wall injuries left/right side pavement

There were few passengers on the plane l bus l train. She sat on a chair. What's on television l the radio this evening? Let's hang this picture on that wall. Tim cut his foot on a piece of glass. There's a cinema on the left. There are small houses on this side of the street. She was walking in the road, not on the pavement.

at in to

At and in are used to describe a person's position. At describes position at a point or place. In describes position in a place which has walls (like a building). lt is also used with cities and towns, etc. The difference between at and in is clear in these examples: We met at the airport. (the place in general) We met in the airport building. (inside the building) I'll see you at the cinema. (the place in general) I'll see you in the cinema. (inside the building) At and in are used with arrive. e.g.: We arrived in Prague. (the city) We arrived at Prague Airport. (the place To is used with verbs of motion. e.g.: Last night we went to the cinema.

Expressions with at and to

At There's a caf at the end of the street. Do you sit at the front or at the back of the class? John isn't at school. He's at home. Mr King wasn't at work yesterday.

To Could you take this letter to the post office? I sent a parcel to my sister.

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above over

above and over above means higher than. e.g.: You can see the top of the tower above the trees. over means higher than, but in the same position. e.g.: The alien spaceship hovered over the building. It also means across or covering. e.g.: There was a plastic sheet over the hole in the roof. There is a footbridge over the motorway.

below under

below and under below means lower than. e.g.: From the mountain, I could see the lake below. under means lower than, but in the same position. e.g.: I keep my suitcase under my bed.

next to near

next to and near Next to means exactly at the side of e.g.: Maria sits next to Paula. Near means close to. e.g.: Tom's house is near the sports centre.

by beside

beside and by Beside means the same as next to e.g.: Maria sat beside Paula in the class. By means the same as near e.g.: There was a table by the window. He was standing by the door when his sister arrived.

opposite

Opposite means exactly on the other side of a space: e.g.: There is a caf opposite ISEP.

Practice
1. Putintheprepositions.Sometimesmorethanoneansweriscorrect.

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2.

Completetheconversation.Choosethecorrectpreposition. a) Vicky: I felt really afraid when I was walking home from/off the club. All the time I could hear someone behind/infrontofme,butIdidntdareturnround. Rachel:Iexpectyouwereimaginingit. Vicky:NoIwasnt!IsawhimafterIdcomeinacross/throughthegate.Hewaswearingalongblackcoatthatcame downwellbelow/underhisknees.

b) Daniel: You know Adam, dont you? Hes very strange. He walked right along/past me yesterday as I was coming among/downthestairs,buthedidntsayhello. Matthew:Theotherdayhewassittingbeside/oppositemeatlunch,soIcouldnthelplookingathim.Isaidhello,but hedidntsayaword.

3.

Lookattheplanandexplainwherethingsare.

a) Thebankis_______________thegiftshop. b) Thetravelagencyis___________________thesportsshopandtheartgallery. c) Thesportsshopis_________________thebank. d) Therestaurantis________________theartgallery. e) Thegiftshopis_______________thebankandtherestaurant. f) Theartgalleryis_________________thetravelagency. Completeeachsentencewiththeappropriatepreposition(ofplace). a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) Rachelwaslying__________thegrassreadingabook. Itsmyholidaynextweek.Imgoing____________Spain. Therewasabigcrowd________________theshopwaitingforittoopen. Themanisanidiot.Hepushedme_______________theswimmingpool. Iwent____________thechemistsjustnow,butIdidntnoticeifitwasopen. Davidhurthimselfwhenhefell___________hisbike. Theresacaf________________topofthemountain.Youcanhaveacoffeetherebeforeyougodown. Thesheepgotout_______________aholeinthefence. Pompeiiisquite______________Sorrento.Itsonlyashorttrainride. Theressuchacrowd.Youwontfindyourfriend___________________allthesepeople. 23
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4.

Grammar and Vocabulary Practice

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Language Skills Module | GVP

5.

Putintheprepositionin,on,orat(place) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) Wespentthewholeholiday____________thebeach. Ireadaboutthepopfestival____________amagazine. Melaniewasholdingasmallbird___________herhands. Illmeetyou___________theairport. Londonis__________theThames. Thepassengershadtostand_____________aqueue. Myparentsflatis__________thetwentyfirstfloor. Iwasstanding__________thecounterinthebakersshop,waitingtobeserved. Therewerentmanybooks___________theshelves. Thewomensittingnexttomeleftthetrain____________Coimbra.

6.

Completethedialoguewithin,on,atornothing.Ifyoudonotneedaprepositionputa( )inthegap.(time)

7.

Mark: Im sorry I was out when you called ____________ yesterday afternoon, Alice. Look, Im free ________ the fifteenthofMarch.Canwemeetthen? Alice:Imprettybusy____________nextweek,Imafraid.Icantseeyou__________Friday. Mark:Idliketohaveameeting____________thismonthifpossible.Illbeverybusy________April. Alice: Im going away ___________ Easter, so how about the week after? Shall we meet _________ the twenty seventh?ThatsaWednesday. Mark:Ivegotanappointment_________themorningbutnothing___________theafternoon.Letsmeet________ Wednesdayafternoon________halfpasttwo. Putinfor,sinceorago. How long have you been learning English? ~Well I studied it __________ five years at school, and Ive been having eveningclasses____________lastsummer. b) Mytelephonewasbroken___________amonth.Butitisworkingnow.Itwasfixedthreedays________. c) Areyoustayinghere___________threemonths?~Thatsright.Ivebeenhere___________theendofApril.Imgoing toLondon____________aweekbeforeIgohome. d) Thisfilmlooksfamiliar.Didntweseeitatthecinemaabouttwoyears___________? a)

8. Completethesentenceswithintimeorontime. a) b) c) d) e) 9. PutinbyoruntiltocompleteRachelsconversationwithherteacher. Ms. Lewis: Youll needto hand your project in ____________ the endof the week. Id like to haveit _________ Friday, ideally. Rachel:Well,Imgoingonathreedaystudytriptomorrow.Illbeaway_____________Thursday.Theprojectwillprobably takeme_____________themiddleofnextweek.Icantfinishit_____________theendofthisweek. Ms.Lewis:Well,letmehaveit___________Wednesdayofnextweek,then. 10. Completewithduringorwhile. a) Didyoutakenotes________________thelecture? b) Shallwehaveacoffee_______________werewaiting? c) Trynottomakeanynoise______________thebayisasleep. d) Thefirealarmrang_______________yesterdaysmeeting. e) Trevortriedtofixtheshelves________________Laurawasoutshopping.
Grammar and Vocabulary Practice

Iftheplaneislate,wewontgettoParis__________________forourconnectingflight. Wewereupveryearly,____________________toseethesunrise. Howcanthebusespossiblyrun_______________withallthesetrafficjams? Thepostgoesatfive.Imhoppingtogetthisletterwritten__________________. Thecoachwillbehereat12:13ifits___________________.

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11. WritethemissingwordsinPollyspostcard.Useonlyonewordineachgap.Sometimesmorethanoneansweriscorrect. Thisisourfirstrealholiday___________ages,andImenjoyingittremendously.Ilovebeing___________anisland.We arrivedherealmostaweek___________,andIcantbelievethetimeisgoingsofast.Wefinallycompletedthejourney here_____________Fridayevening_____________about11oclock.Thejourneywasnttoobad,butwehadtowaitages ______________airportforourflight. Ourapartmenthereisfine.Its_____________thetopfloor.Thebeachisntfarawaywecanwalkthere__________five minutes.Theonlyproblemisthatwehavetoget___________abusymainroad,whichcanbedifficult. Wedontdomuch________________theday,butwegoouteveryevening.Lastnightsdiscowentonverylateandtoday weslept_______________eleven.

9_ADJECTIVES + PREPOSITIONS

_Study these groups of ADJECTIVES AND PREPOSITIONS. Sometimes other prepositions are possible.
nice/ kind/ good/ generous/ mean/ stupid/ silly/ intelligent/ clever/ sensible/ (im)polite/ rude/ (un)reasonable OF someone (to do something): E.g.: Thank you. It was very nice / kind of you to help me dealing with this program. BUT: (to be) nice/ kind/ good/ generous/ mean/ stupid/ silly/ intelligent/ clever/ sensible/ (im)polite/ rude/ (un)reasonable TO someone: E.g.: My boss has always been very nice / kind to me. angry/ annoyed/ furious ABOUT something WITH someone FOR doing something E.g.: Im really annoyed about my Internet server! Its running too slowly. Im furious with you, John, for not keeping up with the timetable! I hope youll hurry up; otherwise Ill look for another web designer. delighted/ pleased/ satisfied/ disappointed WITH something E.g.: They are delighted with the incredible tasks their computer is able to accomplish. surprised/shocked/ amazed/ astonished AT/ BY something E.g.: My teacher was really surprised at my research work about the History of Computers. excited/ worried/ upset ABOUT something E.g.: Some people are worried about what might happen if technological development surpasses human control. afraid/ frightened/ terrified/ scared OF someone/something E.g.: People neednt be frightened of technological improvements, but some are. proud/ ashamed/ jealous/ envious/ suspicious OF someone/something E.g.: Im very proud of my son! He has just become an engineer in Computer Science. aware/ conscious OF something E.g.: Are you conscious of what a hacker can do? good/ bad/ excellent/ brilliant/ hopeless AT (doing) something E.g.: A good professional in computing must be brilliant at solving any kind of problems in that area. impressed BY/ WITH someone/something E.g.: Im really impressed with/by the Internet world! famous/ responsible FOR something E.g.: A hacker was responsible for breaking the codes in our company system and for the loss of thousands of important files.
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different FROM someone/ something E.g.: An HP-DeskJet 840C printer is very different from an HP Office Jet R45 printer. similar TO something E.g.: This monitor is very similar to the one I had before, but it offers a much sharper image. interested IN something E.g.: Im interested in knowing more about the new Microsoft products. capable/ incapable OF something E.g.: JavaScript is capable of making pages jump, move, and respond to a site visitors input. full/ short OF something E.g.: Hes short of money, so he wont be able to renew his software. tired OF something E.g.: Im tired of waiting for you to work out the problem in that disk drive; Ill look for another technician. keen ON something E.g.: Young people are keen on picking up all kind of music in Internet sites. crowded WITH (people) E.g.: The conference room was crowded with experts in computing.

10_VERBS + PREPOSITIONS Prepositional Verbs


Verbs + Prepositions To accuse of To advertise for To aim at To apologise for (+ing) To apply for To approve of To blame for To beg for To believe in To belong to To borrow from To care for To congratulate on To complain about / of To concentrate on
To consist of (be made of)

Examples: He was accused of cheating on the exam. That student wants to advertise for selling his old computer. The new educational measures aim at improving the learning/teaching system. James apologized for having been rude to his classmate. At the end of their degree, students will apply for a job. She didnt approve of him working till midnight. Sometimes students blame the system for their bad results. The baby is begging for his parents attention. Adults usually dont believe in fairy tales. That book belongs to Joana, not to Miguel. Miguel has borrowed this book from Joana. She lent it to him two weeks ago. It is very important to care for the environment. The professor congratulated his students on their results. He is always complaining about having long classes. You should concentrate a little more on your work. Bolognaise sauce consists of minced beef, onion, tomatoes, garlic and seasoning. The beauty of Porto consists in the life by the Douro river and in the downtown. He was trying to convince me about the importance of having another digital camera but I didnt buy it. 26
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To consist in (be based on) To convince about


Grammar and Vocabulary Practice

ISEP-DEI | LAPR 2

Language Skills Module | GVP

To crash into / against To depend on To dream of / about To fight for To happen to To hear about / of To hinder from To insist on To listen to To live on To look at To object to To pay for To refer to To rely on To search for To separate from To speak to To spend on To talk to To think of / about To wait for To write to

John crashed into his neighbours garage last night. He made quite a damaged! Every working machine depends on a power supply to keep on working. James dreams of having a new and more powerful laptop. He dreamt about it last night. There still are many people around the world that have to fight for their freedom. Jane happened to have been present when the car crash occurred. I heard about the launching of Garcia Marquezs new book. I heard of it last on the news. He is hindering his iPod from his younger brother. They insisted on offering me a new cellular phone. He is listening to music, so he cant hear the phone ringing. He will live on the memory people have of him.. I love looking at the stars. I dont object to the adoption of a new book, but I prefer this one. He is paying for the mistakes he made in the past. You have to refer to Babbages work when writing about the History of computers. Not always can you rely on technology. He is searching for information on network typologies. Some people separate their private life completely from their professional activities. She doesnt speak to Michael about politics. She spent a lot of money on books. Im talking to you, please, listen to what Im saying. John was thinking about his last summer holidays in Japan. He is thinking of travelling to India for the next holidays. They have been waiting for their teacher since 2 p.m.. Paul is writing to his mother asking for a new mobile phone.

Phrasal Verbs
To account for To ask for To back up To be done for To be up / over To break off To bring about To bring in To carry out To come across To get over To go on To go up To lay off To make out To take on To switch off To switch on To take to

Meaning:
To justify When you make a request To save; to make a copy of a file or computer program / To agree with what someone is saying To be broken, damaged To end To interrupt To lead to something, to cause something to happen To introduce To conclude, to accomplish something To meet or to find unexpectedly To recover from an illness or problem To continue To rise, to ascend To fire someone To understand an idea after considering some evidences To accept something To disconnect To connect To dedicate to doing something 27
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Grammar and Vocabulary Practice

ISEP-DEI | LAPR 2

Language Skills Module | GVP

To turn on o To turn off o To work out o To write out o

(a light or the heat ting) (the radio, the TV, the computer / the lights) e To plan, organize Write in full

_Pr ractice 1. Unders standing Ph hrasal Verb bs.

2. One-wo verb an Phrasal verbs. ord nd

3. Word o order with p phrasal ver rbs.

Gramm and Vocabular Practice mar ry

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11_ MAKING COMPARISONS Form


The regular comparative and superlative forms of descriptive words (adjectives and adverbs) are shown below: 1. Words of one syllable add the ending er (in the comparative) and est (in the superlative).
Examples: Absolute Adjectives new old big soon late Comparative newer older bigger sooner later Superlative newest oldest biggest soonest latest

Adverbs

2. Words with three or more syllables are preceded by more and most.
Examples: Absolute Adjectives interesting convenient beautiful easily carefully Comparative more interesting more convenient more beautiful more easily more carefully Superlative most interesting most convenient most beautiful most easily more carefully

Adverbs

3. Adjectives with two syllables may be like 1 or 2 above in that they will add the ending er (in the comparative) and est (in the superlative) if they end in y or ly, -ow, -le and er.
Examples: Absolute -y -ly -ow -er tiny speedy early friendly shallow narrow clever Comparative tinier speedier earlier friendlier shallower narrower cleverer Superlative tiniest speediest earliest friendliest shallowest narrowest cleverest

4. Most of the remaining two-syllable adjectives take more (in the comparative) and most (in the superlative) in front of them.
Examples: Absolute careful careless boring awful complex Comparative more careful more careless more boring more awful more complex Superlative most careful most careless most boring most awful most complex

5. Some common two-syllable adjectives can have either type of formation.


Examples: Absolute common gentle quiet Comparative commoner/ more common gentler/ more gentle quieter/ more quiet Superlative commonest/ most common gentlest/ most gentle quietest/ most quiet

6. Two-syllable adverbs ending in ly take more and most.


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ISEP-DEI | LAPR 2 Examples: Absolute careful careless boring awful complex Comparative more careful more careless more boring more awful more complex Superlative most careful most careless most boring most awful most complex

Language Skills Module | GVP

7. A small number of adjectives and adverbs have an irregular comparative and superlative form.
Examples: Absolute Adjectives bad far good many badly far little much well Comparative worse further/ farther better more worse further/ farther less more better Superlative worst furthest/ farthest best most worst furthest/ farthest least most best

Adverbs

Use in sentences
Comparisons may show equivalence, non-equivalence, the highest degree of something, and parallel increase. 1. Equivalence: the following words/constructions are used to show that things or people are similar in some way.
as as as many as as much as the same as similar to the same Examples: 1. 2. 3. 4. Here, the term processor is equivalent to the central processing unit. Laptops are as powerful as microcomputers. Some companies have as many computers as employees. Some companies use both disks and conventional filing systems for storing data. are similar equal to is like similar/ ly equal/ ly compared to/ with each either all both and alike

2. Non-equivalence: the following words/constructions are used to compare or contrast things or people that are separate from each other.
not as as -er than more than fewer than less than Examples: 1. 2. 3. 4. Learning to use a computer is not as difficult as learning to program. A fax board costs less than a fax machine. Unlike factory-sealed software, pirated versions may contain viruses. You can save money with a network because you will need fewer printers. greater than not as many as not as much as not equal to unequal / ly unlike not the same as not all

3. The highest degree: the following words/constructions are used to compare one member of a group with the whole group (superlative).
the -est the most the least

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ISEP-DEI | LAPR 2 Examples: 1. This is the most popular package on the market today. 2. BASIC is the least difficult programming language to learn. 3. The best programs are those adapted specifically to your own needs.

Language Skills Module | GVP

4. Parallel increase: the following words/constructions are used to show parallel increase (two comparatives).
the -er, the more the more , the -er thet -er, the less

Examples: 1. The more memory your computer has, the more data it can store. 2. The bigger your computer system, the less time you spend waiting. 3. The more training you give to your employees, the better they will perform.

_Practice
1. Complete the following passage with adjectives from the list below. Oneadvantageofcomputersisthattheycandocalculationsveryquickly,theyarevery_______________comparedto peoplewhoarecomparativelyslow.Becausecomputersaremachines,theyare_______________,theydontmake mistakes,andalso,theydontmindworkingfor_______________hourson_______________jobs.Thefirstcomputerscost alotofmoney;theywere_______________,andtheywerevery_______________too;sometimestheyoccupiedawhole room. Adjectives: fast__________________________ intelligent__________________________ expensive__________________________ unreliable__________________________ large__________________________ difficult__________________________ boring__________________________ full__________________________ long__________________________ good__________________________

2. Look at the list of adjectives above once more. Write the opposite of the adjectives inside the board. Degrees of Adjectives: 3. Complete the following sentences using the comparative or superlative forms of the adjectives in brackets. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) A32bitprocessoris_____________________a16bitprocessor.(fast) Acolourmonitoris_____________________amonochromemonitor.(expensive) Paulboughtthe_________________computerinthemarket!(good) Moderncomputersare____________________thefirstmainframecomputers.(reliable) CharlesBabbagesAnalyticalEnginewasthe_______________computereverbuiltbutitneverreallyworked!(large) Laserprintersare___________________daisywheelprinters.(quiet) JimisgoingtobuyaToshiba.Itisntthe__________________modelbutitisagoodPC.(recent) Thatwasthe_________________filmIveeverseen.(funny) Theweatherisgetting_________________.(bad) Itwas____________thanusualintowntoday.(busy) Itwasthe___________________speechIveeverheard.(boring)

4. Complete the second sentence in each item so that it has a similar meaning to the first. Use the words in brackets and make the necessary changes in the sentences. a) Thistrainismoreconvenientthanalltheothers.(most) Thistrainis____________________________________________________________________________. b) Thelivingroomisntasbigasthekitchen.(bigger) Thekitchen____________________________________________________________________________.
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ISEP-DEI | LAPR 2

Language Skills Module | GVP

c)

Imnotasfitasyou.(am) Youre________________________________________________________________________________.

d) Thetableandthedeskarethesamesize.(big) Thetable_______________________________________________________________________thedesk. e) Pricesjustgethigherallthetime.(and) Prices_________________________________________________________________________________. f) Thedressischeaperthantheskirt.(expensive) Theskirt_______________________________________________________________________thedress. g) Thiscrosswordistheeasiest.(difficult) Thiscrossword___________________________________________________________________________. h) Theirexcitementwasincreasingallthetime.(excited) Theyweregetting________________________________________________________________________. i) Iveneverreadamoreromanticstory.(most) Itsthe_____________________________________________________________________________read.

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ISEP-DEI | LAPR 2

Language Skills Module | GVP

BIBLIOGRAPHY
EASTWOOD, John (1992). Oxford Practice Grammar. Oxford University Press. HEWINGS, Martin (1999). Advanced Grammar in Use. Cambridge University Press.

Hinkel, Eli (2004). Teaching Academic Esl Writing: Practical Techniques In Vocabulary And Grammar. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
HUGHES, Rebecca (2005). Exploring Grammar in Writing. Cambridge: CUP. MILLS, Gordon H. & John A. Walker (1986). Technical Writing. New York: CBS college Publishing. ROGERS, John (2003). Market Leader (Practice File). Edinburgh: Longman. SVOBODOVA, Zuzana et al. (2000). Writing in English: A Practical Handbook for Scientific and Technical Writers A Pilot Project. European Commission: Leonardo da Vinci Programme. VINCE, Michael (1998). Intermediate Language Practice. Macmillan Heinemann. VINCE, Michael (2003). Advanced Language Practice. Macmillan Heinemann.

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