Anda di halaman 1dari 72

GUJARAT AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY SARDAR KRUSHINAGAR- 385506

FACULTY OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES

COURSE FOR THE POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME (AGRICULTURE)

CONTENTS Sr. No. No. Subject Page

COURSE DESCRIPTION I. II. III. IV. V. VI. Agricultural Chemistry & Soil Science Bio-Chemistry Agronomy Horticulture Plant Breeding & Genetics Plant Physiology & Ecology

VII. Plant Pathology VIII. Nematology IX. X. XI. Agricultural Entomology Agricultural Meteorology Agricultural Statistics

XII. Agricultural Economics XIII. Extension Education. XIV. Soil-Water Management

COURSE CREDITES Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. Course No. Title Credit T+P 2+1 2+1 3+0 3+0 2+1 3+1 2+1 3+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 3+0 2+1 2+1 3+0 1+2 1+2 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 3+0 3+0 3+0 3+0 0+3 3+0 2+0 1+0 3+0 3+0 3+0 2+0

I. AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY & SOIL SCIENCE Ag.Chem.601 Nature & Properties of Soil Ag.Chem.602 Soil Chemistry. Ag.Chem.603 Soil Colloids & Clay Minerals Ag.Chem.604 Soil Physical Chemistry Ag.Chem.605 Soil physics Ag.Chem.606 Soil Genesis survey and Classification Ag.Chem.607 Soil Fertility Evaluation and Fertilizer Recommendation Ag.Chem.608 Manures and Fertilizers Ag.Chem.609 Micronutrients in Soils and plants Ag.Chem.610 Mineral Nutrition of plants Ag.Chem.611 Soil Fertility Management Ag.Chem.612 Soil-Water-Plant Relationship Ag.Chem.613 Saline, Sodic, Acid Soils and Their Management. Ag.Chem.614 Soil and Water Conservation and Soil Reclamation Ag.Chem.615 Physical Edaphology Ag.Chem.616 Analytical chemistry Ag.Chem.617 Instrumental Methods of Analysis Ag.Chem.618 Radio Tracer Techniques Ag.Chem.619 Agricultural Chemicals Ag Chem. 620 Soil and Water pollution Ag.Chem.621 Soil Microbiology Ag.Chem.622 Introductory Bio-Chemistry Ag.Chem.623 Soil Bio-Chemistry Ag.Chem.624 Advanced Bio-Chemistry-I Ag.Chem.625 Advanced Bio-Chemistry-II Ag.Chem.626 Analytical Bio-Chemistry Ag.Chem.627 Stress crop Production Ag.Chem.698 Special Problem Ag.Chem.699 Seminar

II. BIO - CHEMISTRY 1. Biochem.601 Introductory Biochemistry 2. Biochem.602 Advanced Biochemistry-I 3. Biochem.603 Advanced Biochemistry-II 4. Biochem.604 Biochemistry of Nucleic Acids

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Biochem.605 Biochem.606 Biochem.607 Biochem.608 Biochem.609

10. Biochem.610 11. Biochem.611 12. Biochem.612 13. Biochem.613 14. Biochem.614 15. Biochem.615 16. Biochem.616 17. Biochem.617 18. Biochem.618 19. Biochem.698 20. Biochem.699 III. AGRONOMY 1. Agron. 601 2. Agron. 602 3. Agron. 603 4. Agron. 604 5. Agron. 605 6. Agron. 606 7. Agron. 607 8. Agron. 608 9. Agron. 609 10. Agron. 610 11. Agron. 611 12. Agron. 612 13. Agron. 613 14. Agron. 614 15. Agron. 615 16. Agron. 616 17. Agron. 617 18. Agron. 618 19. Agron. 619 20. Agron. 620 21. Agron. 621

Molecular Biochemistry Physical Biochemistry Nature and Properties of Enzymes Nitrogen Metabolism in Plant Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism in Plant and Animals Analytical Biochemistry Biochemical Research Technique Biochemistry of Human Nutrition Biochemistry of Cereals Oilseeds and pulses Biochemistry of Cotton and Tabacco Biochemistry of Fruits Processings Biochemistry of Plant Diseases Soil Biochemistry Cell Biology. Special Problem in Biochemistry Seminar Principles of Crop Production Agricultural Climatology Weed Management Soil Fertility Management Irrigation Agriculture Dry Farming Corp Geography and Ecology Grain Crop Production Legume Crop Production Oil seed Crop Production Commercial Crop Production Forage Crop Production Spices and Condiments Crop Production Seed production Technology Pasture Crops and Grassland Management Forage Legume and Grass Seed Production Soil-Water-Plant Relationship Soil and Water Conservation and Soil Reclamation Saline, Sadie, Acid Soils and Their Management Management of Excess Soil Water and Crop Production Research Techniques in Agronomy

3+0 3+0 3+1 2+1 3+1 0+3 1+2 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+0 3+0 2+1 2+0 1+0 2+1 3+0 2+1 2+1 3+1 2+1 2+0 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 3+0 2+1 2+1 2+1 1+2

22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.

Agron. 622 Agron. 623 Agron. 624 Agron. 625 Agron. 626 Agron. 698 Agron. 699

Crop Physiology Growth and Yield Analysis Stress Crop Production Physiology and Biochemistry of Herbicides Theory of Use of Herbicides Special Problem Seminar

3+1 3+0 3+0 3+0 2+1 2+0 1+0

IV. HORTICULTURE 1. Hort. 601 Fundamentals of Fruit Production 4+0 2. Hort. 602 Tropical Fruit Corps 3+1 3. Hort. 603 Nutrition of Horticultural Crops 2+1 4. Hort. 604 Plant Growth Regulators in Horticulture 2+1 5. Hort. 605 Post-Harvest Physiology of Fruits and Seeds 2 + 1 6. Hort. 606 Principles of Vegetable Production 3+0 7. Hort. 607 Vegetable Crops-I 2+1 8. Hort. 608 Vegetable Crops-II 2+1 9. Hort. 609 Propagation of Horticultural Plants 2+1 10. Hort. 610 Principles of Ornamental Gardening 2+1 11. Hort. 611 Garden Plant Material 2+1 12. Hort. 612 Principles of Fruit and Vegetable 3+0 Preservation 13. Hort. 613 Pests of Horticultural Crops 2+1 14. Hort. 614 Diseases of Horticultural Crops 2+1 15. Hort. 615 Commercial Floriculture 2+1 16. Hort. 616 Systematic Pomology 3+1 17. Hort. 617 Fruit Crop Breeding 2+1 18. Hort. 618 Vegetable Crop Breeding 2+1 19. Hort. 619 Advanced Vegetable Production 2+0 20. Hort. 620 Citriculture 2+0 21. Hort. 621 Nursery Management 2+1 22. Hort. 622 Dryland Fruit Culture 2+1 23. Hort. 698 Special Problem 2+0 24. Hort. 699 Seminar 1+0 V. PLANT BREEDING & GENETICS 1. PBG-601 Fundamental Genetics 3+0 2. PBG-602 Genetics of Microganisms 3+0 3. PBG-603 Genetics-III 3+0 4. PBG-604 Genetics Laboratory Techniques 0+1 5. PBG-605 Population Genetics 2+0 6. PSG-606 Advanced Genetics 3+0 7. PBG-607 Ecological Genetics 3+0 8. PBG-60a Biometrical Genetics 3+1

9. PBG-609 Advanced Biometrical Genetics 10. PBG-610 Introductory Plant Breeding 11. PBG-611 Principles of Plant Breeding 12. PBG-612 Seed Production Technology 13. PBG-613 Mutations and Crop Improvement 14. PBG-614 Breeding For Special Characters 15. PBG-615 Breeding For Disease and Insect Resistance 16. PBG-616 Advanced Plant Breeding 17. PBG-617 Designs For Plant Breeding 18. PBG-618 Rice Breeding 19. PBG-619 Wheat Breeding 20. PBG-620 Maize Breeding 21. PBG-621 Sorghum Breeding 22. PBG-622 Bajri Breeding 23. PBG-623 Tobacco Breeding 24. PBG-624 Cotton Breeding 25. PBG-625 Breeding Oilseed Crops26. PBG-626 Breeding of Pulse Crops 27. PBG-627 Breeding Forage Crops 28. PBG-628 Sugarcane Breeding 29. PBG-629 Principles of Cytology 30. PBG-630 Cytogenetics 31. PBG-631 Advanced Cytogenetics 32. F'BG-632 Tissue Culture and Crop Improvement 33. PBG-698 Special Problem 34. PBG-699 Seminar VI. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY & ECOLOGY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Principles of Plant Physiology-I Plant Physiology Technique-I Principles of Plant Physiology-II Plant Physiology Techniques-II Crop Physiology Mineral Nutrition of Plants Growth Regulators in Agriculture Soil-Water-Plant Relationship Physiology of Growth and Development Principles of Post Harvest Physiology of Seeds and Fruits 11. PI.Physiol.611 Recent Advance in Photosynthesis 12. PI.Physiol.612 Experimental Physiology 13. PI.Physiol.613 Plant Cell Metabolism PI.Physiol.601 PI.Physiol.602 PI.Physiol.603 PI.Physiol.604 PI.Physiol.605 PI.Physiol.606 PI.Physiol.607 PI.Physiol.608 PI.Physiol.609 PI.Physiol.610

3+1 3+0 3+0 2+1 2+0 3+0 2+0 3+0 2+1 2+0 2+0 2+0 2+0 2+0 2+0 2+0 2+0 2+0 2+0 2+0 2+1 2+1 3+0 2+1 2+0 1+0 3+0 0+1 3+0 0+1 3+1 2+1 2+1 3+0 3+1 2+1 2+0 1+2 2+1

Physiology of Growth Regulators Environmental Physiology Stress Physiology Plant Anatomy Taxonomy of Flowering Plants Biochemistry of Nucleic Acips Tissue Culture. and Crop Improvement Role of Plant Physiology in Modern Agriculture 22. PI.Physiol.622 Physiology and Biochemistry of Herbicides 23. PI.Physiol.623 Stress Crop Production 24. PI.Physiol.698 Special Problem 25. Pl.Physiol.699 Seminar VII. PLANT PATHOLOGY 1. PI.Path.601 History of Plant Pathology 2. PI.Path.602 Plant Pathological Techniques 3. PI.Path.603 Principles of Plant Pathology 4. PI.Path.604 Mycology-I 5. PI.Path.605 Mycology-II 6. PI.Path.606 Mycology-III 7. PI.Path.607 Diseases of Field Crops 8. PI.Path.608 Diseases of Horticultural Crops 9. PI.Path.609 Non-Parasitic and Phanerogamic Diseases of Plants 10. PI.Path.610 Post-Harvest Diseases 11. PI.Path.611 Plant Bacteriology 12. PI.Path.612 Plant Virology-I 13. PI.Path.613 Plant Virology-II 14. PI.Path.614 Viral and Mycoplasma of Crops Diseases 15. PI.Plant.615 Plant Diseases Management 16. PI.Plant.616 Seed Pathology 17. PI.Path.617 Epidemiology, Diseases Forecasting and Assessment of Losses 18. PI.Path.618 Agricultural Chemicals 19. PI.Path.619 Principles of Nematology 20. PI.Path.620 Diseases caused by Nematodes 21. PI.Path.621 Management of Nemic Diseases 22. PI.Path.622 Physiology of Fungi 23. PI.Path.623 Biochemistry of Plant Diseases 24. PI.Path.624 Breeding for Disease and Insect Resistance' 25. PI.Path.625 Ecology of Plant Pathogens 26. PI.Path.626 Advanced Obligate Parasitism

14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

PI.Physiol.614 PI.Physiol.615 PI.Physiol.616 PI.Physiol.617 PI.Physiol.618 PI.Physiol.619 PI.Physiol.620 PI.Physiol.621

3+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+0 2+1 2+0 3+0 3+0 2+0 1+0 2+0 1+2 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 1+1 1+1 2+2 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 1+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+0 2+0 2+1 2+1

27. PI.Path.627 Aerobiology and plant Diseases 28. PI.Path.628 Soil Microbiology 29. PI.Path.698 Special Problem 30. PI.Path.699 Seminar VIII. NEMATOLOGY 1. NEM.601 Principles of Nematology 2. NEM.602 Diseases Caused by Nematodes 3. NEM .603 Management of Nemic Diseases 4. NEM .604 Principles of Plant Pathology 5. NEM .605 Diseases of Field Crops 6. NEM .606 Plant Pathological Techniques 7. NEM.607 Plant Disease Management 8. NEM.608 Taxonomy of Phytonematodes 9. NEM.609 Nematological Techniques 10. NEM.610 Physiology and Biochemistry of Nematodes 11. NEM.611 Biology of Plant Parasitic Nematodes 12. NEM .612 Nematode Interactions with Microorganisms 13. NEM.613 Nematicides and Their Uses 14. NEM . Nematode Ecology 614 15. NEM.615 Cytology of Plant Parasitic Nematodes 16. NEM.698 Special Problem 17. NEM.699 Seminar IX. AGRICULTURAL ENTOMOLOGY 1. Ag.Ent.601 External Morphology of objects 2. Ag.Ent.602 Internal Anatomy and Embryology 3. Ag.Ent.603 Insect Taxonomy 4. Ag.Ent.604 Pests of Field Crops 5. Ag. Ent.605 Pests of Horticultural Crops 6. Ag.Ent.606 Stored Product Entomology 7. Ag.Ent.607 Insect Ecology 8. Ag.Ent.608 Insect Toxicology-I 9. Ag.Ent.609 Biological Control of Crop Pests 10. Ag.Ent.610 Principles of Insect Control 11. Ag.Ent.611 Rodents and Other Non-Insect Pests 12. Ag.Ent.612 Pest Control Practices 13. Ag.Ent.613 Immature Insects 14. Ag.Ent.614 Research Methodology in Agricultural Entomology 15. Ag.Ent.615 Resistance in Crop Plants to Insects 16. Ag.Ent.616 Industrial Entomology

1+1 2+1 2+ 0 1+0 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 1+2 2+1 2+2 1+2 1+0 2+0 2+0 2+1 2+0 2+1 2+0 1+0 2+1 1+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 1+2 0+2 1+1 2+0 2+1

17. Ag.Ent.617 Insect Physiology 18. Ag.Ent.618 Insect Toxicology-II 19. Ag.Ent.619 Agricultural Chemicals 20. Ag.Ent.620 Microbial Control of Crop Pests 21. Ag.Ent.621 Insect Pest Management 22. Ag.Ent.698 Special Problem 23. Ag.Ent.699 Seminar X. AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGY 1. Ag.Met.601 General Meteorology-I 2. Ag.Met.602 General Meteorology-II 3. Ag.Met.603 Agricultural Meteorology-I 4. Ag.Met.604 Agricultural Meteorology-II 5. Ag.Met.605 Methods in Climatology 6. Ag.Met.606 Climatology 7. Ag.Met.607 Applied Agro-Climatology 8. Ag.Met.608 Hydrometerology 9. Ag.Met.609 Micrometeorology 10. Ag.Met.610 Meteorological Instruments 11. Ag.Met.611 Air Pollution Meteorology 12. Ag.Met.612 Farm House Meteorology 13. Ag.Met.613 Animal Climatology 14. Ag.Met.614 Environmental Physics 15. Ag.Met.615 Calculus 16. Ag.Met.616 Advanced Calculus-I 17. Ag.Met.617 Advanced Calculus-II 18. Ag.Met.618 Mathematical Concept-for Meteorology-I 19. Ag.Met.619 Mathematical Concepts-for Meteorology-II 20. Ag.Met.620 Agricultural Climatology 21. Ag.Met.698 Special Problem 22. Ag.Met.699 Seminar XI. AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS 1. Ag.Stat.601 Agricultural Statistics-I 2. Ag.Stat.602 Statistics for Social Sciences 3. Ag.Stat.603 Statistics For Animal Sciences 4. Ag.Stat.604 Agricultural Statistics-II 5. Ag.Stat.605 Agricultural Statistics-III 6. Ag.Stat.606 Theory of Sampling Applied to Survey Design 7. Ag.Stat.607 Statistics in Plant Sciences 8. Ag.Stat.608 Agricultural Statistics-IV 9. Ag.Stat.609 Genetic, Experimental Design-I

2+1 2+1 2+1 1+1 2+1 2+0 1+0 3+0 3+0 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+0 3+0 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 1+0 2+0 3+0 3+0 2+0 2+0 2+0 2+0 3+0 2+0 1+0 3+1 3+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 4+0 2+1 2+1 3+0

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Ag.Stat.610 Ag.Stat.611 Ag.Stat.612 Ag.Stat.613 Ag.Stat.614 Ag.Stat.615 Ag.Stat.616

17. Ag.Stat.617 18. Ag.Stat.618 19. Ag.Stat.619 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. Ag.Stat.620 Ag.Stat.621 Ag.Stat.622 Ag.Stat.623 Ag.Stat.624 Ag.Stat.625 Ag.Stat.626 Ag.Stat.627 Ag.Stat.628 Ag.Stat.629 Ag.Stat.630 Ag.Stat.631

32. Ag.Stat.632 33. Ag.Stat.698 34. Ag.Stat.699 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Ag.Econ.601 Ag.Econ.602 Ag.Econ.603 Ag.Econ.604 Ag.Econ.605 Ag.Econ.606 Ag.Econ.607 Ag.Econ.608 Ag.Econ.609 Ag.Econ.610

Genetic Experimental Designs-II Basic Statistical Theory-I Basic Statistical Theory-II Basic Statistical Analysis-I Basic Statistical Analysis-II Statistical Technique in Bio Assay Advanced Topics in Least Squares and Variance Components-I Advanced Topics in Least- Squares and Variance Components-II Special Advanced Topics in Statistical Analysis Special Advanced Topic in Statistical Analysis-II Multivariate Analysis Calculus Advanced Calculus-I Advanced Calculus-II Matrices and Determinants Set Theory Mathematical Concepts For Meteorology-I Mathematical Concepts For Meteorology-II Mathematical Economics Linear Programming Econometric Methods Basic Computer Programming For Statistical Analysis Computer Use in Data Processing With Basic Language(HO) Special Problem Seminar Micro Economic Theory Macro Economic Theory Economic Development and Growth Economic Planning for Agriculture Economic Structure of Indian Agriculture Farm Management Analysis Farm Business Analysis Agricultural Production Economics Agricultural Cooperation Agricultural Finance and Credit Institutions

2+1 3+0 3+0 3+0 3+0 1+1 3+0 3+0 3+0 3+0 2+1 3+0 2+0 2+0 3+0 2+0 2+0 2+0 2+0 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+0 1+0 3+0 3+0 2+0 2+0 2+0 2+1 1+1 2+1 2+1 2+1

XII. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

11. 12. 13. 14.

Ag.Econ.611 Ag.Econ.612 Ag.Econ.613 Ag.Econ.614

15. Ag.Econ.615 16. Ag.Econ.616 17. 18. 19. 20. Ag.Econ.617 Ag.Econ.618 Ag.Econ.619 Ag.Econ.620

21. Ag.Econ.621 22. Ag.Econ.622 23. 24. 25. 26. Ag.Econ.623 Ag.Econ.624 Ag.Econ.625 Ag.Econ.626

27. Ag.Econ.627 28. Ag.Econ.628 29. 30. 31. 32. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Ag.Econ.629 Ag.Econ.630 Ag.Econ.698 Ag.Econ.699

Project Planning, Appraisal and Evaluation Agricultural Marketing Agricultural Price Analysis Economics of Livestock Production and Marketing Marketing of Farm Inputs Research Methods in Agricultural Economics Mathematical Economics Linear Programming Econometric Methods Operational Research in Agricultural Economics Agricultural Policy Agricultural Legislation and Taxation in India Resource Economics Advanced Micro Economic Theory Advanced Macro Economic Theory Advanced Farm Management and Production Economics Advanced Agricultural Marketing Marketing of Cash Crops and Processed Farm Commodities Advanced Econometric Methods Indian Banking System Special Problem Seminar

1+1 2+0 2+0 2+1 2+1 2+0 2+0 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+0 2+0 3+0 3+0 3+0 2+1 3+0 2+0 2+1 2+0 2+0 1+0 2+0 2+1 1+1 2+0 2+0 2+0 2+1 1+1

XIII. EXTENSION EDUCATION Exrn.Edn.601 Extension Education and Rural Development in Different Countries Extn.Edn.602 Extension Programme Planning Extn.Edn.603 Evaluation in Extension Extn.Edn.604 Programmes and Strategies of Agricultural Development in India Extn.Edt.605 Programmes and Strategies of Home Science Extension Extn.Edt.606 Programmes and Strategies of Animal Husbandary Extension Extn.Edt.607 Extension Training and Agricultural Education Extn.Edn.608 Adult Education

9. Extn.Edn.609 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Methods and Designing of Extension Research Extn.Edn.610 Advanced Extension Research Extn.Ent.611 Extension Teaching Methods Extn.Ent.612 CommunicatioJ1Rrocess in Extension Extn.Edn.613 Diffusion and Adoption of Innovation Extn.Edn.614 Mass Media Communication Extn.Edn.615 Agricultural Journalism Extn.Edn.616 Sociology for Extension Workers Extn.Edn.617 Advanced Rural Sociology Extn.Edt.618 Leadership in Extension EXtn.Edt.619 Rural Community Organisation Extn.Edn.620 Youth work in Extension Extn.Edn.621 Dyanamics of Social Change Extn.Edn.622 Group-Dynamic and Human Relations Extn.Edn.623 Introduction to Cultural Anthropology Extn.Edn.624 Introductory Educational Psychology Extn.Edn.625 Advanced Educational Psychology Extn.Edn.626 Administration on Extension Education Extn.Edn.627 Advanced Administrative Theories Extn.Edn.628 Management for Agricultural Development Extn.Edn.698 Special Problem Extn.Edn.699 Seminar XIV SOIL - WATER MANAGEMENT SWM. 601 SWM. 602 SWM. 603 SWM. 604 SWM. 605 SWM. 606 SWM. 607 SWM. 608 SWM. 609 SWM. 610 SWM. 611 SWM. 612 SWM. 613 SWM. 614 Fundamentals of Soil-Water Management-I Fundamentals of Soil-Water Management-II Soil-Water Soil Genesis, Classification & Survey Soil physics Soil-Water Management in Problematic Soils Saline Sadie, Acid Soils and their Management Chemistry of Submerged Soils Watershed Management & Land Use Planning Dry Farming Advances in Irrigation Scheduling Irrigation Systems & Water Measuring Devices Quality of Irrigation Water Hydrology of Agricultural Lands

2+1 2+1 1+2 2+1 2+1 2+0 2+1 2+1 2+0 1+1 2+0 1+1 2+0 2+1 1+1 2+0 2+0 2+1 2+0 2+1 2+0 1+0 3+1 3+1 2+1 3+1 2+1 2+0 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 3+0 2+1 2+1 2+1

15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.

SWM. 615 SWM. 616 SWM. 617 SWM. 618 SWM. 619 SWM. 620 SWM. 621 SWM. 622 SWM. 623 SWM. 624 SWM. 625 SWM. 698 SWM. 699

Drainage in Agricultural Lands Soil-Water Conservation Engineering Mechanics of Soil Erosin Control Applied Agro-Climatology Soil-Water Management for Cereal Crops Soil-Water Management for Pulse and Oilseeds Crops Soil-Water Management for Commercial Crops Soil-Water Management for VegetableOrchard and Plantation Crops Wells and Pumps Sprinkler and Drip Irrigation System Irrigation Command Area Management Special Problem Seminar

2+1 3+0 2+0 3+0 2+0 2+0 2+0 2+0 2+1 2+1 2+1 0+2 1+0

GUJARAT AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY Sardar Krushinagar-3855-06. COURSES FOR THE POST-GRADUATE PROGRAMME. (Agriculture) Following is the list of pre-requisite and supporting courses from undergraduate programme of study for Agricultural subjects for candidates admitted from Basic Science Technology/Allied fields. UNDER-GRADUATE COURSES Course No. Agron. Agron. Agron. Hort. Hort. Ag. Chem. Ag. Chem. Ag. Chem. Title Principles of Agronomy Crop Production-I Crop Production-II. Fruit Growing Vegetable Growing Soil genesis, survey and classification Soil Physics Soil Chemistry Credits (2 + 2) (3 + 2) (3 + 2) (2 + 1) (2 + 1) (2 + 1) (2 + 1) (3 + 2)

101 201 202 201 202 201 202 301

The Advisory Committee on consideration of the- background of the student, shall suggest from above, the pre-requisite courses. Additional prerequisite/supporting courses which are required to be taken by the candidates are also suggested in each course. Pre-requisite as needed for any discipline will be decided by the Advisory Committee for Ph.D. student. 2. Graduates of concerned Science, Humanity, Technology and allied fields of Agriculture, Veterinary, Dairy, Home Science, Agricultural Engineering, Forestry and Horticulture shall be admitted to M.Sc. degree for the concerned disciplines of following Post-graduate programme in Agriculture. No. 1. 2. 3. Name of discipline Agril Chemistry & Soil Science Bio-Chemistry . Horticulture

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Plant Breeding and Genetics Plant Physiology and Ecology Agricultural Entomology Agricultural Meteorology Agricultural Statistics Agricultural Economics Plant Pathology Plant Nematology

I. AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY ANQ SOIL SCIENCE Note: (i) Pre-requisite Ag. Chem. 102 : Plant Bio-chemistry (3 + 0) for Geology graduates.
Ag. Chem. 601 Nature and Properties of Soil (2+ 1) Concept of soil as a natural resources. Soil components, general relations of soil and plant. Soil genesis developments and study of soil profile. Relationship between rocks, minerals and soil. Weathering process. Soil organic matter. Nature and properties of inorganic and organic colloids. Soil management in relation to silicate clay minerals. Cation and anion exchange. Soil air, temperature and water relations. Soil reactions, buffering and their effects on soil properties and plant growth. Soil fertility and fate of applied fertilizer elements. Ag. Chem. 602 Soil Chemistry (2+ 1) Soil as a medium for plant growth. Essential nutrients for plant growth and factors affecting their availability, fixation and release. Inorganic and organic constituents of soil and their composition. Soil solution and soil colloids. Physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. Cation and anion exchange capacities of soil. Soil reaction and buffering capacity. Role of exchangeable H and AI in soil acidity. Soil salinity and alkalinity. Chemistry of waterlogged soil. Tackling of soil fertility problems. Ag. Chem. 603 Soil Colloids and Clay Minerals (3+0) Colloidal system, its classification, terminology and general properties. Surface chemistry of soil and clays; nature of inorganic and organic colloidal systems, size limits, specific surface area, nature and origin of charge, colloidal properties, potential determining ions, types of forces acting at interfaces, electrokinetic phenomena, double layer theory, ionic adsorption, ionic exchange and negative absorption. Clay minerals; nature and structure of clay minerals in relation to their properties; nomenclature and classification; clay mineral formation and occurrence; methods of identification and quantification and pedogenic significance of clay minerals. Dominant clay minerals in major soil groups; inherent fertility of soil in relation to clay mineral composition, their effect on plant growth; fixation of major and micronutrients by clay minerals; soil management practices as affected by them. Ag. Chem. 604 Soil Physical Chemistry (3+0) Thermodynamics laws and functions, free energy concept; chemical potential. Electromotive force, single electrode potentials, oxidation reduction potentials, solubility products, activity concepts, colloidal chemistry. Kinetics of nutrient reactions. Redox system and its relation in soil. Ionic equilibria and ion migration in soils. Reactions with metals, clay minerals and organic compounds. Ag. Chem. 605 Soil Physics (2+ 1) Soil as a disperse three phase system, volume and mass relationship and soil constituents, texture-particle size distribution, methods of assessments of texture and textural classification. Surface properties of soil solids, water adsorption in soils and electrical phenomenon at clay-water interface. Dynamic properties of soils, soil consistency, plasticity, shear strength, compaction and compression. Soil structure types, genesis, evaluation and management. Soil crusting and soil. conditioners. Soil water content and potential, their measurement. Flow of water in saturated and unsatured soils. Infitration, redistribution of water after infiltration and evaporation. Soil air, aeration and characterisation. Soil temperature and heat flow in soil, thermal properties of soil, thermal regions of soil profiles and management for their modification. Ag. Chem. 606 Soil Genesis, Survey and Classification (3+ 1) Origin of soil and its formation. The soil in nature, physical and chemical make up of

soil, weathering of rocks and minerals. Weathering sequences. Weathering and stability of minerals, weathering indices. Pedogenic factors, illuviation and eluviation, transport agencies of weathered material. Major soil forming process, podsolization, laterization, calcification, salinization, etc. Development of soil profiles and horizons, soil morphology, nomenclature and description of typical soil profiles. Soil classification, history of classification, different systems, modern concept of soil and recent systems of classifications. Soils of India. Soil survey and mapping need, types and methods of soil survey, field description of soil profiles, physical and chemical characterization, collection of soil monoliths, mapping units for soil classification. Land use capability classes, productivity rating and storie index. Taxonomic and cartographic units for soil mapping. Soil survey reports, latest trends in soil survey, aerial photography and photo-interpretations, use of infra-red photography in soil survey. Ag.Chem.607 Soil Fertility Evaluation and Fertilizer Recommendation. (2 + 1 ) Forms and behaviour of essential nutrient elements in soil. Total and available nutrients. The optimum concentration, levels of deficiency and toxicity of nutrients in soil. Different methods of soil fertility evaluation, their utility and limitations. Interpretation of soil test data and preparation of soil fertility maps. Present position of soil testing in India and other countries. Soil tests and their calibration, soil test-crop correlations. Requirements for a sound fertilizer recommendation programme. Recommendation process. Recent trends in the evaluation of soil fertility. Recommendations for targeted yields. Special problems in soil fertility evaluation. Ag. Chem. 608 Manures and Fertilizers (3+ 1) History of fertilisation, fertilizer terminology. Bulky and concentrated organic manures, their production, composition, transformations and effects on soil properties and crops. Nitrogenous, phosphatic and potassic fertilizers, their sources and basic processes of manufacture. Straight, compound (complex), mixed liquid, and slow release fertilizers, their properties, use, relative efficiency in storage, fate when applied to soil and their assay. Balanced fertilization. Acidity and basicity of nitrogenous fertilizers. Processes and chemical reactions of mixing, granulation, conditioners and fillers. Bio-fertilizers and their significance in crop-production. Principles of fertilizer use, placement and other methods of efficient use of fertilizers in relation to soil crops. Residual effects of manures and fertilizers. Secondary and micronutrient carriers. Fertilizer control and regulations, ISI standards, inspection and enforcement of fertilizer laws. Fertilizer requirement, production and consumption patterns. Ag. Chem. 609 Micronutrients in Soils and Plants (2+ 1) Historical background, Geochemical aspects of trace elements. Micronutrients in soils and plants. Micronutrient status of soils of India, problems in their assessment, factors influencing the availability and movement in rhizosphere and translocation within the plant system. Functions, deficiency and toxicity symptoms in plants. Soil conditions including deficiency and toxicity interaction. Correction of deficiency, micronutrient-carriers and chelates, methods of application, recycling and utilization of industrial waste products, pollution, differential responses by plant genotypes. Trace elements in animal nutrition. Soilplant-animal relationship with respect to micronutrients. Analytical techniques. Ag. Chem. 610 Mineral nutrition of plants (Same as Pl.physiol.606) (2+ 1) History and development of Plant nutrition. Definitions and classification of Plant nutrients. Classification based on biochemical functions. General and specific functions of elements. Deficencies, toxicities and threshold levels of essential elements. Mineral requirements and the elemental composition of plants. The soil as a source of mineral nutrients. Important physicochemical properties of soil in relation of nutrient availability.

Theories of nutrient uptake and assimilation. Foliar nutrition. Hydroponics. Essential growth stages and yield components as influenced by nutrient availability. Nutrition in relation to quality. Ag. Chem. 611 Ag. Chem. 612 Soil fertility Management (same as Agron, 604) Soil-Water-Plant Relationship (2+1 ) (3+0)

(same as Agron. 617 and PI. Physiol, 608) Basic properties of water and soil. Soil water relationship, soil water content and potential, their management, flow of water in saturated and unsaturated soils, infiltration and surface runoff, internal drainage and redistribution after infiltration, evaporation from bare surface soils. Mechanism of water supply of plant roots, nutrient transport to the root through soil water. Soil water and fertility. interaction, plant-water relationships. Uptake of water through roots and its movement in plants, resistance in various parts for the water conducting systems. Flow of soil water and factors affecting its movements in soil-plant atmosphere continum. Concepts of water availability, classification and newer concepts. Irrigation terminology, irrigation scheduling, different soil-plant and climatological approaches. Soil water Management. (To be offered jointly by Ag. Chem., Agronomy and PI. Physiology Departments). Ag. Chem. 613 Saline, Sodic, Acid Soils and Their Management (same as Agron. 619) Origin and nature of salts in the soil, factors affecting the accumulation of salts. Distribution of salt-affected area. Evaluation of salt affected soils Classification and their characteristics viz., electrical conductivity, pH, soluble cations and anions, specific ions, exchangeable cations, depth and thickness of hard pan/concretion, infiltration and permeability, aggregation and stability of structure, crust formation etc. Effects of salinity-sodicity on water and nutrients availability. Quality of irrigation water. Use of industrial effluents in agriculture. Principles and different methods of reclamation of saline and sodic soils. Organic and inorganic amendments, their requirements, efficiency and comparative economic consideration for reclamation. Screening of crops for saline and sodic conditions. Relative boron tolerance of crops. Specific problems and their solutions in Gujarat. Causes of soil acidity and its distribution in India. Forms of soil acidity and its nature. Soil as a buffer system, lime potential. Reclamation of acid soils. Plants response to liming materials and their placement. Benefits of liming. Injury due to overliming and its reduction. Ag. Chem. 614 Soil and water Conservation and Soil Reclamation (Same as Agron. 618) Analysis of the causes for decline in soil productivity. Broader aspects of soil conservation. Soil erosion process and factors affecting erosion. Effects of climate, vegetation and soil management on erosion. Soil tests and soil qualities affecting erodibility, Index of erodibility. Methods of erosion control. Run-off and its measurement. Losses of nutrients by erosion, productivity of eroded lands, efficiency of fertilizer on eroded soils. Soil conservation surveys, their interpretation and uses. Land-use capability classification. Soil conservation and water-shed management practices. Management of Agro-forestry in relation to soil conservation. Development of soil conservation plans. Water conservation principles and practices. Techniques and problems of soil reclamation. Ag. Chem. 615 Physical Edaphology (3+0) Soil physical factors-texture, structure, moisture, aeration and temperature. Crop growth in relation to varying soil texture and mechanical impendence. Crop responses to soil behaviour to thermal and excess regimes-crop responses to saline/sodic-acidic soil (2+ 1) (2+ 1) .

conditions. Plant growth and nutrients stress in relation to soil physical conditions. Ag. Chem. 616 Analytical Chemistry (1 +2) Principles of different methods of soil analysis, total and available nutrients in soil, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable bases, lime content and secondary nutrients. Analysis of irrigation water, interpretation of results. Ag. Chem. 617 Instrumental Methods of Analysis (1 +2) Basic principles and application of pH meter, conductivity meter, colorimeter, spectrophotometer, napalometer, flame photometer, atomic absorption spectophotometer, polarograph, chromatography (paper, thin layer, gas-liquid and HPL chromatography) and electrophoratic appratus and autoanalyser. Ag. Chem. 618 Radio Tracer Techniques (2+ 1) Structure of atom. Isotopes and radioisotopes. Radioactivity. Types of radiation and their characteristics. Radioactive decay and natural radioactivity. Detection and measurement of radioactivity in soils and plants, stable isotopes and their detection. Instrumentation filmbadges, dosimetery, Geigermuller counter, scintillation counter, gamma ray spectroscopy, mass spectometer, neutron moisture meter. Auto radiography. Use of isotopes and radio isotopes in agriculture and allied fields. Ag. Chem. 619 Agricultural Chemicals (Same as Ag. Ent. 619 and PI. Path. 618) Classification, chemistry, uptake, translocation, transformation, and residual effects of various agricultural chemicals viz. Pesticides, fungicides, weedicides etc. their handling and precautions. Tolerance limit of chemical residues in grains, fruits, vegetables and fodders. Ag. Chem. 620 Soil and Water Pollution (2+ 1) Soil water pollution problems-their magnitudes, sources, sinks and persistence. Soil, water and air pollutants-fertilizers, pesticides, industrial effluents and exhaust, agricultural wastes, detergents, sediments, radio-nuclides, oil splits, their effect on soil and plant growth. Quality and quantity of solids and liquid waters from agriculture. Estimation of degree of pollution in water and soil. Ag. Chem. 621 Soil Microbiology (Same as PI. Path. 628) (2+ 1) Microbial ecology and physiology in soil. Carbon and nitrogen cycles in nature. Organic matter decomposition and synthesis of soil organic matter. Plant nutrient mineralization and immobilization. Nitrogen transformations in soil including nitrification, denitrification, symbiotic and nonsymbiotic nitrogen fixation. Transformations of sulphur, phosphorus and iron. Importance of soil micro-organisms. Microbial inter- relationships, production of growth regulators, antibiotics etc. Composting, biogas production and biofertilizers. Ag. Chem. 622 Ag. Chem. 623 Ag. Chem. 624 Introductory Bio-Chemistry (Same as Biochem. 601) Soil Bio-Chemistry (Same as Biochem. 617) Advanced Bio-Chemistry-I (Same as Biochem. 602) Ag. Chem. 625 Advanced Bio-Chemistry-II (Same as Biochem. 603) (3+0) (3+0) (3+0) (3+0) (2+ 1)

Ag. Chem. 626 Ag. Chem. 627 Ag. Chem. 698 Ag. Chem. 699

Analytical Bio-Chemistry (Same as Biochem. 610) Stress Crop Production (Same as Agron. 624 and Pl. physiol. 623) Special Problem Seminar II. BIOCHEMISTRY

(0+3) (3+0) (2+0) (1+0)

Note: 1. Following are the pre-requisite courses for the B.Sc. (Agri.) candidates I. Biochem General Organic Chemistry....... (2+ 1) Molecular structure and isomerism, structural isomerism, electronic theory of valency, stereoisomerism, automerism, physical properties of organic compounds, colour and resonance, polarity, optical chemistry of functional groups, alcohols, esters, ethers, amines, aminoacids, polypeptids, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, hydroxy acids, phenols and quinones. Chemistry of important heterocyclic compounds, pyrrole, pyridine, pyrimidines, indoles etc. II. Biochem General Physical Chemistry...... (2+ 1) Ionic equilibria, pH buffers, acid-base indicator-hydrolysis of salts, Debye-Huckel theory, ionic activity and strength, osmosis, surface tension, Viscosity, colloidal state and Donon Equilibrium. Electrochemistry, Comprehensive treatment of conductivity electrochemical cells, oxidation-reduction potentials. Thermodynamics, laws of thermodynamics, enthalpy, entropy, free energy, heat capacity and its theories. Application of chemical equilibria and colligative properties. Thermodynamics of irreversible processes and its application to mass action. Biochem. 601 Introductory Biochemistry (same as Ag.Chem.622) (3+0) Scope and importance of bio-chemistry in agricultural sciences. Chemistry of carbohydrates, lipids protiens and nucleic acids. Enzymes, vitamins, coenzymes and hormones. Structure and organisation of plant and animal cells in relation to function. Membrane structure and function. General biochemical aspects of photosysthesis and photorespiration. Biochem. 602 Advanced Biochemistry-I (Same as Ag.Chem.624) (3+0) Bioenergetics, respiration, electron transport systems. Biological oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation, photosynthesis, photophosphorylation and photorespiration. Intermediary metabolism and its control. Metabolic pathways in general and biosynthesis of sugars, amino acids, purines and pyrimidines. Synthesis of fatty acids. Biochem. 603 Advanced Biochemistry-II (Same as Ag.Chem.625) (3+0) Bio-chemistry of photosynthesis in bacteria and higher plants, photophosphorylation, transformation of sulphur and its compounds, biosynthesis of carbohydrates and lipids, biosynthesis of nitrogenous compounds, biosynthesis of steroids. Chemistry of plant and animal hormones, vitamins and growth factors. Review of metabolism and its regulation through various factors. Biochem. 604 (2+0) Biochemistry of Nucleic Acids (Same as PI.Physiol.619)

Biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines, properties of purines and pyrimidines, properties and biosynthesis of nucleotides, nucleotides and polynucleotides. Chemistry and properties of DNA and RNA. Enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of nucleic acids. Biochem. 605 Molecular Biochemistry (3+0) Structure, function and regulation of chromosome and gene in relation to molecular organization. molecular aspects of mitochondrial and chloroplastic gene expression. Genetic code protein synthesis and regulation. Mutation, evolution, and molecular basis for adaptation and disease resistance. Molecular events in mitosis and meosis. Genetic recombinations. Genetic engineering and biotechnological application in crop production and crop improvement. Structure-function relationship of macromolecules in memberane systems. Molecular basis of hormone action and regulation of metabolism, Immuno biochemistry and application in study of plant proteins. Biochem. 606 Physical Biochemistry (3+0) Protein structure by physical techniques such as X-Ray diffraction, infrared and ultraviolet spectra, optical rotatory dispersion and circular dichrosis. Helix coil transition, protein conformation, level of organization and bonding in protein. Tataumerism in nucleic acids. Primary and secondary structure of nucleic acids, mixed helics of polynucleotides, ultraviolet absorption spectra of synthetic and natural DNA as a function of temperature, light scattering properties of biopolymers, semi-conductivity in proteins and nucleic acids, application of magnetic susceptibility in bio-chemistry, electron spin and resonance of irradiated biomolecules. Thermodynamics of antigen antibody reactions Biochem. 607 Nature and Properties of Enzymes (3+ 1) Intracellular localization and classification of enzymes, isolation and purification of enzyme, enzyme source, extraction method, fractionation technique, methods of separation, criteria of purity, specific activity, enzyme assay by various methods. Enzyme kinetics, Michelis constant, factors affecting enzyme reaction velocity, enzyme specificity, illustrative examples. Enzyme reaction mechanism, theories of activation, enzyme hydrolysis and chain reaction theories. Enzyme inhibitors, competitive and non-competitive inhibitors, kinetic plot of inhibitor constant, allosteric enzymes. Enzyme cofactors, hydrogen carriers, acyl carriers, phosphate carriers, enzyme activators, difference between prosthetic group, co-enzyme and substrate. Enzyme system: Biological importance of enzymes, illustrative example of multienzyme system in photosynthesis and citric acid cycle. Regulation of enzyme activity: Metabolic control. Biochem. 608 Nitrogen Metabolism in plant. (2+ 1) Source of nitrogen and its process of assimilation in plant nitrogen cycle. Biosynthesis and catabolic changes of amino acids, amides and other nitrogen storing substances. Plant protein types-protein synthesis in leaves, seeds and vegetables storage organs. Proteolytic enzymes in plant. Biochemistry of protein synthesis. Plants alkaloids site of alkaloid formation and their functions, alkaloids during the development phases of plants, biosynthesis and biological break-down of alkaloids. Nitrogen metabolism in developing seedlings, general aspects of nitrogen metabolism during growth, maturation and ageing. Biochem. 609 Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism in Plant and Animals. (3+ 1) Classification and naming of carbohydrades, biologically important sugars, glycoproteins, digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, glycolysis and fate of pyruvate, glycogenesis and glyconeogenesis. Lipid types, extraction and seperation of lipids, lipid oxidation and rancidity, role of lipid as aroma precursers in fruits and vegetables. Lipid digestion, absorption, transport and

mobilization in animals. Oxidation of fatty acids. Alternative pathway of fatty acid metabolism, metabolism of propionate, acetoacetate metabolism, biosynthesis of triglycerides. Biochem. 610 Analytical Biochemistry (Same as Ag.Chem.626) (0+3) Principles of methods of estimating organic constituents of plants covering, chromatography, electrophoresis, NMR, UV and IR spectroscopy, estimation and fractionation of sugars, carbohydrate, proteins, aminoacids, nucleic acids, fats and oils, waxes from plants and their products Estimation of vitamins, hormones, enzymes and pigments. Estimation of toxic organic compounds from plants and their products. Biochem. 611 Biochemical Research Technique (1 +2) Liophilization, dialysis, centrifugation and ultra-centrifugation and their use in the preparation and purification of cellular components. Absorption and fluorescene spectrometry and their use in biochemical research. Physio-chemical method for the seperation, identification and quantification of biochemical compounds, use of chromatography, countercurrent distribution, electrophoresis and density gradient centrifugation technique. Use of isotopes in biochemical studies, automatic analytical procedures in analytical biochemistry, Research methodology and significance of statistical methods in biochemical investigation. Biochem. 612 Biochemistry of Human Nutrition (2+ 1) Nutritional principles, nutritional requirements in diet, balances diet, digestion, absorption and metabolism, calorific requirements, nutritional values of food, essential amino acids, biological value and digestability of plant and animal protein, effect of cooking on nutritive value of food, food microbiology, nutritional modification under stress condition, effect of deficiency and excess. Incidence, etiology and prevention of deficiency, interrelations with other nutrients. Biochem. 613 Biochemistry of Cereals, Oil seeds and Pulses (2+ 1) Biochemical changes during germintation, development and maturation of cereals, oilseeds and pulses, Chemical composition and nutritive values, of cereals (rice, wheat, maize, sorghum and bajra), oilseeds (groundnut, cotton seeds, castor, sesamum, rape and mustard) and pulse crops (bengal gram, pigeon peas). Phytotoxins, aflatoxins, gossypol, naturally occuring proteinase inhibitor and other plant toxins. Chemical changes and nutritional deterioration in infested cereals, oil seeds and pulse crops. Prospects of genetic upgrading of grain quality. Biochem. 614 Biochemistry of Cotton and Tobacco (2+ 1) Cotton: Carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism in cotton plant, effect of plant hormones on the metabolism, physiological causes of bud and boll shedding, development of cotton fibre, fibre properties in relation to cotton quality, structure, composition and characterization of cotton seed. Tobacco: Biochemical changes during seed germination, plant growth and maturation of tobacco plant, biosynthesis of tobacco alkaliod, biochemical changes during fermentation and ageing of tobacco. Lipids in tobacco, fraction I protein in tobacco. Chemical composition of leaf and its smoking quality. Potential for tobacco modification in reducing health hazard. Biochem. 615 Biochemistry of Fruits Processings (2+ 1) Chemical composition and nutritive value of mango, banana and chikoo, role of fruits in dietry. Biochemical changes during ripening, post-harvest storage and spoilage of fruits. Pectic substances and pectic enzymes in fruits and their role in fruit processing industry. Fruit phenolics in relation to taste. Enzymes in fruits and their role in fruit ripening, fruit lipids and their role in fruit flavour. Vitamins in fruits, preservation of vitamin during fruit processings. Biogenesis of ethylene and its role in fruit ripening.

Biochem. 616 Biochem. 617

Biochemistry of Plant Diseases (Same as PI.Path.623) (2+0) Soil Biochemistry (same as Ag.Chem.623) (3+0)

Soil enzymes, their sources and role, extra cellular and intercellular enzymes, their activation and constitution. Decomposition of organic compounds, path-ways of decomposition alongwith their enzymology. Formation of humic substances and their chemistry. Formation and decomposition of phytotoxic substances. Forms of soil nitrogen, theories, stability of soil organic matter Bio-chemistry of nitrification, denitrification and nitrogen fixation. Bio-chemistry of phosphorous and sulphur transformations in soil. Biodegradation of pesticides and other organic molecules in nature. Biochem. 618 Cell Biology (Same as RB. 808) (2+ 1) Biological membranes cell competence, the totipotent to unipotent. The clone lines. The egg and sperm as complete cells. Interacting systems in gene expression. Products of expression and their regulation. Protein synthesis. The mitochondrian shelf. Hydrogen ion concentration. Binding. The up-hill task. Cell and tissue interaction. Genetic vs environmental competence. Mechanism of hormone action. The immune competence. competence. The growth factor Retention of genetic variability. Biochem.698 Biochem.699 Special Problem in Biochemistry Seminar (2+0) (1 +0)

III AGRONOMY Agron. 601 Principles of Crop Production (2+ 1)

Modern concepts pertaining to tillage, fertilizer use, irrigation, crop rotation and mixture. Plant population in relation to soil fertility, soil moisture and sunlight. Root distribution in relation to soil fertility, soil moisture and management. Concepts of plant growth analysis, yield attributes maximisation of crop production. Principles underlying management of different soils for different crops. Multiple/relay cropping. Cropping intensity. Modern concepts of dry farming and water harvesting/watershed management. Agron. 602 Agricultural Climatology (Same as Ag.Met.620) (3+0) Microclimate as an aspect of general plant environment. Heat economy of plants and plant temperatures, radiation and temperature and humidity and wind relationship in a differential plant cover, causes of temperature inversion and its effects. Temperature, wind and humidity inter relationships, crop adaptation and microclimate, weather and diseases of crops, weather and crop pests. Microclimate and phenology, importance of microclimate studies in ecological research. Crop weather observation and their importance in predicting epidemics of adverse weather. Organisation of meteorological observatories of the world in general and of India in particular and weather forecasting. Understanding of crop weather relationship and control of plant climate. Agron. 603 Weed Management (2+ 1) Scope of weed control. Principles of weed control. Concepts of weed-crop association and magnitude of crop losses. Weed control methods. Classification of herbicides Selectivity in herbicidal usage. Use of herbicides on weeds in different important field crops (cereals, pulses, vegetables, oilseeds, fibre crops). plantation crops (banana, papaya, citrus), forest nurseries, pasture and turfs and non-agricultural situations. Special weed problem in cropped and uncropped areas. Equipments used for weedicidal sprays, common weeds, their characteristics and identification. Integrated weed management. Weed management in cropping system. Labour utilization and economics of herbicide use. Use of crop protect ants and antidotes. Agron. 604 Soil Fertility Management (Same as Ag.Chem.611) (2+ 1)

Soil fertility problems, essential of plant growth, soil fertility in relation to physical and chemical characteristics. Fundamentals of fertilizer application. Plant mutrients their availability and absorption. Organic matter and soil relation in crop production. Micro and non-essential nutrients in relation to soil fertility. Diagnostic techniques and nutritional needs of crops. Activities of soil organisms affecting crop productivity. Organic manures and bio-fertilizers. Supplying major and minor elements through fertilizers. Methods of fertilizer application. A summary of important fertilizer trials. Economic of fertilizer use. Problems of soil infertility like soil sickness, toxicity and salinity etc. (To be offered jointly by Agronomy and Agril. Chemistry Departments) Agron. 605 Irrigation Agriculture (3+ 1) Role of water in plant development and crop production. Place of irrigation in world and Indian agriculture. Soil-Plant-Water relationship. Soil physical constants, classification of soil water and measurement of soil moisture. Water movement in soils. Quality of irrigation water. Irrigation management. Methods of irrigation. Methods of determining irrigation requirements for important field crops. Consumptive use of water, water requirement and water use efficiency. Irrigation efficiency. Drainage in relation to irrigation. Agron. 606 Dry Farming (2+ 1) Importance of dry farming. Climate and crop planning. Soil problems of dry farming area. Soil and moisture conservation. Water harvesting and watershed management. Increasing water use efficiency with various agronomic practices. Fertilizer management in dry farming. Choice of crops and cropping systems for rainfed areas. Scope of Alley cropping (Agro-forestry). Drought resistance in crops. Agron. 607 Crop Geography and Ecology (2+0) Basic concepts and principles in crop ecology. Role of technology and socioeconomic environment in agriculture. Principles of plant geography and plant distribution. Vegetation analysis and classification. Concept of holoecoentic environment. Crop association. Ecotypes. Factors related to yield of crop plants. Ecological optima for crop. Study of Indian crops with reference to their distributions and yields. Agron. 608 Grain Crop Production (2+ 1) Detailed study of rice, wheat, maize, pearlmillet, sorghum with reference to origin, history, distribution, nutritive value, soil and climatic requirements, varieties, cultivation practices and nutrition of crops. Economics of crop production. Recent advances in crop agronomy. Agron. 609 Legume Crop Production (2+ 1) Role of legumes in agriculture. Mechanism of nitrogen bio-fixation. Detailed study of pigeonpea, gram, black gram, greengram, cowpea, clusterbean, Indianbean and mothbean on the aspects indicated under grain crop production in Agron.608. Recent advances in legume agronomy. Agron. 610 Oilseed Crop Production (2+ 1) Detailed study of groundnut, castor, sesamum, rapeseed, mustard, soybean and sunflower on the aspects indicated under Agron.608. Recent advances in oilseed crop production. Agron. 611 Commercial Crop Production (2+ 1) Detailed study of sugarcane, cotton and tobacco on the aspect indicated under Agron.608. Recent advances in commercial crop production. Agron. 612 Forage Crop Production (Same as LP 818) (2+ 1) Importance of forages in agriculture, Soil, climate and use in choosing forage crops. Agronomic practices for production of important fodder crops. Emergency fodder crops.

Principles for making hay and silage. Determination of quality and palatability parameters in forage. Working out fodder calender for dairy farms. Economics of forage production. Detailed study of maize, sorghum, oats, hybrid napier, lucerne, berseem, cowpea and clusterbean with special reference to their distribution, ecology, cultivation, fertilization, preservation, utilization and improved varieties. Agron. 613 Spices and Condiments Crop Production (2+ 1) Detailed study of cumin, fennel, coriander, isabgul, dill seed, ajwan and fenugreek with reference to origin, history, distribution, economic importance, soil and climate requirements, varieties, cultivation practices, nutrition of crops, economic of crop production and recent advances in crop agronomy. Agron. 614 Agron. 615 Seed Production Technology (Same as PBG-612) Pasture Crops and Grassland Management (2+ 1) (2+ 1)

Importance of grasses and legumes in improving village grazing grasslands, forest grazing and pasture areas. Soil fertility and its relation to nutritive value of forages. Pastures and pasture types, seed mixtures, establishment of new seedling in pastures and grazing areas and their early management. Fertilization and weed control. Physiological consideration in pasture management, systems of grazing management, renovation of deteriorated pastures. Hay making and its preservation. Fodder banks. Study of few tropical and sub-tropical grasses and legumes with special reference to. their distribution, adaptation, plant description, importance and utilization, improved varieties and seed production. Agron. 616 Forage legume and Grass Seed Production (2+ 1) Sources of seeds of grasses and legumes. Seeding practices far seed production, Effects of environment an seed production. Hazards of diseases and insects. Harvesting, processing and marketing. Seed identification, testing and certification. Economics of seed production. Agron. 617 Soil-Water-Plant Relationship (Same as Ag.Chem.612 and PI.PhysioI.608) (To be offered jointly by Agril. Chemistry, Agronomy and Plant Physiology Departments.) Agron. 618 Agron. 619 Agron. 620 Soil and Water Conservation and Soil Reclamation (Same as Ag.Chem.614) Saline, Sodic, Acid Soils and Their Management (Same as Ag.Chem.613) Management of Excess Soil Water and Crop Production (2+ 1) Excess sail water conditions, sources and occurrences, rainfall anaylsis and water balance. Effect of excess soil water an crap growth. Agronomic practices including selection of crops far efficient crop production under excess sail water conditions, ground water fluctuation and side movements. Lowering of water table for successful crap production, control of excess water through field drainage with special emphasis to crap production and soil salinity, interrelationship of drainage with crapping patterns and types of farming. Agron. 621 Research Techniques in Agronomy (1 +2) Essence of research. Origin and development of agricultural research. Principles and practices of agronomic research. Identification of agronomic problems. Techniques and methods of agronomic research, glass house, pot culture, microplot and field plot experiments, laboratory investigations, Iysimeter studies, investigations on farmers fields. Essential features for success in agronomic research. Presentation of data. Writing and (2+ 1) (2+ 1) (3+0)

reviewing technical papers, participation in agronomic seminars and conferences. Summary of old and permanent field experiments. Recent trends of agronomic research. Agron. 622 Agron. 623 Crop Physiology (Same as PI.Physiol.605) Growth and Yield Analysis (3+ 1) (3+0) (To be offered jointly by Agronomy and Plant Physiology Department.) Analysis of yielding capacity of different crops. Causes of variation in crop yields. Maximum crop yields, empirical considerations and means of realizing maximum crop yields. Relation between physiological and agricultural yields and methods of reducing the gap. Quantitative relationship between nutrient supply and crop production. Role of leaf area and leaf orientation in maximising crop production. Possibility and scope of CO2 fertilization. Inter and intra row spatial relationships. Irrigation, fertilizer and companion cropping in advancing the frontiers of crop production. Seedbed and rootbed management. Minimum tillage and problems associated with it. Cultural, environmental, germplasmic, plant morphology, stand geometry and physiological manipulations for higher yields. Agron. 624 Stress Crop Production (3+0) (Same as Ag.Chem.627 and PI.Physiol.623) Causes of stress and a cross section of agronomic problems causing stress on crop growth (salinity, chlorosis, sodicity, water logging, drought, low and high temperature, mechanical impedence etc.). Characterization and appraisal of these hazards in crop production. Effect of these factors on plant metabolism. Computation of resistance to these factors. Practical ways of over coming these adversities through soil and crop management. Selection of varieties resistant to these conditions. Air, soil and water pollution stress effects on crop production. Practical means of preventing air, soil and water pollution Stress in relation to crop growth and quality. Agron. 625 Physiology and Biochemistry of Herbicides (3+0) (Same as PI.Physiol.622) Classification, structure and properties of chemicals used as herbicides. Partitioning of applied herbicides. Mode of uptake and translocation of important herbicides. Metabolism of herbicides in the soil and plants. Factors affecting metabolism and degradation, absorption, leaching, chemical, biochemical and photodecomposition. Physiological and biochemical aspects of selectivity and susceptibility and factors affecting them. Responses of crop plants to sublethal doses of herbicides and its exploitation in agriculture. Movement and persistence of herbicides in the soil, practical methods of combating persistence hazards. Herbicides and environmental quality. Use of herbicides in conjunction with fertilizers. (To be offered jointly by Agronomy and Plant Physiology Departments.) Agron. 626 Theory of Use of Herbicides (2+ 1) Classification of herbicides based on their mode of action, structure, and application methods, carriers, surfactants, formation, solution, emulsions, and suspensions. Their chemistry and uses. Concept of selectivity and susceptibility and factors affecting them. Elementary idea of mode of action of important herbicides. Fate of herbicides in plant and soil systems. Factors affecting the processes. Mechanism of differential formative effects. Hormonal control of plant growth with reference to dual role of herbicides. Techniques involved in the evaluation test of herbicides on field crops including bioassay tests, field raw trials using logarithmatic sprayers and replicated field trials. Detection of herbicides residues in soil and plant harvests. Agron. 698 Agron. 699 Special Problem Seminar (2+0) (1 +0)

IV. HORTICULTURE Hort. 601 Fundamentals of Fruit Production (4+0)

History and importance of fruit production. Soil and climate in relation to fruit production, water requirements, intake and utilization; soil moisture regimes, responses of fruit plants to excess and deficiency of soil moisture supply, irrigation, nutrient classification, uptake and utilization, foliar analysis and fertilizer application, temperature relations of fruit plants, winter killing and hardiness, manufacture and utilization of carbohydrates. Growing and fruiting habits, pruning and traning, photoperiodism and flowering. Unfruitfulness associated with internal and external factors. Problems of pollination and fruit set, fruit growth, alternate bearing, harvesting, grading, packing, transport and marketing of fruits. Plant protection in fruit crops. Hort. 602 Tropical Fruit Crops (3+ 1) Detailed studies on the cultivation practices and problems in the culture of fruit crops viz. Mango, Banana, Sapota, (Chiku), Papaya, Coconut, Citrus, Guava, Fig and Pineapple. Studies on identification, training and pruning, floral biology and special problems of important fruit crops of Gujarat shall form the practical part of the course. Hort.603 Nutrition of Horticultural Crops (2+ 1) Historical background of nutrition of plants. Survey of problems of nutrition in Horticultural crops. Soil as a medium of plant growth. Essential nutrient elements and basis for their essentiality. Factors affecting the availability of nutrients. Effect of essential nutrients on horticultural plants. Methods and techniques for evaluating the nutrient requirement in horticultural plants. Nutrient uptake and transport. Nutritional requirement for important horticultural plants. Survey of orchads for mineral deficiency in respect of macro and micro nutrients, sampling techniques in various horticultural crops, preparation of samples and analysis for NPK and other nutrients and foliar application of fertilizers, observations on response of various crops to nutrients shall form the practical part of the course. Hort. 604 Plant Growth regulators in Horticulture (2+ 1) Brief history of plant growth requlators and their classification, Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, Inhibitors, Retardants, Ethylene and Morphactins. Principles of their action and utilization with respect to dormancy, growth, propagation, flowering, fruitset, parthenocarpy, fruit drop, ripening and senescene and weed control in horticultural crops. Preparations of solutions of plant growth regulators, mode of application and use in rooting, fruit set, fruit drop, parphenocarpic fruit set, sex expression, fruit ripening, senescence, weed control shall form the practicals of this course. Hort. 605 Post-Harvest Physiology of Fruits and Seeds (2+ 1) A fruit and the origin of its flesh and components of its growth. Fruit ripening in climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. Composition of fruit flesh. Control mechanism of fruit growth and ripening. Preharvest factors affecting quality and physiology of fruit after harvest. Harvest indices in important fruit crops. Factors responsible for post-harvest deterioration of fruits. Chemical changes at ripening in carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, pigments, volatile products, enzymes, respiration and ethylene contents. Seeds, composition of seed, seed metabolism and factors affecting the life of seed. Types of seeds on the basis of post harvest behaviour. Seed dormancy and methods to overcome it and seed storage. Studies of different types of fruits, their harvesting indices, post harvest changes in respiration, sugars, vitamin-C, carotenoids and seeds and their types, germination and viability studies shall form the practical part of this course.

Hort. 606 crops.

Principles of Vegetable Production

(3+0)

Importance of vegetables in human health and economy. Classification of vegetable Soil and climatic influences in vegetable growing. Manures and fertilizer requirements of vegetable crops. Water requirements and irrigation practices. Seed growing and plant growing structures. Cultivation, mulches and chemical methods of weed control. Rotation, succession and inter-cropping, harvesting, handling, grading, packing, marketing and storage. Control of pests, diseases and nematodes. Hydroponics. Hort. 607 Vegetable Crops I (2+ 1) Introduction, detailed study of origin, history, distribution, area and production, improved varieties, nutritive value, climatic and soil requirements, nursery techniques, sowing/planting, nutritional requirements, irrigation, interculture, weed control, mulching, plant protection, harvesting and post harvest handling of important tuber, root and bulb vegetable crops like potato, sweet potato, elephant foot, onion, garlic, radish, carrot, turnip, beet root, yam, tapioca, ginger and turmeric. Botanical description of important crops, preparation of cropping schemes, study of disorders, maturity standards and economics of crop production shall form the pratical part of the course. Hort. 608 Vegetable Crops-II (2+ 1) Introduction, detailed study of origin history, distribution, area and production, improved varieties, nutritive value, climatic and soil requirements, Nursery techniques sowing/planting, Nutritional requirements, Irrigation, interculture, weed control, mulching, plant protection, harvesting and post-harvest handling of important solanaceous, cucurbitaceous, cole, leafy and other vegetable crops like brinjal, tomato, hot and sweet pepper, bean, cowpea, cucumber, melons, pumpkin, gourds, cabbage, cauliflower, spinach etc. Botanical description of important crops, preparation of cropping schemes, study of disorders, seed extraction techniques, maturity standards and economics of crop production shall form the practical part of the course. Hort. 609 Propagation of Horticultural Plants (2+ 1) Definations relating propagation, Principal types of propagation, sexual and asexual propagation and their merits and demerits. Production of genetically pure seed, seed germination, seed dormancy and ways to overcome the dormancy. General structures of vascular plants, callus formation as related propagation, anatomical and physiologocal development of rooting in cuttings, grafting and budding. Aseptic methods of micropropagation, including specific procedures for culturing various tissues and organs viz. embryo culture, shoot-tip (meri-stem) culture and tissue culture. Root stocks for plant propagation. Root-stock and scion incompatability systems. Use of growth regulators in plant propagation. Recent advances in propagation of important tropical fruit crops. Practices in propagation techniques in important tropical fruit crops shall form the practicals in study. Hort. 610 Principles of Ornamental Gardening (2+ 1) Principles and practices involved in growing ornamental plants. The garden and its layout with more stress on lawn, (its cultivation and management) rockery, conservatory and water garden. Arbour, pergola, topiary and bonsai. Arboriculture and its management. Cultivation of plants in pots. Styles of gardening their history and characterization. Famous gardens of India and special features of their layout in comparision with those of other countries. Importance of ornamental horticulture with respect to town and village planning. Practice in layout plans of different garden styles, practices in cultivation of plants in pots and management of lawn shall form the practicals in this course. Hort. 611 Garden Plant Material (2 + 1 )

Study of identification, growth characteristics, propagation and use of different ornamental trees, shrubs, climbers and creepers, hedge and edge plants and other plants material suitable for planting in gardens. Study of different types of Crotons, Hibiscus, Ixora, Boguainvillea, Jasmine, Erenthemum, Aralias and arrangements of plant materials alongwith other objects. Identification, description and raising of above plant materials shall form the practicals in this course. Hort. 612 Principles of Fruit and Vegetable Preservation (3+0) General principles of fruit and vegetable preservation. Rawmaterials from processing. Composition of foods, enzymes and their general properties and importance. Micro-organisms associated with spoilage of fruit and vegetable products and factors influencing microbial activity. Role of temperature in microbial activity in food. Micro-biology of food at low temperature. Microbiology of fruits and vegetable. Food spoilage, sugar, salt and other preservatives. Pre-harvest physiology of fruits and vegetables. Physiological processes occuring after harvest. Role of growth substances and irradiation in decay control. Chemical changes of fruits during ripening and storage. Methods to extend storage life of fruits and vegetables. Hort.613 Hort.614 Hort.615 Pests of Horticultural Crops (Same as Ag.Ent.605) Commercial Floriculture (2 + 1 ) (2+ 1) Diseases of Horticultural Crops (Same as PI.Path.608) (2+ 1)

Scope, importance and limitation in commercial floriculture, Origin, classification, description, cultivation, nutrition, harvesting and post-harvest handling of commercially important flower crops like rose, jasmine, gladiolus, dahlia, chrysanthemum, tuberose., carnation, marigold and lilly. Systematic of above mentioned flowering plants and their nursery management shall be the part of practical training. Hort. 616 Systematic Pomology (3+ 1) Systematic pomology and its significance, history and principles. Nomenclature, classification, description and identification of important fruit species and cultivars of mango, banana, sapota, papaya, coconut, citrus, ber, guava, pomegranate, date-palm, fig, aonla, jamun, and other sub-tropical fruit crops. Description and identification of available tropical and sub-tropical fruit crops shall be the practical part of the study. Hort.617 Fruit Crop Breeding (2+ 1) Pre-requisites: PBG-601, PBG-610 and PBG-611 or consent of teacher. Methods of improvement of fruit crops viz. introduction, selection, hybridization, polyploidy, mutation. Problems peculiar to fruit crop breeding, including pollination problems and incompatibility system. Methods of breeding fruit crops, high-lightning special problems and the results achieved so far in important crops like mango, banana, sapota, papaya, coconut, citrus, ber, guava, pomegranate, date-palm, fig, and other sub-tropical fruit crops. Floral biology of tropical and sub-tropical fruit crops, selfing and crossing techniques, pollination studies, induction of polyploidy and mutation, handling of hybrid generation and new introduction shall be practical part of the course. Hort.618 Vegetable Crop Breeding (2+ 1) Pre-requisites: PBG-601, PBG -610 and PBG-611 or consent of teacher. History of vegetable crop improvement-Methods of reproduction of vegetable crops and their significance in breeding. Method of vegetable breeding, role of plant introduction, selection. procedures, hybridization, back cross techniques, heterosis breeding, diallel cross, polycross, synthetic and composite varieties. Resistance breeding in relation to disease, insect pests, drought, salt and heat, Breeding procedures for asexually propagated

vegetables. Floral biology of important vegetable crops, selfing and crossing techniques, scoring of plant characters for selection, experimental design and statistical analysis, rating system in the selection for diseases and insect pest resistance and working out for hybrid vigour and heretability from actual data shall be the practical part of the course. Hort.619 Advanced Vegetable Production (2+0) Recent achievements in relation to cultivation, nutrition, herbicide application, mulching and water management of vegetable crops. Processing and export oriented problems in relation to vegetable production. Hort.620 Citriculture (2+0) Importance, origin and distribution of citrus fruit plants, Classification, characters and nomenclature. Climatic and soil requirements. Fruit bud differentiation, flowering, pollination, fecundation, fruit set and fruit development, propagation and root stocks, mineral nutrition, irrigation and soil management practices, training and pruning of trees, insect pests and diseases of citrus. Orchard efficiency analysis. Special problems like fruit drop and citrus tree decline, problems of citrus industry in India. Hort.621 Nursery Management (2+ 1) Nursery and its classification. Horticultural plant nursery as an economical proposition. Selection of nursery site and factors affecting it. Nursery media, multiplication of different types of plants, choice of the propagation material and its handling, use of growth substances, irrigation, nutrition, training and pruning, plant protection, handling of nursery plants including lifting, potting, labelling, forwarding, packing, selling, etc. Nursery structures, nursery containers and nursery bi-aws. Selection and certification and maintenance of mother plants and bud wood plants. Identification of nursery plants, raising of different types of plants, potting, repotting, labelling, packing and working out of cost estimates for nursery establishment and visit to private nurseries shall form the practical part of the course. Hort.622 Dry land Fruit Culture (2+ 1) Introduction and scope for dryland fruit culture. Agro-climatic features of dry and arid zones of India and their suitability for fruit production. Special features of the tree species suitable for arid regions and their cultivation practices especially of ber, custard apple, anola, Fig, wood apple bael, pomegranate, phalsa, karonda, jamun, datepalm, cordia (gunda), tamarind. Special techniques of moisture conservation and use of antitranspirants. Study of special features of trees suited to dryland culture and practices on water conservation shall form the practical part of the course. Hort.698 Hort.699 Special Problem Seminar (2+0) (1 +0)

NOTE: A student majoring in horticulture as M.Sc. level should invariably study following courses.Hort.601, Hort.606, Hort.604, Hort,610 V. PLANT BREEDING AND GENETICS NOTE: 1. Following are additional pre-requisite courses for B.Sc.(Botany) candidates. i. Ag.Bot.301 ii. Ag.Bot.401 Principles of plant Breeding. Crop Breeding (2+ 1) (2+ 1) (2+ 1)

iii. PI.Path.302 Principles of Plant Pathology.

iv. PI. Path.401 PBG-601

Disease of Economic Crop Plants. Fundamental Genetics (Same as AGB.801)

(2+2) (3+0)

History and development, Cellular divisions, Gametogenesis, Mendelian Principles, interaction of genes, Probability and Chi-square test, Pedigree analysis, Twin studies, Linkage and chromosome mapping, Determination of sex in animals and plants. Sex linked inheritance, sex index, Immunogenetics and Histocompatability. Multiple allelism, Pleotropism, Characteristics of genetic material. Mutation types, mutagenic agents, chemical basis of mutations. Introduction of quantitative inheritance. Life cycles of maize, neurospora, viruses, bacteria and paramecium. Concept of extra chromosomal inheritance. PBG-602 Genetics of Microorganisms (Same as VMI-823) Pre-requisite: PBG.601 or Consent of teacher. Genophore in fungi, bacteria and viruses. Specialised genetic system in fungi, Recombination and chromosomal mapping in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Genetic code. Regulation of genes, protein synthesis. Replication of viruses. Antibody synthesis. Gene and development. PBG-603 Genetics-III Pre-requisite: PBG-601 or consent of teacher. Preliminary concept of quantitative inheritance. Random mating population, Gene and genotype frequency. Hardy-Weinberg principle. Binomial and multinomial distribution of genotype frequencies. Change in gene frequency-disruptive and systematic forcesmutation, migration, lection, inbreeding, genetic drift. Gene and genotype frequenciesMultiple alleles, Linkage, Sex-linked gene, self sterility. Types of genetic load. Genetic death. Meiotic drive, Genetic polymorphism. Genetic homeostasis. PGB.604 PGB.605 Genetics Laboratory Techniques (Same as AGB.802) Population Genetics Pre-requisite : PBG.603 or consent of teacher. Genetics and structure of random-mating population. Sources of variation in random mating population Theory of natural selection. Types of selection. Canalization. Stochastic processes in relation to gene frequency changes. Resemblance between relatives. Small population-change in me frequencies under simplified and less simplified conditions. Systems of inbreeding and heterosis in relation to gene frequency changes. PBG.606 Advanced Genetics Pre-requisite: PBG-602 or consent of teacher. The theory of gene. Nature of genetic analysis. Genetic analysis as examplified by pseudoallelism. Transmissional analysis. Fine structure analysis and recombination. Mechanism recombination in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Mutational analysis-resolution, spontaneous mutations, induced mutations. Molecular mechanism of mutation. Biochemical basis of additive, dominance and epistasis. Biochemical basis of resistance against diseases, pests and natural stresses. Electrophoresis and it's application in plant genetics. PBG-607 Ecological Genetics Pre-requisite: PBG-601 or consent of teacher. Genetic control of development and differentiation in plants. Genetics of behaviour and mimicry. Genetics and evolution. Speciation and evolution in plants. Origin of variability, Race formation, Species concept, Isolating mechanisms and molecular evolution, Evolution of mating stems, Gene ecology and adaptation, Natural selection, origin of terrestrial life. Genetic hazzards of natural as well as man made calamities. (3+0) (3+0) (0+1) (2+0) (3+0) (3+0)

PBG. 608

Biometrical Genetics

(3+ 1)

Pre-requisite: Ag.Stat.601 or consent of teacher. Introduction and historical developments, Nature and origin or genetic and non genetic variation. Continuous variation. Quantitative characters and their inheritance. Estimation of frequencies. Change in gene frequency- disruptive and systematic forcesmutation, migration, selection, inbreeding, genetic drift. Gene and genotype frequenciesMultiple alleles, Linkage, Sex-linked gene, self sterility. Types of genetic load. Genetic death. Meiotic drive, Genetic polymorphism. Genetic homeostasis. PBG.609 Advanced Biometrical Genetics Pre-requisites: PBG.608 or consent of teacher. Component analysis of quantitative variation, Genetic variance and influence of different gene effect on breeding procedures. Estimation of linkage from F2, F3, and backcrosses using maximum likelihood and other methods. Generation mean and variance analysis for description, detection and estimation of components of genetic variation, genic interaction and linkage, Genetic basis of heterosis, GXE interaction. Mating designs (diallel, line x tester, North carolina I, II, III), their assumptions, theory, planning, analysis and interpretations. Application of recent concept like triallel, quadrallel, triple test cross, its modifications. Correlation between relatives and their use in genetic analysis. D2 statistics and classification analysis. PBG. 610 Introductory Plant Breeding (3+0) Development and success of plant breeding. Patterns of evolution in cultivated species, plant explorations and bio-systematics. Systems of pollination control in crop plants. Reproductive systems in cultivated plants. Reproduction systems and plant breeding methods, Influence of incomapatability and sterility on breeding methodology. Pureline breeding and mass selection. Pedigree method. Bulk population breeding. Backcross method. Selection in cross-pollinated crops. General features of inbreeding and heterosis. Hybrid variety. Recurrent selection. Synthetic and composite varieties and polycross. General features of polyploidy. Use of polyploidy in plant breeding. Interspecific hybridization. Plant breeding records. Distribution and maintenance of improved varieties. Organizations for crop improvement at national and international levels. PBG-611 Principles of Plant Breeding Pre-requisite :PBG.610 or consent of teacher. Selection under self fertilization. Genetic consequences of hybridization. Inheritance of quantitative traits. Role of genotype and environment in quantitative traits. Genetic components of continuous variation. Selection theory for population of cross-pollinated crops. Population improvement methods. Response to selection and genetic organization of populations. Mating systems and their consequences. Genetic basis of inbreeding depression and heterosis. Breeding for disease and insect resistance and other environmental stresses. Concepts on unconventional breeding techniques-invitro technique. Recurrent selection in self-pollinated crops. PBG-612 Seed Production Technology (Same as Agron.614) (2+ 1) Pre-requisite :PBG.610 or consent of teacher. Structure of seed in commercial crops. Seed viability and dormancy. Seed multiplication. Production of commercial seed. Categories recognized at different stages. Seed production in hybrid varieties. Increase of planting material. Vegetatively propagated crops. Purity of commercial seed. Importance of seed testing. Seed certification. Seed law. Causes of deterioration of strains. Methods of maintenance of purity. Seed storage and marketing. Procedure for release of new variety at State and National level. Seed industry at State and National level. PBG-613 Mutations and Crop Improvement (2+0) (3+0) (3+ 1)

Pre-requisite :PBG-601 and PBG-610 or consent of teacher. Scope and achievements in mutation breeding. Mutations, nature and classification. Methods of detection and induction. Types of viable and chlorophyll mutations. Physical mutagens (properties and dosimetry, methods of application). Relative biological efficiency (RBE), Nature of direct and indirect action. Radiation damage (somatic and genetic sieve, problems and recovery of mutations). Chemical mutagenesis. Mutagenic chemicals. Pre and post treatment modifications. Transitions and Transversions. Procedure in mutation breeding. Methods of screening and scoring mutations. Factors modifying the spectrum and frequency of mutations. PBG-614 Breeding for Special Characters Pre-requisite :PBG-611 or consent of teacher. Environmental factors and their significance in crop growth. Methods of breeding for resistance against disease and pest, moisture stress, salinity and alkalinity and other (problematic) soil conditions, high and low temperature. Mixed and intercropping, response to low and high inputs (fertilizer and irrigation). Breeding for higher physiological efficiency. Efficient photosynthetic mechanism (C3 & C4 plants). Increased nitrogen fixation. Breeding for important quality parameters of major crops. PBG-615 Breeding for Disease and Insect Resistance (Same as PI.Path.624) Host parasite relationships histroical review, gene for gene relationships in hostparasite systems. Co-evolution in parasite systems. Vandar plank methods, horizontal and vertical resistance. Use of major and minor genes of resistance in plant breeding and breeding procedures. Plant characteristics in relation to diseases and insect resistance. PBG.616 Advanced Plant Breeding (3+0) Pre-requisite :PBG-611 or consent of teacher. Species differentiation in relation to plant habitat. Cytotaxonomy and Plant breeding. Introgressive hybridization. Cytogenetic tools as direct aid to plant breeding. Special techniques in crop improvement. Breeding for fixed and random environments. Breeding for physiological parameters. Application of tissue culture in plant breeding. Crop improvement by techniques of genetic engineering. PBG-617 Designs for Plant Breeding (2+ 1) Pre-requisite :Ag.Stat.602 or consent of teacher. Plant breeding experiments - purpose, methods, principles and interpretaion of results. Principles of field experiments, fixed and random effects, sources of variation in field experiments, experimental error. Screening designs for handling of breeding materialsrod-row plots, hill plot miniature linear plot, honey-comb method, frequent check or control plots, moving averages, augmented designs, compartmental or grid selection, polynominal response etc., their planning, uses, significance, Screening designs for disease resistancemonocyclic test, polycyclic test, spreader rows, circle plot method, central pivot method etc. Evaluational designs-replicated progeny row trial, compact family block design, incomplete block designs (simple, double, triple, lattice) multi environment testing. PBG-618 Rice Breeding Pre-requisite: PBG-611 or consent of teacher. Importance of rice, composition and commercial uses, objectives in breeding. Species and forms of Oryza, Variation in cultivated species, General methods of improvement. Field experiments, Genetics and improvement of rice. PBG-619 Wheat Breeding Pre-requisite: PBG-611 or consent of teacher. (2+0) (2+0) (2+0) (3+0)

Importance and uses. Relationship and origin. Chromosomes of wheat. Gene transfer from related species and genera. Genetics and inheritance. Breeding techniques. Breeding for quality, disease resistance and insect resistance. Breeding for other traits. Evaluation and testing of lines. PBG-620 Maize Breeding (2+0) Pre-requisite:PBG-611 or consent of teacher. Importance and uses, Origin, Variation in cultivated species, Genetics and inheritance. Breeding objectives and methods. Evaluation and improvement of inbred lines. Breeding for quality traits and testing of lines. PBG-621 Sorghum Breeding (2+0) Pre-requisite :PBG-611 or consent of teacher. Importance and uses. Origin and relationships. Variation in cultivated species. Genetics and .inheritance. Breeding objectives and methods of improvement. evaluation and testing of breeding material. PBG-622 Bajri Breeding (2+0) Pre-requisite :PBG-611 or consent of teacher. Importance and uses. Species and forms. Variation in cultivated species. Genetics and inheritance. Objectives and methods of improvement. PBG-623 Tobacco Breeding Pre-requisite :PBG-611 or consent of teacher. Importance and uses. Relationships and origin. Gene transfer from related species. Genetics and inheritance of yield attributes, quality traits. Disease and insect resistance. Breeding objectives and techniques. Evaluation and testing of lines. PBG-624 Cotton Breeding Pre-requisite :PBG-611 or consent of teacher. Importance of cotton. Species of Gossypium. Commercial uses of cotton fibre. Characteristics of lint, standards of quality. Genetics of cotton. Objectives and methods of breeding cotton and other important fibre crops. Achievements. PBG-625 Breeding Oilseed Crops Pre-requisite : PBG-611 or consent of teacher. Importance of oilseed crops. Uses of vegetable oils. Variation in quality and standards for oil quality in cultivated species of oilseed crops. Genetic studies. Objectives and methods of breeding. Achievements in improvement of oilseed crops. PBG-626 Breeding Pulse Crops Pre-requisite :PBG-611 or consent of teacher. Importance of pulses. Variation in cultivated species. Genetic studies. Objectives and methods of breeding. Achievements in crop improvement. PBG-627 Breeding Forage Crops. Pre-requisite :PBG-611 or consent of teacher. Importance of forage crops. Species of forage crops. Variation in cultivated species. Genetic studies. Objectives and methods of breeding. Achievements. PBG-628 Sugarcane Breeding. Pre-requisite :PBG-611 or consent of teacher. Importance of sugarcane, species of Saccharum. Variation in cultivated species. (2+0) (2+0) (2+0) (2+0) (2+0)

Objectives and methods of improvement. Complexities in breeding. Genetic studies. Methods of breeding and achievements. PBG-629 Principles of Cytology (2+ 1) Historical background. Recent techniques, cell organelles and their functions, Morphology of components and chemical organisation of cell. Structure of chorolplast, mitochondria, ribosomes, golgibodies, endoplasmic reticulum, interphase nuclei, nucleoli, Chemistry and ultra structure of chromosome. Structure and physiology of special type of chromosomes. Mitosis and meiosis. Mitotic apparatus. Theories of synapsis, Chromosomal movement. Physiology of cell division. PBG-630 Cytogenetics Pre-requisite :PBG-601 or consent of teacher. Micro and megasporogenesis. Embryosac and double - fertilization. Chromosome morphology and types of chromosomes. Changes in chromosome number and structure and their significance. Analysis of polyploids for gene location and transfer. Morphological and cytological features of polyploids. Methods of induction of polyploids. Haplontic and diplontic techniques of overcoming sterility. Apomixis. Production of synthetic allopolyploidy. Karyotype differentiation. Application of tissue culture and somatic cell hybridization in plant improvement. Gene transfer from related species and genera. PBG-631 Advanced Cytogenetics Pre-requisite :PBG-630 or consent of teacher. Cytogenetical studies and gene transfer from related species and genera in wheat, rice, maize, cotton, bajra, brassica, sorghum, potato, sugarcane, pulses with particular reference to their improvement. XYZ system in wheat and BTT system of male sterility in barley. Cytogenetics of oenothera somatic cell hybridization. techniques of over coming incompatibility. PBG-632 Tissue Culture and Crop Improvement (Same as PLPhysiol.620) Pre-requisite :PBG-630 or consent of teacher. History and general introduction to the technology of tissue culture. Embryo and ovule culture for interspecific hybridization. Intraovarian pollination and invitro fertilization for overcoming incompatibility. Meristem culture and pathogen free plants. Vegetative propagation and cloning. Production of triploid, haploid and homozygous plants. Induction of genetic variability in crops through protoplast culture. Somatic cell hybridization. Organelles uptake and nitrogen fixation, Induction and selection of mutants. Freezepreservation of germplasm. Progress, problems and potentials of protoplast and tissue culture in agriculture. PBG-698 PBG-699 Special Problem Seminar (2+0) (1 +0) (2 + 1 ) (3+0) (2+1)

VI. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY & ECOLOGY PI. Physiol. 601 Principles of Plant physiology-I (3+0)

The plant cell as physico chemical system, structure and functions of various cell organelles water relations, importance of water in Plant systems, Properties of water, absorption and the components of water potential, translocation and transpiration. Germination and dormancy, vegetative and reproductive growth, flower initiation. Flower development, physiology of pollination and fertilization, fruit growth and

development, fruit ripening. Abscission and senescence, plant movements. Plant growth analysis, growth curve, lag, pre exponential, Post exponential. Relative growth rate, crop growth rate, harvest index, dry matter efficiency etc. PI. Physiol. 602 Plant Physiology Techniques-I (0+1) Introduction to laboratory methods, procedures employed and principles in studying physiological processess indicated in PI.Physiol.601. PI. Physiol. 603 Principles of Plant Physiology-II (3+0) Absorption, translocation and utilization of mineral salts. Photosynthesis, photosynthetic apparatus and efficiency, leaf angle, leaf area, leaf area index, leaf area duration, leaf area ratio, net assimilation rate, etc. C3, C4 and CAM pathways, factors affecting rate of photosynthesis. Respiration, various aspects and types of respiration, respiratory quotient, factors affecting respiration, mechanism of respiration. Plant metabolism-enzymes, carbohydrates, fat, nitrogen, nucleic acids and proteins. PI. Physiol. 604 Plant Physiology Techniques-II (0+ 1 ) Introduction to laboratory methods, procedures employed and principles in studying physiological processess indicated in PI.Physiol.603. PI. Physiol. 605 Crop Physiology (Same as Agron.622) (3+1) Growth and development of crop plants at various stages. Seed germination and dormancy, seedling emergence and establishments, root growth, tillering, branching and lodging, Regulation of growth and development. Modification of physiological processes of plants by environmental factors(nutrients, moisture, light and temperature) and their effects on growth, yield and quality of crops produce. Physiological bases of yield in the major crops like cotton, groundnut, bajra, sorghum, wheat, arhar, mungbean, chickpea, sugarcane, tobacco. Pl. Physiol. 606 PI. Physiol. 607 Mineral Nutrition of Plants (Same as Ag.Chem.610) Growth Regulators in Agriculture (2+ 1) (2+ 1)

History of plant growth regulators. Method of their application and their role in agriculture. Modification of physiological processes by Plant growth regulators and its implication in crop yield and quality. Use of growth regulators in various agronomical and horticultural crops. Future scope of Plant growth regulators in agro-technology. PI. Physiol. 608 Soil-Water-Plant Relationship (3+0) (Same as Ag.Chem.612 and Agron.617) (To be offered jointly by Agril.Chemistry, agronomy and PI. Physiolgy Departments.) PI. PhysioI. 609 Physiology of Growth and Development (3+1) Growth and development, nature of growth process, growth of cell, leaves, stem, root etc. Morphogenesis, mechanism and problems of development. Plant hormones and growth regulation. Differentiation, photomorphogenesis, biological clock, physiology of flowering, fruit growth and development, fruit ripeing, seed development, tuberization, polarity potentials and plant movements, growth co-relation between vegetative and reproductive growth, shoot/root ratio. etc. senescence, abscission, plant growth analysis in relation to physiological bases of crop yield. PI. Physiol. 610 Principles of Post Harvest Physiology of Seed and Fruits (2+ 1) Seed viability, its deterioration during storage. Germination and factors affecting germination. Dormancy, its causes and technique to overcome the same. Specific significance of dormancy in the field of agriculture. Physiological processes contributing to the post harvest deterioration of fruits and vegetables and their relation to practices involved in harvesting, packing, transit and

storage. PI. Physiol. 611 Recent Advances in Photosynthesis (2+0) Photosynthesis as a complex metabolic system. Photosynthetic apparatus, its organization, development, origin, phylogeny and genetics, genetic homology and hybridization. Chemistry and photochemistry of chlorophylls and other photosynthetic pigments, absorption, fluorescence and luminance in living cells, photophysical and photochemical phases of light reactions, photoshythesis in flashing light and photosynthetic unit, physiological, biochemical and genetic studies, photosynthetic efficiency. Recent concept in the fixation and reduction of CO2 in C3 C4 and CAM species, glycolate pathway, regulation of photosynthesis. PI. Physiol. 612 Experimental Physiology (1 +2) Experiment to illustrate the buffer action of cell sap, preparation of buffer solution, dialysis, electrophoresis chromatography, cryosopic method for O.P, stomal regulation, foliar penetration of chemicals, enzyme kinetics, effect of substrate and enzyme concentrations, pH, tempreature, etc. Hill reaction, separation and estimation of chloroplast pigments, chlorophyll stability index, measurement of rate of respiration by Warburg apparatus physiology of germination, estimation of amino acids, fatty acids, sugars, nuleic acids, etc. Tissue culture techniques, illustration of radioisotope through tracer techniques. PI. Physiol. 613 Plant Cell Metabolism (2+ 1) Compartmentation of cellular metabolism in the cell and role of various cell organelles-plastids, mitochondria, ribosomes endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus etc. in cell metabolism and recent techniques for isolation like centrifugation, gasometry, chromatography and spectroscopy to understand the same. Detail consideration of respiration. Fat and nitrogen metabolism. PI. Physiol. 614 Physiology of Growth Regulators (3+ 1) History, occurance, extraction, estimation, chemistry, classification and theories of the mechanism of action of growth regulators such as auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ABA, morphactins, ethylene, growth retardents and others. Biosynthesis and regulation of auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins in plants. PI. Physiol. 615 Environmental Physiology (2+ 1) Importance of specific environment in plant growth. Ecotype concept. Radiation, temperature, soil and atmosphere as factors of environment. Photobiologythermoperiodicity, gases and wind in relation to plant growth. Air pollution and plant growth. Physiology of plants at high altitude, under flooding and under environmental stress. Phytrones and controlled growth. PI. Physiol. 616 Stress Physiology (2+ 1) Physiology of tolerance to drought, heat, frost and salinity Inducing seed and plant hardening, Physiology of parasitism and physiology of pest and disease resistance. PI. Physiol. 617 Plant Anatomy (2+ 1) Plant body, protoplast and cell wall. Meristems and tissue differentiation. Vascular systems. Anatomy of plant organs in relation to epidermal, mechanical and conducting systems. PI. Physiol. 618 Taxonomy of Flowering Plants (2+ 1) Morphology of plant organs, floral biology and its importance. Taxonomic conventions and rules. Study of certain important families of agricultural and horticultural crops. Botanical gardens, Herbaria and flora records. Local conditions and plant species. PI. Pysio1. 619 Biochemistry of Nucleic Acids (Same as Biochem.604) (2+0)

PI. Physiol. 620 PI. Physiol. 621

Tissue Culture and Crop Improvement (Same as PBG-632.) Role of Plant Physiology in Modern Agriculture

(2+ 1) (2+0)

History and introduction to biological engineering, physiological approach to plant breeding and genetic studies, plant physiology and cultural methods and insect pests and plant disease control. Weeds and herbicides, growth regulators seed production and food technology. Photoperiodism, vernalization and crop production. Biological nitrogen fixation, other physiological processes limiting plant productivity. PI. Physiol. 622 Physiology and biochemistry of herbicides. (3+0) (Same as Agron.625) (To be offered jointly by Agronomy and Plant Physiology Departments). PI. Physiol. 623 PI. Physiol. 698 Pl. Physiol. 699 Stress crop Production (Same as Agron.624 and Ag.chem.627) Special Problem Seminar (2+0) (1 +0) (3+0)

VII. PLANT PATHOLOGY. PI. Path. 601 History of Plant Pathology (2+0)

Phytopathology of ancient era., dark era, pre-modern era and modern era. Development of science of plant bacteriology, plant virology, development of chemical control of plant diseases, early history of breeding for disease resistance and development of plant quarantine. PI. Path. 602 Plant Pathological Techniques (Same as Nem. 606) (1 +2) Knowledge and use of various laboratory equipments, microscopy, preparation of culture media, adjustment of pH, isolation including single spore isolation, inoculation, maintenance and preservation of micro-organisms in pure culture, micrometry and use of camera lucida, photomicrography, microtomy, staining and preparations of permanent slides, chromatography, spectrophotometry, tissue culture and maintenance of herbarium. PI. Path. 603 Principles of Plant Pathology (Same as Nem.604) (2+ 1) Nature and classification of plant diseases, mutual relationship between different micro organisms, production, liberation and dissemination of inoculum and survival of plant pathogens. Spore germination, mode of entry of pathogens, phenomenon of infection, symptoms, growth and reproduction of pathogens, predisposition, effect of environment and nutrition on disease development and physiological specialization. PI. Path. 604 Mycology-I (2 + 1 ) History of mycology, morphology, taxonomy and classification of fungi. Critical account of different genera of fungi belonging to the division myxomycota and sub-division mastigomycotina and zygomycotina with their phylogeny. PI. Path. 605 Mycology-II (2 + 1 ) Critical account of different genera of fungi belonging to the sub-division Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina with their phylogeny.(Pre-requisite PI.Path.604). PI. Path. 606 Mycology-III (2+ 1)

Structure and fine structures of fungal cell, apical growth rates, wall synthesis and organization of apical and sub-apical growth zones. Differentiation of colony, hyphae and reproductive structure, morphogenetic and photomorphogenetic effects. Corpophore construction in fungi; mechanism of spore liberation and dispersal; morphological, cytological, bio-chemical and metabolic changes during spore germination. Nutrition and metabolism, nutrients, mode of nutritions, efficiency of nutrient utilization. Transport process, transpiration and translocation and various metabolic pathways. Reaction to environmental factors, recombination, somatic and meiotic nuclear divisions. Heteroplasmons, heterokaryons, and parasexual cycle. Sexual reproduction in various classes. Occurrence and significance of recombination systems in fungi, speciation and evolution. (Pre-requisite PI. Path. 605) PI. Path. 607 Diseases of Field Crops (Same as Nem. 605) (2+ 1) Distribution, economic importance, etiology, symptoms and control measure of various diseases of cereals, oilseeds, pulses, tobacco, sugarcane and fibre crops. PI. Path. 608 Diseases of Horticultural Crops (Same as Hort. 614) (2+ 1) Distribution, economic importance, etiology, symptoms and control measures of various diseases of banana, mango, citrus, grapevine, papaya, ber, pomegranate, chicku, apple, coconut, arecanut, coffee, tea, brinjal, chillies, cucurbits, tomato, potato, okra, ginger, turmeric, beans, peas, crucifer, guar, cumin and coriander. PI. Path. 609 Non-parasitic and Phanerogamic Diseases of Plants (1 + 1) Historical background, effect of atmospheric impurities and lightning. Diseases due to temperature, light, soil moisture, humidity, nutritional disorder and phanerogamic parasites. PI. Path. 610 Post-harvest Diseases (1 + 1) Post-harvest diseases of fruits and vegetables, their detection, identification, nature of damage and control. PI. Path. 611 Plant Bacteriology (2+2) Historical development, characterization, nomenclature, taxonomy and problems of speciation in phytopathogenic bacteria, infection process and factors affecting it, phages of phytopathogenic bacteria, symptom types, mechanism of crown gall formation and nodule formation, soft rot and wilt, bacterial toxins, perpetuation and dissemination of bacteria, environmental factors influencing disease development and epidemic build up, methods of investigating bacterial plant diseases, important diseases of economic crop plants and their control. Pl. Path. 612 Plant Virology-I (2+ 1) Introductory historical account and economic importance, theories regarding causes of virus diseases, symptomatology, external and internal symptoms, effects of environment on symptom expression, methods of transmission of plant viruses, physiology of virus affected plants, multiplication and movement of viruses in plants and general control measures. Pl. Path. 613 Plant Virology-II (2+1) Nomenclature of plant viruses, virus-vector relationship, variation, mutation, origin of viruses, virus strains and methods of their determination, purification of plant viruses and properties of purified virus preparations, chemical composition and nature of viruses, serology and serological techniques in the study of plant viruses, inhibition of viruses, quantitative and qualitative methods of assaying plant viruses, cross immunity and bacterial viruses. (Pre-requisite PI. Path.612) Pl. Path. 614 Viral and Mycoplasmal Diseases of Crops (2+ 1)

Mycoplasma as causal agents of plants diseases. Symptoms, transmission and control measures of important viral, viroidal and mycoplasmal diseases of economic crop plants. Pl. Path. 615 Plant Disease Management (Same as Nem.607) (2+ 1) Principles of plant disease control viz. exclusion, eradication, protection, disease resistance and cultural and biological control. Plant quarantine, history of fungicides, classification of fungicides, use and mode of action of fungicides and other chemotherapeutants, compatibility of fungicides with agricultural chemicals, bioassay of fungicides, methods of application of fungicides and development of resistance against fungicides. Breeding for disease resistance and disease forecasting. Pl. Path. 616 Seed Pathology (1 + 1 ) Historical background, scope and prospectus of seed pathology, seed infestation, infection. and disease transmission, methods of seed health testing and identification of seed borne diseases of fungal, bacterial, viral and nemotodal origin, international cooperation in seed health testing and its implications, seed deterioration in storage, seed certifications and control of seed-borne diseases. Pl. Path. 617 Epidemiology, Disease Forecasting and Assessment of Losses (2+ 1) Epidemiology, factors governing epiphytotics, artificial and natural control of epidemics, prediction of epidemics, forecasting services, disease intensity and yield loss relationship, methods of estimating losses due to plant diseases, epidemic models and remote sensing technique. Pl. Path. 618 Pl. Path.619 Pl. Path.620 Pl. Path.621 Pl. Path.622 Agricultural Chemicals (same as Ag.Chem.619 and Ag.Ent.619) Principles of Nematology (Same as Nem.601) Diseases Caused by Nematodes (Same as Nem.602) Management of Nemic Diseases. (Same as Nem.603) Physiology of Fungi (2+ 1) (2+ 1) (2+ 1) (2+ 1) (2+ 1 )

Study of cultivation and growth of fungi and their reproduction. Factors affecting growth and its measurement. Effects of nutrition and environment on growth. Factors affecting spore germination, spore formation and spore discharge. Carbon nutrition, respiration and fermentation. Nitrogen nutrition and metabolism. Toxins, antibiotics, fungal enzymes and their action. Vitamin nutrition and other requirements of fungi. Effect of radiation on fungi and its application in plant pathological investigations. Pl. Path. 623 Biochemistry of Plant Diseases (Same as Biochem.616) (2+0) Biochemical and physiological aspects of infection process. Changes in photosynthesis, respiration, cell wall composition, metabolism and vascular transport in diseased plants. Types and mode of action of toxins in diseased plants. Pl. Path. 624 Pl. Path.625 Breeding for Disease and Insect Resistance (Same as PBG.615) Ecology of Plant Pathogens (2+ 1) Soil and plant microflora, its nature and biology, growth and reproduction in relation to substrate, dispersal, survival and dormancy, physical and chemical factors affecting pathogens and other micro-organisms, nature and importance of plant exudates and their influence on the associated micro-organisms, mycorrhiza. Nature-and1mportance of rhizosphere and phyllosphere in relation to pathogenesis. Host resistance, mechanism of (2+0)

antagonism, interaction between soil micro organisms and plants in relation to crop sequence, plant residue, organic amendments and mineral nutrients. Biological control. Pl. Path. 626 Advanced Obligate Parasitism (2+ 1) Concept of obligate parasitism. Evolution and characteristics of obligate parasites. Axenic and tissue culturing of obligate parasites. Host-parasite interaction, variability and its practical application. Methods of control. Pl. Path. 627 Aerobiology and Plant Diseases (1 + 1 ) Aerobiology and its practical applications. Aerobiology in India. Airborne biological materials and their long distance transportation. Technology of aerobiological research. Pl. Path. 628 Pl. Path. 698 Pl. Path. 699 Soil Microbiology (Same as Ag.Chem.621) Special Problem Seminar VIII. PLANT NEMATOLOGY NEM. 601 Principles of Nematology (Same as Pl. Path. 619) (2+ 1) (2+ 1) (2+0) (1 +0)

History, morphology and anatomy of nematodes. Feeding habits and nutritional requirements of nematodes in general. Taxonomy of phytonematodes in general. Larval emergency and host attraction. Physiology and ecology of nematodes as well as life cycle of nematodes in general. Inter-relationship of nematodes with other micro-organisms. Symptomatology and principles of control in general. NEM. 602 Diseases Caused by Nematodes (Same as Pl.Path.620) (2+ 1) Detailed studies of various diseases incited by nematodes. History, symptoms, etiology and control measures. NEM. 603 Management of Nemic Diseases (Same as Pl.Path.621) (2+1)

Principles of nematode control by various methods. Mechanism of resistance to plant parasitic nematodes. Breeding for resistance to nematodes. Biological methods for control of nematodes and problems related to biological control. Chemical methods for control of nematodes. NEM. 604 NEM. 605 NEM. 606 NEM. 607 NEM.608 Principles of Plant Pathology (Same as Pl. Path.603) Diseases of Field Crops (Same as Pl. Path. 607) Plant Disease Management (Same as Pl. Path.615) Taxonomy of Phytonematodes (2+ 1) (2+ 1) (2+ 1) (2+2)

Plant Pathological Techniques (Same as Pl. Path.602) (1 +2)

Detailed classification of various nematode groups with special emphasis on plant parasitic nematodes. NEM. 609 Nematological Techniques (1 +2) Extraction of nematodes from soil and plant materials. Preparation of temporary and permanent mounts for examination. Methods to prepare the perineal clonal patterns of Meloidogyne and Heterodera. Staining of nematodes in plant material for identification. Sampling techniques and nematicidal assay techniques. Techniques for application of nematicides. Culturing of nematodes. Measurement of a nematode and the technique employed for methods of isolation and identification as well as maintenance of phytonematodes. NEM. 610 Physiology and Biochemistry of Nematodes (1 +0)

Detailed studies regarding physiology and the cuticle as well as different systems of the nematodes. Reproduction in nematodes and factors affecting this phenomenon. NEM. 611 Biology of Plant Parasitic Nematodes (2+0) Study of the behaviour of plant parasitic nematodes. Methods of their multiplication and movement. Effect of soil environment on the development of nematodes and diseases they cause. Host-Parasite relationship. NEM. 612 Nematode Interactions with Micro-organisms (2+0) Association of nematodes with other micro-organisms. Comprehensive treatment of disease complexes involving interactions of nematodes with bacteria, fungi and viruses. Setting up of experiments to study the disease complexes. NEM.613 Nematicides and their Uses (2+ 1) Different nematicides, their classification, mode of action on nematodes and different formulations with merits and demerits. Different methods of application of nematicides and their residues. NEM. 614 Nematode Ecology (2+0) Importance, ecological classification of nematodes, effect of ecological factors (biotic and abiotic) on nematodes and feeding habits and their interactions with host plant. NEM. 615 Cytology of Plant Parasitic Nematodes (2+ 1) Histology, gametogenesis and cytological features of reproduction. Chromosomes of nematodes. Hybridization among nematodes. Nemato-sexuality. Cytogenetical aspects of nematode evolution. NEM. 698 NEM. 699 Special Problem Seminar (2+0) (1+0)

IX. AGRICULTURAL ENTOMOLOGY Note: 1. Following are additional pre-requisite courses for B.Sc. (Zoology) candidates: Ag. Ent. 202. Fundamentals of Agricultural Entomology (2+2), Ag. Ent. 302 Applied Agril. Entomology-I (2+1), and Ag. Ent. 401 Applied Agril. Entomology-II (2+1). Ag. Ent. 601 External Morphology of Insects (2+1) Body wall, its structure, cuticle formation, cutcular out-growths. Body regions, sclerites, segmentation. Head and its structures mouth parts and their modifications, thorax, wings-evolution, development, venation and modifications. Abdomen-segmentation, appendages. genitalia and their modifications. Sense organs. Ag. Ent. 602 Internal Anatomy and Embryology (1 + 1) Detailed study on the structures their modifications and physiology of the various systems digestive, circulatory, respiratory, excretory, nervous, muscular, reproductive, endocrine organs. Introduction to embryology. Development and metamorphosis in insects. Ag. Ent. 603 Insect Taxonomy (2+ 1) History of insect systematics. Theories of biological classification. Concept of subspecies, species and genus, intraspecific and supraspecific categories. International code of nomenclature. Classification of orders of insects upto families of Agricultural importance. Ag. Ent.604 Pests of Field Crops (2+1)

Study on life history, marks of identification, nature of damage, host plants, distribution, and control measure of borer; leaf feeders, sucking pests and soilborn pests infesting crops like sugarcane, cereals, filbre crops, pulses, oil seeds and tobacco. Pests of national and inter-national importance like-Heliothis, Prodenia, white grub, termites, hairy caterpillar, bolloworms, locust, etc. Ag. Ent. 605 Pests of Horticultural Crops (Same as Hort. 613) (2+ 1) Life history, marks of identification, nature of damage, host plants, distribution and control measures of pests of important fruit trees (mango, chiku, ber, citrus, guava, coconut, banana, grapevine, pomegranate), vegetable crops (brinjal, bhindi, potato, sweet potato, cucurbits, cruciferus, spices, and condiments (chillies, onion, turmeric, ginger, cumin, coriander, funnel etc.), and ornamental plants (rose, jasmine, Chrysanthemum, croton etc,), Ag. Ent. 606 Stored Product Entomology (2 + 1 ) Storage losses and their causes. Insect pests of cereals and other materials in storage, study of their biology, ecology, and nature of damage, sources of infestation, control of stored product pests. Scintiefic principles of domestic and commrecial control and insect infestation. Fumigants and principles of fumigation. Mites and rodents causing damage to stored products and their control. Storage structures (rural and commercial) and warehousing corporation, safe preservation of food grains, pulses etc. Ag. Ent. 607 Insect Ecology (2+ 1) Fundamental principles of ecology, environment and its components, effect of physical and biological factors on the life cycle, life table studies, distribution and abundance of insects, balance of life in nature, biotic potential and environmental resistance, interrelation of insects with living environment, inter specific and intra specific relations. Hibernation, diapause, aestivation. Distribution and migration of insects, monitoring and forecasting, causes of insect outbreaks. Ecology and insect control. Ecological relationship between host and parasites, principles governing the estimation of crop losses caused by insects. Ag. Ent. 608 Insect Toxicology-I (2+ 1) Introduction clarifying concept of toxicology and insect toxicology. Toxicity and mode of action of various inorganic, botanical and organic insecticides-chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, carbamates, and synthetic pyrethroids. Factors affecting toxicity of insecticides, formulations of insecticides, synergism and antagonism. Residues, halflife, waiting period and maximum residue limit of various insecticides. Various bioassay techniques and their use. Toxicity hazards to men and animals. Insects resistance to insecticides. Ag. Ent. 609 Biological Control of Crop. Pests (2+ 1) Definition, scope, importance and history of biological control, parasitism, predatism, parasitic and predatory groups, fundamentals of biological control, biological characteristics of entomophagous insects. Introduction, culture and establishment of natural enemies. Factors governing introduction, conservation and augmentation of natural enemies, methods of colonization, recovery of biocontrol agents in the fields. Introduction to microbial control of insects. Fundamentals of biological control of weeds. Success trends and future prospects of biological control. Ag. Ent. 610 Principles of Insect Control (2 + 1 ) Insect dominance in animal kingdom. Causes of increase in pest problems. History of insect control in India, various methods of pest control-physical, cultural, mechanical, biological, chemical, legislative and integrated methods, modern approaches to insect control, microbial control, male sterile technique, use of radiation and chemosterilants, insect attractants, repellents, pheromones, antifeedants, insect resistance in crop plants. Application methods of pesticides in control of pests-foliar, seed, soil application and baiting.

Ag. Ent. 611

Rodents and Other Non-Insect Pests

(2+ 1)

Distribution and adoptation of rodent to different environments. Population dynamics, development and growth, role of biotic and abiotic factors social and feeding behaviour, burrowing pattern, economic losses, rodenticides and their mode of action. Syrvey and control techniques. Introduction, history and development of acarlogy, morphology, anatomy, biology and habits of phytophagous mites. Classification of mites upto genera. Symptoms of damage and control. Importance, distribution, habits, biology, ecology, nature of damage of non insect pests like birds, snails, slugs, crabs, millipedes, bat and other animals. Methods of their control. Ag. Ent. 612 Pest Control Practices (1 +2) Methods of pest surveillance, grease trap, net catching, vaccum sampling. Methods of field survey to estimate pest population. Methods of sampling to estimate damage to field crops and stored grain. Discussion on effectiveness of various insecticides and their formulations on typical important pests. Economics of pest control measures discussed visa vis loss estimates. Application methods of pesticides in control of pests-foliar, seed, soil application and baiting. Plant protection equipments, their maintenance, use and manipulation. Type of shut off valves, lances and nozzles. Ag. Ent. 613 Immature Insects (0+2) Taxonomic importance of immature stages. Types of immature stages, their collection, rearing and preservation. Study of chetotaxy and classification of immature insects into important orders and families of agricultural importance. Use of keys. Ag. Ent. 614 Research Methodology in Agricultural Entomology (1 + 1 ) Introduction to entomology research-carried out under laboratory and field conditions. Methods of biological research in laboratory and field conditions. Preparing samples for identification. Calibrating instruments for humidity, temperature studies. Study of various types of cages to rear different types of insects. Methods of measurements of various microscopic insects and their parts/stages. Methods of studying various types of insect in field conditions by caging etc. Selection of experimental design while carrying laboratory and field research. Sampling techniques for entomological field research. Analysis and interpretation of data of entomological research. Ag. Ent. 615 Resistance in Crop plants to Insects (2+0) History and importance of insect resistance in crop plants, mechanism of plant resistance, nonpreference, antibiosis and tolerance. Biochemical substanoces in host selection as attractants, repellents for oviposition and behavioural processes, chemicals imparting resistance. remote and contact factors, plant resistance to insect vectors. Morphological basis of resistance. Ecological resistance. Role of genetic and environmental factors on stability and expression of resistance. Methods of investigating pest resistance in crop plants, germplasm resources and needs in host plant resistance studies. Use of resistant varieties in pest management. Future opportunities and directions in plant resistance research. Resistance to insects in major crops viz. cotton tobacco, paddy, sorghum, maize, sugarcane, bajra, wheat, oilseeds, pulses and vegetables. Ag. Ent. 616 Industrial Entomology (2+1) Apiculture-detail study of honey bees, its various species and their habits, rearing techniques of honey bee, care and management of beehives, information on centers for bee-keeping. Bee wax and honey and its utility. Sericulture-study of silkwormorms, its rearing methods and importance of natural silk cultivation of mulberry for silkworm rearing.

Study of various species of lac insects industrial Importance of lac and cultivation methods of lac insects. Marketing of honey, silk and lac. Introduction to other insects having industrial importance. Ag. Ent. 617 Insect Physiology (2+ 1) Importance and scope of insect physiology in agriculture. Physiological adaptations and speciation, physiological studies of integument, moulting, digestion, absorption, nutrition, haemolymph and circulation, osmoregulation excretion, respiration, nerves and muscles, sense organs, growth, reproduction and endocrine control system. Ag.Ent.618 Insect Toxicology.-II (2+ 1) Metabolism and structure activity relationship of insectidides, selective toxicity, resistance in insects to insecticides and means to over-come it. Magnitude and characteristics of insecticide residues and deposits, collection of samples, extraction and cleanup methods and estimation of residues. Methods. of analysis of pesticide residues with special reference to chemical and biological measurements of micro-quantities. Ag. Ent. 619 Ag. Ent. 620 Agricultural Chemicals (same as Ag. Chem 619 and Pl. path. 618) Microbial Control of Crop Pests (1 + 1 ) History and development of microbial control of insects. Characteristics and use of bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoans and nematodes in pest control. Microbial control and its role in integrated pest management. Influence of weather parameters and cropping pattern on microbial control, safety of insect pathogens for human beings, vertebrates and beneficial insects. Mass production of insect pathogens. Microbial insectides- formulationapplication. Economics and future prospects of microbial control. Ag. Ent. 621 Insect pest Management (2+ 1) Concept and ecological aspects of pest management and tactics, strategies in pest management, role of different control methods like cultural, physical, mechanical, biological, plant resistance, chemical, legal and modern approaches in pest management. Economics and limitations of pest management. Developing pest management programmes for important crops like cotton, oilseeds, sugarcane, pulses, cereals, tobacco, vegetables, fruit etc. Ag. Ent. 698 Ag. Ent. 699 Special Problem Seminar (2+0) (1 +0) (2+ 1)

X. AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGY Ag. Met. 601 General Meteorology-I (3+0)

Earth and its atmosphere in relation to sun. Radiation in the atmosphere; physical and physiological processes important to radiation. Laws of radiation and green-house effect. Heat balance of the atmosphere. Terrestrial radiation absorption by ozone, carbondixide, water vapour and clouds. Heat transfer processes. Temperature in the atmosphere; Distribution of temperature in time and space, subdivisions of the atmosphere-troposphere, stratosphere, thermosphere. Thermodynamics in the atmosphere; Adiabatic process, relation between temperature and pressure in dry airhydrostatic equation atmospheric stability and stability criteria for the atmosphere. Meteorological temperatures, thermodynamic diagrams and their uses. Dynamics of the atmosphere and general circulation. Influence of land masses and oceans on the circulation pattern.

Ag. Met. 602

General Meteorology-II

(3+0)

Air masses and their structure; properties of air masses, classification of air masses. Important air masses of India. Models of secondary circulation in the atmosphere. Fronts; Cyclones and anticyclones, troughs and ridges in upper air, tropical cyclones; monsoon circulation, mountain and valley breezes, land and dust whirls due to thermal circulation. Various humidity parameters and their inter-relationships; psychrometry-theory of dry and wet bulb psychrometry (Norman's Theorem). Condensation and precipitation in the atmosphere; condensation forms clouds and cloud classification, Elementary aspects of weather Forecasting. Observational network; preparation of surface and upper air synoptic chart and their analysis; Techniques for short range, medium range and long range forecasting. Climatic classification; various criteria for classification of climate. Geographic distribution of various climatic types. Principal weather phenomena occuring in four main seasons in India. Machanism of Indian monsoon and general distribution of precipitation during South-West and North-East monsoon; Spatial interrelationships between synaptic features and precipitation distribution during monsson. Ag. Met. 603 Agricultural Meteorology-I (2+ 1) Important meteorological processes to agriculture; Importance of various microenvironment on plant growth and development; Meaning and scope of agro-meteorology. Radiation balance as applied to agriculture; Energy balance over agriculturally important surfaces. Evaluation of energy balance components; Radiation instruments, emperical methods for estimation of short-wave, long-wave and net radiation; Radiation charts-Moller, Elassasser, Kew and Yamamoto charts. Net radiation profiles and light distribution within the plant communities. Radiation utilisation during successive stages of plant development and its efficiency. Thermal effects of environment on growth and development of plants; Cardinal temperatures; Thermoperiodism; Phenology and tolerance; Heat unit concept; Photoperiodism; Leaf temperatures. Transfer process between leaf surface and adjoining air. Latent heat and sensible heat transfer in air; various approaches to evaluate evaporation and sensible heat fluxes; Principle of similarity and Bowen Ratio concept. Conduction of heat in soil, heat capacity and thermal conductivity of soil-their dependence on texture, structure and moisture content of soil. Fourier heat conduction equation. Diurnal and annual variation of soil temperature. Computation of heat flux from soil temperature profiles; Instruments for direct measurement of soil heat flux and thermal properties of soil. Ag. Met. 604 Agricultural Meteorology-II (2+ 1) Evaporation and evapotranspiration; Theory of evaporation; Individual and combined influences of soil, plant and meteorological factors on evapotranspiration, methods of measuring evapotranspiration, pan evaporimeter, atmometer, drainage and weighing type Iysimeters, hydraulic type Iysimeter with a manometer. Estimation of evapotranspiration. Concepts of potential and actual evapotranspiration. Aerodynamic approaches such as Dalton's equaton, Thornthwaite Holtzman equation, Pasquill's approach; eddy correlation method. Energy balance methods-Bowen Ratio approach, combination approaches of Penman, Slatyer and Malory, van Bavel, Monteith and Tanner. Emperical formulae of Thornthwaite, Balaney-Criddle, Makkink, Turc, Budyko, Papadakis etc. Water balance and physical factors concerning water movement in soil. Evaluation and insitu measurments of various components of hydrologic cycle. Soil moisture measurements by gravimetric sampling, conductivity units, tensiometers and neutron dispersion technique. Concept of hydraulic conductivity in saturated and unsaturated soils, evaluation of soil moisture fluxes and drainage components; water extraction pattern by plant roots. Climatic water budgeting approach. Soil moisture budget models of Thornthwaite and Mather, Shaw, Robertson and Baier. Linear model, log and exponential models of soil moisture decay curves. Water and

yield relationships, Consumptive use; water use efficiency, relationship between water use and dry matter production. Ag. Met. 605 Methods in Climatology (2+ 1) Statistical methods in climatological studies. Uses of measures of central tendency, measures of dispersion statistical distributions commonly occuring in climatology-Normal, Gamma, Exponential, Logarithmic, Lognormal, Binomial, Poisson and X2 distributions. Graphs and maps for representating agro-meteorological data. Special statistical methods of importance in climatology. Orthogonal polynomials; Time series; extreme value theory; Harmonic analysis, Statistical processes; Power spectrum analysis; Game theory; theory of decision making. Persistance-its measurement, and evaluation model, Conditional probabilities; Random and Markov model, Application of Random and Markov model for various agrometeorological phenomena. Climatic indices. Graphical methods of objective forecasting. Ag. Met. 606 Climatology (2+0) Weather and climate, Climatic elements-and their diurnal, seasonal, and annual variations and its variability. Climatology with graphs, maps and atlas showing distribution of pressure, wind, temperature, rainfall, evaporation, radiation and dew, with special reference to climatology of India. Climatic classification, Koppen and Thornthwaite systems; Humid and dry climates, continental, maritime and desert climates. Aridity and moisture indices, atmospheric and soil drought. Arid and semi-arid regions, climatological factors affecting outbreak of pests and diseases. Ag. Met. 607 Applied Agro-Climatology (3+0) Phenology and seasonal changes of weather conditions. Crop Climatology. Thermoperiodism; Photoperiodism; Heat Unit concept and its applications; climatic water budgeting technique and its application in evaluation of moisture availability periods with in crop growing season; planning of multiple cropping pattern for different soil-climatic zones of India based on above techniques. Influence of agro-meteorological factors on incidence of pests and diseases. Effect of timing and effectiveness of control measures. Weather forecasting for agriculture; General forecasting-medium range, short range and. seasonal forecasting for agriculture purpose. Special weather forecasts for frost, insects, pests and diseases, drought, high winds, heat waves etc. Protection against frost, forest fire, drought and floods. Wind breaks and shelter belts. Principles of cloud seeding. Ag. Met. 608 Hydrometeorology (2+ 1) Hydrological cycles and its modifications. Rainfall and its interception by plants and crops. Measurement of runoff, infiltration, moisture retention of soil, percolation, evaporation, evapotranspiration and its importance to agriculturists, irrigation engineers and flood forecasting personnel. Water holding capacity of soils, plant available water, cultural practices on soil moisture in relation to different phases of crop growth. Evaporation from snow, lakes, reservoirs and crops. Drought and its effect on water balance. Climatic water budgeting and its applications. Ag. Met. 609 Micrometeorology (2+ 1) Meaning and scope of micrometeorology. Divisions of the atmosphere. Importance of the lower region of the atmosphere. Distinctive features of micrometeorology compared with macro and mesometeorology. Distribution of important meteorological parameters in the boundary layer. Profiles of temperature, humidity and wind under different stability conditions. Laminar and turbulent conditions; Reynold and Richardson number. Turbulent transfer of mass, momentum and energy. Concepts of exchange co-efficient, exchange coefficient relationships. Application of turbulent transfer processes to agricultural phenamena such as photosynthesis under field conditions.

Microclimatology and Topoclimatology. Microclimates in low plant cover, microclimates of meadows and grain fields, microclimates within forests and climatic influences of forests. Influence of kind, colour and condition of soil on microclimates. Influences of slopes and topography on insolation, temperature and winds. Atmospheric diffusion. Ag. Met. 610 Meteorological Instruments. (2+ 1) Theory of measurement of meteorological parameters. Elementary principles (theory) behind measurement of radiation, temperature, pressure, humidity, wind, evaporation, condensation and precipitation. Meteorological instruments for agrometeorological observatories. Self recording & nonrecording instruments. Meteorological instruments used for routine observation at agrometeorological observatories-their description, care, maintenance, calibration, detection of faults and repairs. Special meteorological instruments for micrometeorological work. Theory behind the design of these instruments their characteristics and limitations. Lysimeters. Infrared thermometer. Multichannel potentiometic recorder. Ag. Met. 611. Air Pollution Meteorology (2+ 1) Nature of air pollutants; various types of air pollutants in the atmosphere; their affects on plants and animals. Detection and measurement of contaminants of the atmosphere. Principles of diffusion of particulate matter in the atmosphere. Meteorological factors in the dispersion of air pollutants. topographical, georgraphical and large scale meteorological factors affecting air pollution. Meteorological conditions and typical plume forms. Air pollution forecasting and climatology. Ag. Met. 612. Farm House Meteorology (1 +0) Meteorological conditions prevailing in glass-house, green house, animal house, poultry house and grain storage barns. Heating, cooling and ventilation of these structures as governed by meteorological factors. Ag. Met. 613. Animal climatology. (2+0) Thermal balance in animals. Energy exchange processes at the skin of the animals and the need for the maintenance of thermal balance in the animals. Direct and indirect effects of weather on animals. The effect of weather conditions on animal production, loss of water from the body, growth rate and body weight, reproduction, grazing habits and food intake, milk production, sun burn and photosensitive disorders. Ag. Met. 614. Environmental Physics. (3+0) Thermodynamics of the atmosphere. Physics of radiation-origin and nature of radiation, radiation laws and their application in agricultural meteorology; radiation geometry in cartesian, spherical and cylindrical coordinate systems, conservation principle for radiant energy. Physics of transport phenomena-heat transport in soil, liquid and gas, 'thermal conduction, soil temperature and ground heat flux, diffusion and thermal conductivity. Fluid motion, laminar and turbulent transfer, fluctuation theory for turbulent transfer of momentum, heat and water vapour. Physics of condensation and precipitation. Physics of evaporation-aerodynamic approach, energy balance approach and combination approach for evaporation estimates. Physics of soil water system-the concept of potential as applied to soil water system, total potential and components. Movement of water in soil, fundamental equation, hydraulic conductivity, infiltration, field drainage and water vapour movement in soil. Physics of crop water use - A physical introduction to plant-water system and relationships, water transport through soil-plant atmosphere system, measurement of crops water use in terms of water conservation equation.

Micrometeorology of crops-measurment and interpretation of fluxes above crop canopy, microclimate of crops, a measurement of canopy fluxes and application. Ag. Met. 615 Ag. Met. 616 Ag. Met. 617 Ag. Met. 618 Calculus (Same as Ag.Stat.621) Advance Calculus-I (Same as Ag.Stat.622) Advance Calculus-II(Same as Ag.Stat.623) Mathematical concepts for Meteorology-I (Same as Ag.Stat.626) Partial derivatives-functions of two or more variables, partial derivates of higher order application of partial derivates. Probability, continuous probability distribution, joint probability, mathematical expectation, conditional probabilities; Application of Random and Markov models for various agro-meteorological phenomena. Vector analysis-vectors and scalars, unit vectors, rectangular unit vectors, components of a vector, dot and cross products, vector differentiation, gradient, divergence and curl. Ag. Met. 619 Mathematical concepts-for Meteorology-II (2+0) (Same as Ag.Stat.627) Fourier series-series expansion of a function, Maclaurin's series, Taylor's series, Fourier series. Differential equations of the first order and degree-Variable seperablehomogeneous equations a system of linear differential equations, a system of non-linear differential equations. Methematical models for Agro-meteorological relationships and crop phenomena. Ag. Met. 620 Ag. Met. 698 Ag. Met. 699 Agricultural Climatology (Same as Agron.602) Special Problem. Seminar. (3+0) (2+0) (1 +0) (3+0) (2+0) (2+0) (2+0)

XI. AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS NOTE: 1. The pre-requisite courses for B.Sc.(Maths) are of the B.Sc.(Agri.) Stat-202 and Stat-301. AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS Ag. Stat. 601 Differential and integral Calculus (3+0)

Limits, Continuity and derivability, differentiation of functions of a single variable, successive differentiation, Use of Taylor's and Maclaurian's theorem, Mean value theorem. Tangent and Normal Asymptotes. Curvature, Points of inflexion. Padel equation. Partial differentiation, Maxima and Minima of functions of single variable. Integration by simple methods, standard forms, simple definite integrals. Reduction formulae, rectification and quadrature. Simple diffrential equations and their solutions. Beta and Gamma functions. Ag. Stat. 602 Co-ordinate Geometry II & III (2+0) CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY IN TWO DIMENSIONS :

Equations of a line, circle, parabola, ellipse and hyperbola, tangent and normal, change of axes, Locus. CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY IN THREE DIMENSIONS : Equations of plane and straight line. Distance of a point from line and plane. Shortest distance between two skew lines. Sphere, cone and cylinder. Ag. Stat. 603 Real and complex analysis and Vector Spaces. (2+0) Limits and continuity, differentiation and integration of function of one or more variables, maxima and minima of functions, Convergence of infinite series. Use of comparison test. DAlembert Ration test, Cauchy Root Test, Raabee test, etc. for convergence of infinite series. Complex variables and their geometric representation, functions of complex variables, De-Moivre's Theorem. Circular functions and their expansions, complex integration, Cauchy's theorem and theorems of residues. Line and surface integrals, Multiple integrals. Ag. Stat. 604 Advanced Mathematical Methods in statistics I (2+0) Linear algebra : Vector spaces, sub-spaces and basis. Linear transformations. GramSchmit orthogonalisation. Matrices-symmetric, Orthogonal and other types, Characteristic roots of a matrix, Rank and inverse of a matrix, Generalized inverse of matrix, Quadratic forms. Real Analysis : Convergence and uniform convergence. Continuity and differentiability. Mean value theorems of differential and integral calculus. Taylor's expansion with remainder term. Riemann integration. Maxima and minima. Defferential Equations : Equations of the first order clairat's form. Linear differential equations with constant coefficients. Ag. Stat. 605 Advanced Mathematical Methods in Statistics II (2+0) Real Analysis : Concept of Lebesgue integration. Power series. Fourier, Laplace and Leplace- Stieltje's transforms. Multiple integrals. Complex Analysis : Complex numbers. Analytic functions Cauchy-Riemann equations. Singularities. Residues and contour integration. Numerical Mathematics : Operators, r, simple interpolation. Numerical differentiation and integration, Euler-Maclaurin formula Newton-Raphson method. Ag. Stat. 606 Probability (2+0) Elements of measure theory. Probability-classical and frequency definitions. Axiomatic approach-conditional probability and laws of probability. Bayes's theorem. Random variables-discrete and continuous. Mathemetical expectation and its laws. Distribution, density characteristic, probability generating, and moment generating functions. Inversion and uniqueness theorems for characteristic functions. Chebychev's and Kolmogorov's inequalities, modes of stochastic convergence. Weak and Strong laws of large numbers. Central limit theorems. Ag. Stat. 607 Statistical Methods- I (2+1) Moments and cumulants. Discrete probability distributions : Bernoulli, Uniform, Binomial, Poisson, geometric, Hypergeometric, Negative binomial, Multinomial, Continuous probability distributions : Rectangular, Exponential, Cauchy, normal gamma, beta, Weibull, log-normal, logistic. Association between attributes, correlation and regression, partial and multiple correlation and regression. Correlation ration. Analysis of categorical data, log-linear models. Ag. Stat. 608 Statistical Methods-II (2+1)

Central and non-central x2 t and F distributions. Truncated and compound distributions, concept of characterization of distributions. Pearsonian curves. Bivariate normal distribution-conditional and marginal distribution. Sampling distributions-sampling from normal populations and associated sampling distributions. Sampling distribution of correlation and regression coefficients. Distribution of order statistics. Ag. Stat. 609 Statistical inference (3+1)

Point estimation, Properties of Estimators : Unbiasedness, consistency, efficiency and sufficiency, Cramer-Rao inequality, Rao-Blackwell theorem, Completeness and bounded completeness. Basu's theorem. Methods of maximum likelihood, least squares, minimum chi-square. Testing of hypothesis : two kinds or errors. Neyman Person Lemma. Power function. Uniformly most powerful tests, unbiased tests. Likelihood ration tests. Robust tests and robust estimation. Tests based on t, chi-square and Cochran's theorem. Non-parametric tests-Run Sign and Median tests. Sequential analysis : Sequential probability ratio test. Elements of decision theory and Bayesian inference. Ag. Stat. 610 Topics in applied statistical Inference (2+0) Robust estimation and robust tests. Bias reduction Jackknife statistics. Bootstrap methods. Detection and Handling or outliers in statistics data. Ranking and selection procedure. Density estimation. Ag. Stat 611 Multivariate Analysis (2+1) Multivariate normal distribution, marginal and conditional distribution. Estimation of mean vector and dispersion matrix. Wishart distribution and its reproductive property. Hotelling's T2 and Mahalanobis' D2 statistics and their distribution. Uses of T2 and D2 in testing problems. Wilks's tests of independence of normal variates. Distribution of multiple and partial correlation coefficients. Discriminant function-classificatory problems, principle components, canonical correlation. Factor Analysis. Multivariate analysis of variance. Ag. Stat. 612 Advanced Multivariate Analysis (3+0) The distribution of partial and multiple correlation coefficient. The distribution of T2 statistics under alternative hypothesis and the power function. The multivariate BehrensFisher problem. Properties of Wishart distribution. Multi-variate extension of Cochran's theorem of quadratic forms distribution of sample generalized variance, testing of general linear hypothesis, Multivariate analysis of variance, testing independence of sets of variates testing hypothesis of equality of meran vectors and covariance matrices. Principle components. Canonical and their distribution. Theory of discriminant function. Classification of observations. Ag. Stat. 613 Regression Analysis (2+1) Multiple regression models, qualitative variables as regressions. Effect of measurement errors in regressors. Generalized and weighted least squares. Problem of multicollinearity and analysis of collinear data. Biased estimation procedure, Regression diagnostics, mixed estimation procedures. Robust regression, Selection of variables and model building, Adequacy of models. Non-linear models. Ag. Stat. 614 Non Parametric Methods (2+0) Order statistics. Joint distribution of order statistics. Distribution of range. Asymptotic distribution, theory of order statistics. Point estimation using order statistics. Testing for distribution free methods for (i) the two sample problems, (ii) the K sample problems, (iii) testing for randomness (iv) testing for goodness of fit and (v) testing for independence. Large sample properties of distribution free tests. Distribution free confidence intervals for quantiles.

Ag. Stat. 615

Decision Theory

(2+0)

General statistical decision function. Risk, regret and loss functions. Admissibility and completeness. Choice of decision function. Bayes decision rules, their construction and properties. Minimax decision rules. Zero sum two-person games. Randomized and nonrandomized decision functions. Application to standard distributions. Ag. Stat. 616 Stochastic Processes (2+0) Stochastic processes and their classification. Spectral and correlation functions. Random sequences. Markov Chains. Markov process. Stationary process. Some simple time dependent stochastic process regarding population growth such as Poisson process, pure birth process, birth and death process ect. Branching process. Epidemic process. Diffusion process. Ag. Stat. 617 Statistical quality control and sampling inspection. (2+0) Shewhart's control charts X, R, P and C charts, modified control limits, two way p charts, outliers tests, single and double sampling plans. Dodge Roaming tables, Sequential sampling inspection plans. Sampling for variables-some cost considerations. Application in Agricultural experimentation. Ag. Stat. 618 Econometrics (2+1) Concept of stochastic and deterministic models in representation of economic phenomena. Study of single equation linear regression models. Maximum likelihood and ordinary least square method of estimation. Statistical inference in linear regression, estimation subject to linear restrictions, use of dummy variables; Multicolinearity; Generalized Aitken's least squares method of estimation; Heteroscedasticity, Auto correlation; Seemingly unrelated regressions; Distributed lag models, Use of instrumental variables, Specification problem. Ag. Stat. 619 Design of Experiments I (2+1) Basic principles of design of experiments. Uniformity trials-shape and size of plots and blocks. Elements of linear estimation, analysis of variance and covariance. Completely randomized, Randomized block and Latin square design. Factorial experiments, confounding in 2n and 3n experiments. Spilt plot and Strip plot designs. Balanced incomplete block design (general properties), analysis of BIB designs with recovery of inter-block information Construction of BIB designs. Variance stabilizing transformations. Sampling in field experiments. Analysis of group of experiments. Switch over designs. Experiments on cultivators' fields. Ag. Stat. 620 Design of Experiments II (2+1) incomplete block Youden squares, construction and Experiments with (2+0) Elementary constructions of BIB designs, Partially balanced designs with 2 associate classes (including square lattice designs). Fractional replication of symmetrical factorial. Asymmetrical factorials analysis of balanced confounded designs. Response surface design. mixtures and mixture designs. Ag. Stat. 621 Design of Experiments- III

Optimality criteria, robustness of designs, Augmented designs, designs for two-way elimination of heterogeneity. Ag. Stat. 622 Incomplete Block Designs and theory of factorial experiments. (3+0) Concepts of group, fields and rings. Finite geometrics (Euclidean Geometry and Projective Geometry). Mutually orthogonal Latin squares. Balancing in Block designs. General analysis of block designs. M-associate PBIB designs and their association schemes, classification of PBIB designs.

Orthogonal and balanced arrays, Fractional replication, regular and irregular fractions. Balanced factorial experiments characterization and analysis (symmetrical and asymmetrical factorials) Ag. Stat. 623 Response Surface Designs (2+0) Rotatable designs-symmetrical and asymmetrical blocking. Choice of a response surface design-bias and variance errors. Experiments with mixtures and designs. Ag. Stat. 624 Recent Development in experimental Designs (1+0) Recent developments in the field of experimental design will be covered by various speakers from the University as well as from outside. Ag. Stat. 625 Linear Models (3+0) Generalized inverse of matrices. Theorem on distribution of quadratic forms. GaussMarkoff theorem-Methods of least squares concept of estimability-criterian of estimability. Special cases of one and two-way classification (including disproportionate cell frequencies and interaction.) Aitken's models. Estimation of parameters under restrictions. Interval estimation and test of hypothesis in linear models. Analysis of covariance. Variance components models, estimation of variance components. Mixed models. Ag. Stat. 626 Sampling Techniques I (2+1) Probability sampling. Sampling distribution. Simple random sampling. Estimation of proportions, confidence interval, determination of sample size, inverse sampling. Sampling with varying probabilities with replacement. Stratified sampling. Ration and regression methods of estimation. Cluster sampling. Multi-stage sampling. Self weighting designs. Systematic sampling. Ag. Stat. 627 Sampling Techniques II (2+1) Sampling with varying probabilities, ordered and unordered estimators. Sampling strategies due to Horvitz-Thompson, Midzunosen, Rao-Hartley and Cochran and PPS systematic sampling. Integration of surveys. Lahiri's and Keyfitz's procedure. Double sampling, sampling on two occasions. Non sampling errors-sources and classifications, imperfect frames, non response in surveys, methods of imputations, response errorsinterpreting sampling. Ag. Stat. 628 Recent Development in Sampling (1+0) Recent developments in the field of sampling will covered by various speakers from the university as well as from outside. Ag. Stat. 629 Advanced Sample Survey I (3+0) Number of strata and optimum stratification. Controlled selection. Two way stratification, collapsed strata. Unbiased ration and regression type estimators, multivariate ration and regression methods of estimation. Systematic sampling in two dimensions, Multistage sampling with unequal probabilities. PS sampling, super population concept-comparison of various sampling strategies, variance estimation with complex designs, Taylor's series linearization, balanced repeated replication, Jack-knife and bootstrap methods regression analysis and categorical data analysis with data from complex survey design. Ag. Stat. 630 Advanced Sample Survey II (2+0) Unified theory of sampling from finite populations. UMV Non existence theorem and existence theorem under restricted conditions. Concept of sufficiency and likelihood in survey sampling, Admissibility and hyperadimissibility. Interface under super population models-concept of designs and model unbiasedness, prediction approach. Ag. Stat. 631 Planning and Organization of surveys and official statistics (3+0)

Formulation of data requirements, Nature survey-ad-hoc or repetitive pilot or large scale, methods of data collection, questionnaire versus schedule, survey reference and reporting periods, problems of sampling frame, choice of sampling design. Survey execution-field work, data collection, data processing preparation of report, Agricultural survey-some case studies. Basic and current agricultural statistics including land use statistics. Systems of collection of agricultural statistics crop forecasts, crop estimation. Improvements effected in Indian Agricultural Statistics in recent years and scope for further improvements. Statistics of livestock and livestock products. Statistics and fisheries. Agricultural census. Forestry statistics. Prices of agricultural commodities. Agricultural wages, indices of agricultural production, prices wages etc. Cost of cultivation of crops. NSSO surveys. Statistics needed of agricultural planning. Publications in agricultural and animal husbandry statistics. Ag. Stat. 632 Statistical Genetics I (2+1) Analysis of segregation, detection and estimation of linkage for qualitative characters. Gene and genotypic frequencies, random mating and Hardy-Weinberg law for single locus with two allele, simple cases or selection, coefficients of inbreeding and relationship. Polygenic system for quantitative characters, concepts of breeding value and dominance deviations, genetic variance and its partitioning, corrletion between relatives, heritability and genetic correlation-methods of their estimation in plants and animals. Truncation selection, prediction of response to individual selection, progeny row selection in plants, progeny testing and methods of sire evaluation in farm animals, full sibs and half sibs selection. Combination characters, discriminant function and selection methods. Various of cross breeding, heterosis, concept of general and specific combining abilities. Ag. Stat. 633 Statistical Genetics II (2+1) Amount of information about the linkage, combined estimation, disturbed segregation. Disequilibrium due to linkage for two pairs of genes, sex-linked genes, forces affecting gene frequency selection, mutation and migration, equilibrium between forces in large populations polymorphism, genetic load, Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection. Path coefficient, regular system of inbreeding, random drift effect of finite population size. Effect of inbreeding on quantitative characters, effects of linkage and epistasis, heritability of all-or-none traits, repeatability and its estimation, optimum group size in progeny testing and family selection, best linear unbiased prediction combined selection individual, fullsibs and halfsibs efficiency of selection indices. Correlated response to selection, auxiliary traits and phenotypic index. Line x tester analysis, diallel crossesGriffing's approach, analysis of variance of diallel table. Breeding plans in plant and animals. Ag. Stat. 634 Advance statistical Genetics-I (2+0) Hardy Weinberg law with multiple allelic system, auto-teraploids and self sterility alleles. Complex cases of selection with two and more loci. Different approaches to study inbreeding process-methods of path coefficients, probability and generation matrix, mixed, inbreeding systems, balance between inbreeding and selection, fixation index and structured populations. Stochastic process of gene frequency change, transition matrix approach using finite Markov-chains, diffusion approximation, steady decay and distribution of gene frequency, probability of fixation of a gene, conditional process-Markov chains and diffusion approaches, moments of distribution of time until fixation. Random fluctuations in selection intensity. Stationary distribution of gene frequency. Effective population size. Ag. Stat. 635 Advanced Statistical Genetics- II (2+0) Multiple allelism in continuous variation. Sex-linked genes, maternal effects and genotype x environment interactions estimation of their contributions, regression method for genotype x environment interactions. Effect of selection on heritability, non-normality. Intraindividual heritability, generalized heritability. Correlation between selective in inbred populations. Selection limits and duration of response to selection. Optimum designs for

progeny testing economic considerations. Restricted selection indices, combined selection with auxiliary traits. Ag. Stat. 636 Advanced Statistical Genetics-III (2+0) Problems of estimation and testing in crosses among inbred lines, theory and analysis of diallel crosses-Haymans approach, partial diallel crosses (PDC) based on PBIB designs, and partial circulant structure, augmented PDCs, optimal plans of PDCs. Triallel crosses. Double crosses. Recurrent selection and reciprocal recurrent selection. Crossing and selection programme for the production of a new breed. Ag. Stat. 637 Recent Development in Genetical Statistics (1 + 0) Recent developments in the field of genetical statistics will be covered by various speakers from University as well as from outside. Ag. Stat. 638 Agricultural Statistics I (3 + 1) Basic concept of statistics, use of samples, Statistical measures, estimation, test of significance - Z, t, X2 and F. Non - parametric statistics - introduction, sign test, signed rank test. Linear regression, correlation, rank correlation. Analysis of variance completely randomized design, randomized complete block design and latin square design. Ag. Stat. 639 Statistics for Social Sciences (3 +1) Scope of statistics for social science research, frequency distribution and statistical measures. Concept of sampling, simple random sampling, choice of strata, stratified random sampling, sampling with probability proportional to size, sampling and non-sampling errors. Parametric test, t, Z and F. Non-parametric test Sign-test, Wilcoxon matched pairs, Signed rank test, Mann-Whitney U test, Wald-Wolfowitz run test, Median test. Correlation, Rank correlation, Regression analysis - linear, multiple and curvilinear. Application of multivariate analysis. Introduction to Factor analysis and Path analysis. Chi-square test for homogeneity, independence and goodness of fit. Analysis of time series data. Index numbers, moving averages. Ag. Stat. 640 Statistics for Animal Sciences (2 + 1) Sources of magnitude of errors in experiments with animals, experimental designs and methods of analysis adopted to specific types of animal research - Completely randomized designs, Randomized block design, Latin square design, Factorial experiments and switch over trials, relative efficiency of alternate design. Amount of data required for specified accuracy. Multivariate analysis with special reference to animal science research LSD and DNMRT test. Ag. Stat. 641 Agricultural Statistics II (2 + 1) Principles of experimental design - replication, randomization and local control, plot size and shape, border effects, estimation of size of experiments for specified accuracy. Analysis of variance I: One way classification, Completely randomized design, Isd and DNMRT test. Analysis of variance II: Multi way classification - randomized complete block design, latin square design, efficiency, missing values, Transformations. Concept of factorial experiment, Split plot design - over space and time, efficiency, missing values. Strip plot design. Ag. Stat. 642 Agricultural Statistics III
2 2 3

(2 + 1)

Analysis of variance III : Factorial experiments 2 , 3 , 3 , single degree of freedom comparison. Response curve. Confounding in 2n, 32, and 33 experiments - complete and partial confounding. Pooled analysis. Long term experiments, direct, residual and cumulative effects.

Experiments on perennial crops. Planning of experiments on cultivators' fields. Choice of treatments. Optimum amount of experimentation. Ag. Stat. 643 Statistics in Plant Sciences (2 + 1) Statistical models, expected mean squares, test of significance. Progeny row trial, Compact family block designs. Analysis of Balanced block designs with and without recovery of inter block information. Youden squares. Lattice designs and partially balanced incomplete block designs. Ag. Stat. 644 Agricultural Statistics IV (2 + 1) Multiple regression and correlation, non linear regression, Regression diagnostics. Selection of variables. Adequacy of models. Covariance analysis for simple and factorial experiments. Analysis of variance for unequal subclass numbers, the method of fitting constant, the weighted squares of means. Ag. Stat. 645 Statistical Techniques in Bio Assay (1 + 1) Direct assay investigation of dose response relationship, parallel line assay, slope ratio assay, choice of doses and efficiency in direct assay designs suitable for bio-assay. Indirect assay based on quantal response, probit, logit and angular transformations and percentage response. Bacteriological sampling in dilution series, other methods of estimation of median effective dose. Ag Stat 646 Basic computer programming for statistical analysis (2+1 ) Computers - History of computer development, computer hardware and software. Flow chart - symbols- explanation of symbols. Introduction to computer language C. Number, string constants and variables, expression, assigning values, reading input, printing output, Transferring control, Branching and looping, library function, Array, subroutines. Ag. Stat. 647 Basic concept Computer use in data processing with software Disk Operating System (DOS), Hardware and Software Use of Packages Spread Sheet Database Management Scientific Statistical Packages Graphic Packages Concept and use of Networking. Mathematical concepts for Meteorology-I (Same as Ag. Met. 618) Mathematical concepts for Meteorology-II (Same as Ag. Met. 619) Ag. Stat. 650 Ag. Stat. 651 Ag. Stat. 652 Ag. Stat. 653 Ag. Stat. 698 Ag. Stat. 699 Mathematical Economics (Same as Ag. Econ. 617) Linear Programming (Same as Ag. Econ. 618) Econometric Methods (Same as Ag. Econ. 619) Special problem Seminar (2+0) (2+1 ) (2+1 ) (1+0) (1 +0) (3 + 1)

Ag. Stat. 648 Ag. Stat. 649

(2+0) (2+0)

Biometrical Genetics(Same as PBG 608 and PBG 609) (3+1 )

XII. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

Note: 1. Additional pre-requisite courses for non-agricultural graduates are as under: (a) Pre-requisites for graduates of economics (i) Ag.Econ.301: Economic Principles of Farm Management (2+ 1) (ii) Ag. Stat. 601 : Agricultural Statistics-I (3+ 1 ) (iii) Ag. Stat. 621 : Calculus (3+0) (b) Pre-requisites for graduates of Statistics (i) Ag. Econ. 101 : Principles of Economics-I (2+0) (ii) Ag. Econ. 102: Principles of Economics-II (2+0) (iii) Ag. Econ.201 : Principles of Agril. Economics-I (2+0) (iv) Ag. Econ. 202 : Principles of Agril. Economics-II (2+ 0) (v) Ag. Econ. 301 : Economic Principles of Farm Management (2+ 1) Basic supporting cources : Courses Ag. Stat. 602 : Statistics for Social Sciences - (3+ 1) and Ag. Stat. 621 : Calculus - (3+0) are earmarked compulsory pre-requisite courses for students of Agricultural Economics with Economics or Agriculture background at graduate level. Ag. Econ. 601 Micro Economic Theory (3+0) Subject matter and scope, utility analysis, ordinal and cardinal measures, consumer's demand analysis, utility approach, law of diminishing marginal utility, law of equimarginal utility, indifference curve approach, consumer's equillibrium, income effect, substitution effect, price effect, price consumption curve, income consumption curve, Giffon's paradox. Elasticities - Price elasticity of demand, income elasticity of demand, cross elasticity of demand, complementary and supplementary goods, consumer's equillibrium with more than two goods. Supply analysis, demand and supply equilibrium. Theory of the firm: objectives of the firm, isouants, expansion path, Euler's theorem, returns to scale, cost functions and cost curves, price and output determination in pure competition, monopoly, oligopoly and monopolistic competition, factors pricing and income distribution, pricing of factors of production, marginal productivity theory, demand for factors, derived demand, factor price determination by supply and demand, rent, wages, interest and profit, their determination under perfect and imperfectly competitive markets. Welfare economics, social welfare in purely competitive economy, conditions for maximum social welfare. Ag.Econ.602 Macro Economic Theory (3+0) Subject matter and scope, definitions and functions of money, classification of money, monetary standards, demand for and supply of money, quantity theory of money, liquidity preference theory. National income-nature and measurement of national income, gross national products and net national products, major uses of income. The determinants of income and employment, effective demand, consumption function average and marginal propensity to consume, factors influencing consumption level, investment function, factors influencing investment level, marginal efficiency of capital and rate of interest. The theory of income and employment - the classical theory of income and employment, equality of savings and investment. Multiplier effect, principle of acceleration, interaction of acceleration and multiplier effects. Ag.Econ.603 Economic Development and Growth (2+0) Concept of economic development and growth, characteristics of under-developed countries, measuring economic growth, population policies, obstacles to and requirements for economic development. Theories and models of economic development and growth: the classical, Marxian,

neo-classical and modern approaches, development strategies, balanced v/s unbalanced growth, polices to promote growth, financing development, prospects for economic development. Ag. Econ. 604 Economic Planning for Agriculture (2+0) Meaning, principles and methods for planning with reference to agriculture, distinction between planned and unplanned economy, forms or techniques of planning, planning for agricultural development, planning models, practical problems of planning and administration. Five year plans in India-role, achievement and evaluation in relation to agricultural development. Ag. Econ. 605 Economic Structure of Indian Agriculture (2+0) Meaning of economic structure of agriculture, role and place of agriculture in Indian economy, subsistence and modern agriculture, economic characteristic of Indian agriculture, organisation of agriculture in India. Major problems of Indian agriculture, causes of low productivity, demand for supply of farm products, price and income instability in agriculture, unemployment, tenure, capital & credit, marketing problems, solutions of the problems, measures taken by the government. Ag. Econ. 606 Farm Management Analysis (2+ 1) Application of economic principles in analysis of agricultural production and resource use under static and dynamic conditions, production function and choice indicators, scale of operating and farm size, intensity of cultivation, efficiency of factors, farming under risk and uncertainty, diversification, specialization, technological change and economic progress. Application of compounding, discounting, farm planning, budgeting and programming, production function techniques, conditions of perfect and imperfect knowledge. Exercise of farm planning, budgeting, input mix, enterprise combinations, etc. Ag. Econ. 607 Farm Business Analysis (1 + 1) Farm business analysis, advantages of farm records and accounts, problems and difficulties in farm accounting, levels of farm records and accounts, part of a farm record system-physical farm records, financial records, farm inventories, method of valuation, methods of computing depreciation, net worth statement, farm financial accounts, income statement, treatment and classification of special transaction for financial accounts, farm efficiency measures, efficiency measures and business decisions, evaluation of records and surverys for research. Each student will prepare one enterprise account and also prepare a complete farm business record of one year for the selected farmer. Summerise the account, analysis it and suggest improvements in the farm organisation. Ag.Econ.608 Agricultural Production Economics (2+ 1) Nature and scope of production economics, production concepts, resourceproduct relationship in agriculture, forms of production functions and their characteristics, production surfaces, isoquants and isoclines, application of principles of choice and resource allocation, price and production relationship, multiple production relationships, resource substitution and factor relationships, resource combination and cost minimization, choice between products and resource use, resource allocation and enterprise combination to meet price variability, flexibility and diversification, risk and uncertianity in agricultural production, analysis of expectation, adjustment of production and resource use to uncertainty, capital rationing, returns to scale and farm size, concepts of joint costs, aggregate production and product supply functions, derivation of cost and supply functions from production functions. Exercise on data analysis and production estimation.

Ag.Econ.609

Agricultural Cooperation

(2+ 1)

Definition, principles and theory of cooperation, history and recent developments in cooperation, need for forming a society, cooperative v/s other forms of business organisations, rural credit surveys, cooperative credit societies types, structure, functions, organisations, management, problems and prospects, cooperative farming societies-types, structures, function, organisation, managements, problems and prospects, cooperative processing societies-forms and organisations, cooperative marketing societies- principles, advantages, limitations, role of cooperatives in community development, Panchayati Raj, verticale integration in agriculture and planned economy. Visits and study of different cooperative societies. Ag. Econ. 610 Agricultural Finance and Credit Institutions (2+ 1) Subject matter of agricultural finance and its relation with other fields, capital in agriculture, credit requirements, classification of farm credit, Principles of sound credit system, three Rs of credit. determination of use of credit, marginal analysis, income statement, balance sheet, budgeting, cash flow statement, etc. Supervised credit system, croploan credit instruments, cost of credit, role of government in agricultural finance. Rural Credit agencies-private, cooperative and commercial banks and Government: their role and importance. Functions of NABARD, RRBs, Agricultural Finance Corporation, Farmer's service societies, L.R.D.P. and other programmes. Exercise on credit requirements of a farm firm, application of income statement, balance sheet, budgeting, cashflow statement, repayment schedules, etc. Visit and study of different rural banking institutions. Ag. Econ. 611 Project Planning, Appraisal and Evaluation (1 + 1 ) Meaning and importance of project planning, appraisal and evaluation, types of agricultural, projects and their special characteristics. Major aspects of project appraisal. Identifying costs and benefits of agricultural projects. Selecting. proper values for project inputs and outputs, criterion for project appraisal, financial analysis of agricultural projects. Exercise on project planning, appraisal and evaluation. Ag. Econ. 612 Agricultural Marketing (2+0) Agricultural marketing: meaning, definition, their types, role and objectives, functions, participants in agricultural marketing services, approach to study agricultural marketing problems, market structure, conduct performance, efficiency. Market channels, marketing costs and margins, price spread, marketable and marketed surplus, demand, supply and marketable surplus relationship of farm products, their estimation and projection. Developments in agricultural marketing in India, role of Government and other organisation in agricultural marketing, marketing of major farm commodities. Ag.Econ.613 Agricultural Price Analysis (2+0) Nature and functions of agricultural prices, types of agricultural prices, demand and supply relationship in prices: determination, estimation and projections, methods of price fixation, interrelationship between agricultural prices and production costs. Methods of prices analysis: time series data, index number, application of correlation and regression techniques. Short term and long term movement of prices and their causes. Farmers response to prices (Marc Nerlovian model etc.) price outlook reports, agricultural prices policy in India. Ag. Econ. 614 Economics of Livestock production and Marketing (2+ 1) (Same as LP.817) Importance of livestock in Indian agriculture, place of livestock in national economy, production of livestock and livestock products: Application of economic principles. Cost of and returns from livestock production. Problems of dairy, poultry industries, etc. their remedies, demand for and supply of livestock products, Marketing of livestock products: agencies, functions, (assembling, grading, processing, packing, storing, transporatation

etc.) Pricing of livestock products, marketing cost, margins, channels, price regulations, role of Government and other agencies in the development of dairy, poultry industries, etc. Future plans for the development of live stock industry. Visits and study of different dairy, poultry, piggery farms, dairy processing units and markets. Ag. Econ. 615 Marketing of Farm Inputs (2+ 1) Demands for seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, farm machineries and other farm inputs. Deriving demand for different form inputs, demand forecasting for different farm inputs, production and supply of various farm inputs. Market structure for different inputs, market organisation, pricing and price policies, marketing functions, channels and margins, customer identification and sales promotion Role of government and other agencies. Visits and study of various marketing firms supplying farm inputs. Ag.Econ.616 Research Methods in Agricultural Economics (2+0) Scientific methods, nature of social science and research, basic and applied research, role of logic in social science research, methodological, phenomenological and Theoritical orientation of agricultural economics research, general steps in research, investigation. Initiation of inquiry-development, properties, types and sources of hypothesis, formulation of the research problems-role of induction and deduction in research, searching the literature models and methods in agricultural economics. Sampling methods, methods of collecting data-schedule for collecting data, survey, cost accounting, compilation, processing and analysis of data, interpretation of results and preparation of research reports. Ag.Econ.617 Mathematical Economics (Same as Ag.Stat.628) (2+0) Nature of mathematical economics, mathematical economics v/s econometrics, economic models-ingredients-concepts of sets, their relationship and operations. Equilibrium analysis in economics: meaning, partial market equilibrium, linear & non-linear and general market equilibrium, equilibirium in national income analysis, Leiontief inputoutput model. Differential equqtions and derivatives, differential and point elasticity, markets their comparative statics, optimization problems, optimization values relative maximum and minimum, derivation of average and marginal curves. Integral and trignometrical functions and their application in agricultural economic research. Ag.Econ.618 Linear Programming (Same as Ag.Stat.629) (2+ 1) Meaning, definition and scope of linear programming, format and assumptions of linear programming, examples of linear programming problem, simplex method, illustration of maximization and minimization problems. Interpretations of solutions, primal and dual formets, comparison of linear programming with other techniques like production functions and budgeting, extension of linear programming-Recurssive programming, quadratic programming, integer programming, variable resources and price programming, non-linear programming, Games theory, decision theory and sensitivity analysis. Ag. Econ. 619 Econometric Methods (Same as Ag.Stat.630) (2+ 1) Subject matter of econometrices, single variable linear model, estimation and prediction. General Linear Model: their estimation and prediction. Errors in variable, single equation problems, test and their solution, Autocorrelation, multi-collinearity, heteroscedasticity, lagged variables, dummy variables, simulataneous equation: problems, identification, least variable ratio, two stage least squares. Production and cost analysis, the production functions, the cost functions, the supply functions, input output analysis, estimation of consumption function. Ag. Econ. 620 Operational Research in Agricultural Economics (2+ 1) Introduction : nature, scope and subject matter of operational research, modelconcept, construction and solution of model, inventory models, elementary inventory

models with and with out price breaks, with and without restrictions, application of inventory models in agriculture. Allocation models-programming (a) linear, duality, nonlinear and integer programming, techniques, transportation models and spatial equilibrium models (b) the assignment problem and some illustrations of allocation problems, waiting time modelsconcepts of operating and sequence models, traffic delay at booths, competitive and replacement models, theory of games and strategies with allocation in agriculture (c) Markov chains, PERT, Simulation, Monte Karlo. Ag. Econ. 621 Agricultural Policy (2+0) Need and objectives of agricultural policies and programmes, terms of trade in agricultural products, instruments of agricultural policies and programmes, their formulation and appraisal, theories of quantative economic policy and policy models, meaning and importance of project planning, appraisal and financing, types of agricultural projects: their appraisal, identifying costs and benefits of agricultural projects, selecting proper values for project inputs and outputs, criterion for project appraisal, financial analysis of agricultural projects. Ag. Econ. 622 Agricultural Legislation and Taxation in India (2+0) Debt legislation in relation to rural credit, agricultural legislation in different states, compulsory aquisition of land in British India, agricultural debt act, history of Indian labour legislation, different tenant acts, the laws of land and water, consolidation of holding and prevention of fregmentation, recent laws pertaining to agriculture. Principles of taxation, kinds of taxes, direct and indirect taxes, Indian tax system, taxation on agricultural income, Raj Committee's report, methods of assessment of agricultural taxes, taxable capacity and incidence of taxation in agriculture, principles of land valuation. Ag. Econ. 623 Resource Economics (3+0) Application of tools of economic analysis to the problems of use and management of land, water and other natural resources, externalities associated with their use and their market solutions, demand for and supply of natural resources, operation of their markets, institutional factors and their impact on the use of the natural resources, Planning for the use of land, water, forests, etc. Application of public finance, welfare economics, capital theory, discount rates, benefit-cost analysis and other decision making approaches to the development and management problems in natural resources. Pricing of water by volume or flat rate by local, state or central government water rights, acquisition and administration, allocation of irrigation water. Economic criteria for watershed policy. Ag. Econ. 624 Advanced Micro Economic Theory (3+0) Theory of consumer behaviour. Choice of utility index. Maximisation of utility, equilibrium of the consumer. Response to price ad income changes, prices, income and substitution effects. The Hicks-slutsky theorm. Sam-uelson's revealed preference theorm, utility analysis of choices involving risk, dynamic demand analysis. Theory of the firm. Optimising behaviour. Profit and sales maximisation, single and multiple products firms. Joint products. Production functions, cost functions, demand for factors of production. Derivation of supply function, dynamics of supply. Classification of markets, competitive firm and industry. Pure monopoly, the monopolist and the factors of production, monopoly and joint production, discrimination, monopolistic competition (product differentiation). Oligopolistic interdependence and kinked demand curve, reaction curves. Duoply, bilateral monopoly, monopsony, effect of taxation on prices and output decision making and games theory. Dynamic economics: Dynamic production plans and expectation, static and dynamic dis-equilibrium, Cobweb theorm, the working of the dynamic system, stability of the system. Welfare economics, marginal rules for optimal resources allocation, optimal distribution of products among consumers and optimal price system. Some standard

theorms of walfare economics, criteria for welfare judgement. Ag. Econ. 625 Advanced Macro Economic Theory (3+0) Theory of employment: Keynesian employment models, factors market and the interest investment mechanism, the wage controversy vis-a vis employment, full employment and the price and interest theories. Consumption and saving behaviour: Factors determining it, econometric models. Consumer behaviour and forecasting. Investment function: Variables determining public and private investment, capital market, problems of low investment in developing economics, multiplier and acceleration theories. Growth economics: A model of an expanding economy, capital coefficient and per capital income, problems of secular stagnation. Inflation: Causes and consequences, excess demand inflation and the monetary sector, gap analysis, cost-push inflation stabilization policies. Business cycles: Theories of trade cycles, sources of disturbance, steady growth trend and cycle. International trade and the level of income: Mechanisms of adjustment, exchange rate variations, tariffs and quotas, balance of payment, inter-regional trade agreements. Ag. Econ. 626 Advanced Farm Management and Production Economics (2+ 1)

Review of the Principles of farm management, decision making analysis of economic behaviour, imperfect knowledge situation and learning, acquisition of knowledge and its utilisation, source of information. Planning under certainty situation and expectation models, farmers deference against risk and uncertainties. Economics of subsistence production, modernisation of traditional agriculture. Methods of farm management research, data analysis for production function estimations. Economic specification of production functions. Miscellaneous emperical problems relating to estimation of production functions. Uncertainity situations and expectational models, games theory models in relation to .farmer's decisions. Systems approach: Systems terminology, general systems theory, categories of models: static determination models, dynamic deterministic models. Applicability of classified models. Ag. Econ. 627 Advanced Agricultural Marketing (3+0) Definition, importance, development, structure, contribution of theory and practice of marketing, organisations engaged in marketing research: Government, autonomous and academic institutions and business firms, types, methods and accuracy of marketing research, marketing research procedures, vertical, horizontal, spatial and temporal integration and operations research techniques-applications and measuring potential, markets-qualitative market analysis total market analysis, market area analysis and sales forecasting: products-research factors in product research new products, in-puts for new technology. Distribution: research channels of distribution and distribution cost, requisition, advertising research-copy testing and media research. Theories of trade inter regional and inter national trade, in agricultural commodities. Ag. Econ. 628 Marketing of Cash Crops and Processed Farm Commodities (2+0) Marketing problems of commercial and cash crops, fruits and vegetables, livestock products, beverages and other processed products. Analysis of marketing system of different cash crops and processed products. Commodity wise specialised marketing functions, i.e. grading, standardization, processing, storage, etc. Demand creation. Internal movement of specialised commodities. Hedging, future trading. Role of cooperatives and Government in promoting the commodity marketing.

Ag. Econ. 629

Advanced Econometric methods

(2+ 1)

Three stages least squares, full information maximum likelihood methods. Estimation in non-linear models. Montecarlo simulation technique, definition development of simulation in economic analysis-its application to econoetric models, market processes, etc. Bayesian analysis: Principle of Bayesian analysis, application of principles to analysis of pareto distribution. Investment multiplier, consumption function-estimation, etc. CES production function and the estimaton of elasticities of subsititution. Supply response. Traditional and Nerlovian models. Ag. Econ. 630 Indian Banking System (2+0) Central Banks, Reserve Bank of India, organisation and management, banking function, lending operations, open market operation, case reserve of schedule banks, regulation of currency banker to Govt. Development activities supervision of commercial banking sector. Banking regulation act, licencing of banks. Inspection, licencing branches, control of banking operation, social control over banks, bank nationalisation. Principles and practies of commercial banking in India. Organisation and working of commercial banks. Progress of commercial banking. Financing of small industries, Agro- industries and agriculture by commercial banks. Working of the policy of social control and bank nationalisation. Ag. Econ. 698 Ag. Econ. 699 Special Problem Seminar XIII. EXTENSION EDUCATION Extn. Edn. 601 Extension Education and Rural Development in Different Countries. (2+0) Concept of rural development in India and abroad. Concept of extension education in India and abroad. Development strategies and comparative study of various extension programmes in India, Israel, U.S.A., U.K., Japan, Yugoslavia, Denmark Sweeden, Australia and African countries Ghana, Tanzania, Zambia, Kenya and Phillipines, etc. Extn. Edn. 602 Extension Programme Planning (2+ 1) Nature and importance of programme planning. Principles and philosophy of programme planning. Study of growth of planning process. Steps in planning strategies of different plans. Developing a sound extension programme. Annual plan, rolling plan, perspective plan, role and functions, and inter-relation of national development council, planning commission and State level bodies. Role of various institutions -statutory and nonstatutory bodies. Use of local leaders in planning and implementation. Extn. Edn. 603 Evaluation in Extension (1 + 1 ) Concept and principles of evaluation. Place of evaluation in extension. Nature and types of evaluation and stages of evaluation, evaluation process, goals and objectives. Gains of evaluation. Procedure of writing evaluation report. Agencies institutions for evaluation of extension programme. Extn. Edn. 604 Programme and Strategies of Agricultural Development in India (2+0) Historical development in agriculture leading to Five Year Plans. Agricultural priorities in plans. Intensive agricultural district programme, intensive agricultural area programme, high yielding varieties programme, area development programme. Crop pilot programmes, Ayakat and command area programmes, SFDA, MFAL, DPAP, national demonstrations and operational research programmes. IRD with special reference to agriculture. Other programmes in agricultural development-tribal development programme (2+0) (1 +0)

for agriculture, NARP and NAFP, Lab-to-Land programme and T & V system of agricultural extension. Role of different agencies in agricultural development like fertilizer factories, agro-industries, NAFED, GROFED, seed corporations, co-operative agencies supplying credit and marketing, etc. Role of nationalized banks in agricultural development. Extn. Edn. 605 Programmes and Strategies of Home Science Extension (2+0)

Meaning and objectives of home science extension, role and functions of various agencies in home science extension programmes in India and abroad. History of extension education related to women's development programmes. Role of women in development of home and family. Applied nutrition and child care programmes. Problems of home science programmes. Role of women in agriculture and animal husbandry development. Home crafts and cottage industries in rural areas for women: Training programmes for rural women. Social welfare programmes for women. Extn. Edn. 606 Programmes and Strategies of Animal Husbandry Extension (2+0) Historical development of animal husbandry programmes in India. On going development programmes -ICDP, IPDP, DPAP, tribul development programmes for animal husbandry, dairy and livestock projects. Operational floods I & II. Role of co-operatives in development of dairy industries. Various agencies working for animal husbandry and dairy development projects. Schemes and programmes of other livestock development. Extn. Edn. 607 Extension Training and Agricultural Education (2+ 1) Meaning, scope and objectives of extension training. Genesis of agricultural and animal husbandry education. Concept, philosophy and principles of farmer"s education and training. Institutions for extension education, for transfer of technology and for a agriculture and animal husbandry higher education. Systems of agricultural education in India. Method of formal and non-formal training. Evaluation of farmers training. Problem of farmer's training. Social and psychological approaches for farmer' training. Training to functionaries in farm-technology. Methods, approach and evaluation of training of functionaries. Extn. Edn. 608 Adult Education (1 + 1 ) Nature and scope of adult education. Evaluation of adult education-formal & nonformal, functional literacy. Continuing education, education for life and community education. Psychological and sociological foundation of adult education. Educational methods and techniques in adult education. Adult educational programmes. Role of library and voluntary institutions in adult educational programmes. Extn. Edn. 609 Methods and Designing of Extension Research (2+ 1) Science and scientific approach. Quality of a good research worker. The meaning and purpose of research in extension education. Selection of problem and formulation of research proposal. Formulation and testing of hypothesis. Designs of research. Types of research. Data collection methods. Measurement of validity and reliability. Analysis and interpretation of data in reference to statistical inference. Writing a report. Application of research findings. Extn. Edn. 610 Advanced Extension Research (2+ 1) Measurement, meaning and types of scales. Reliability and validity. Determination of scale values by different techniques, paired comparision, equal appearing interval, summited ratings, scalogram analysis, projectives and non-projective techniques. Sociometric techniques, sociograms, critical incident technique, content analysis, construction of tests-such as knowledge test, skill test etc. Extn. Edn. 611 Extension Teaching Methods (1 +2)

Concept and characteristics of teaching and learning processes in extension education. Steps in extension educational process. Settin.g up the learning situation. Extension teaching methods, classification, merits and demerits. Principles of selection, combination and effective use of various methods. Audio-visual aids-meaning, types, role, merits and demerits. Psychological principles involved. Characteristics, use and care of different audio-visual aids. Identification of low cost a.v. aids. Principle and process of production of a.v. aids. Salient research on extension teaching methods and a.v. aids. Extn. Edn. 612 Communication Process in Extension (2+ 1) Meaning, nature and importance of communication, functions of communication, communication as a process. Communication and learning, models and theories of communication, key elements in communication. Communication fidelity, factors affecting fidelity, loss and distortion in communication, feedback-nature and effects. Types of communication media. Communication and social changes. Different agencies of agriculture communication in India and Gujarat. Communication strategy for agril. development. Effective public speaking. Problems of communication and reviews of significant researches in area of agril. communication. Extn. Edn. 613 Diffusion and Adoption of Innovation (2+ 1) Research tradition of diffusion and adoption. Concept of diffusion and adoption. Similarity and differences in diffusion and communication. Models and theories of adoption and diffusion, rate of adoption and factors associated with adoption. Types of innovation decision, adopters, categories and their characteristics, sources of information categorywise and adoption stages and attributes of innovation as related to rate of adoption. Role of change agents in adoption and diffusion. Consequences of adoption of innovations. Reviews of recent researches in diffusion and adoption. Extn. Edn. 614 Mass Media Communication (2+0) Meaning and nature of mass communication. History of mass communication in India and abroad. Role of mass media in rural development. Theories of mass communication. Mass communication and public relations. Impact of mass communication. Relative importance of radio, television and printed media in mass communication. Organisations of rural radio and television programmes. Operational aspects of radio and television scripts. Evaluation of farm broad-casts. Problems and trends in research of mass media communication. Extn. Edn. 615 Agricultural Journalism (2+ 1) Agricultural journalism-scope, meaning and importance. Growth and genesis of journalism in India and abroad. Agril journalism as means of mass communication- its forms and roles in rural development. Fundaments of writing. News and its characteristics. Sources of news. Difference between news and features. Writing for farm families-news stories, feature articles, magazine articles, farm bulletin, folders, radio and television script. Fundamentals of layout-various elements and their balancing. Techniques of editing. Type of periodicals. Publishing a technical journal. Reporting farm news-fairs, competitions, meeting, farm interviews, etc. Advertisement meaning, merits and demerits, types, agencies and effects. Readability-meaning and measurement. Extn. Edn. 616 Sociology for Extension Workers (2+ 1) Rural sociology-its meaning and scope. Importance of rural sociology in extension work. Rural sociology as a science. Characteristics of rural people. Social structure, physical structure of rural society, social institutions and organizations. Groups, collectives and ecological entities etc. Value and value system of society. Social interaction and processes. Concept of culture and cultural change. Social change. Factors responsible for social change. Personality. Social welfare activities. Social problems as related to rural development.

Extn. Edn. 617

Advanced Rural Sociology

(2+0)

Study of major rural social systems and social theories. Detailed study of the social traits of the community as a place and the people. Communication network. Social layers, traditions, values etc. Social disorginazation and organization. Extn. Edn. 618 Leadership in Extension (1 + 1 ) Importance of leadership in extension. Theories of leadership. Various concepts of leadership. Types of leadership. Role and function of leaders. Analysis of representative methods of training leaders and maintaining co-operation. Basic patterns of leaders and relationship in rural society. Reviews of research studies in leadership. Extn. Edn. 619 Rural Community Organisation (2+0) Principles of community organizations. Village institutions-Panchayat, co-operative society and school. Voluntary organizations-structures, functions and relationship of these institutions to village development. Methods and procedures involved in community organizations. Problems and analysis of factors' relating to community organizations. Extn. Edn. 620 Youth Work In Extension (1 + 1 ) Importance of youth work in rural development. History of youth work in India. Youth work in other countries. Procedure for organizing youth club. Model constitution for rural youth club. Group and individual projects. Maintenance and use of project records. Role of local leaders and parents in youth work. Organising youth rallies and exhibition to develop interest in youth club programmes. Role of voluntary organizations in youth work development. Extn. Edn. 621 Dynamics of Social Change (2+0) Types of change, concept of planned change and its importance. Process of change-diffusion, a culturation. Role of change agent. Problems relating to process of planned change. Acceptance and rejection of planned change. Techniques for acclerating the change. Measurement of change and attitudes. Current studies in technological change. Extn. Edn. 622 Group-Dynamic and Human Relations (2+ 1) Importance of small groups. Functions of small groups. Role of working groupsprocess and diagnosis. Skill in small groups. Learning group behaviour. Theories of work motivation. Selection and induction of training and development. Performance appraisal and rural resources development. Extn. Edn. 623 Introduction to Cultural Anthropology (1 + 1) Importance of cultural anthropology. Meaning and scope of cultural anthropology. Its relation to extension education. Indepth study of tribal organizations and institutions. Factors affecting to change in tribal cultural. Welfare activities of the Government for tribal communities. Extn. Edn. 624 Introductory Educational Psychology (2+0) Meaning and scope of psychology. Its importance in relation to extension education. development of an individual. Psychological concepts: Preception, emotion, motivation, personality, reward and punishment in relation to educational psychology of groups. Introduction to various learning theories. Extn. Edn. 625 Advanced Educational Psychology (2+0) Philosophies, methods, and approaches. Researches in preception. Learning conflict. Development of personality. Learning theories. Attitude change and measurement. Extn. Edn. 626 Administration in Extension Education (2+ 1) Nature and purpose of administration in extension, elements, role and function of

administration, Principles of administrative organisations. Span and control, line of authority and responsibility. Co-ordination and human relation. Personal administration and management. Basis of recruitment and selection of extension personnel. Principles and system for recruitment and selection of extension workers. Views ond philosophy of organization. Budget development and control. Some essential in programme development and role of administrator. Forms, factors and different concepts of organization, job task pyramid. Line and staff. relation and institutional relationship. Informal organization. System of functional contact. Grid of decision making centres, pattern of power, channel of communication, supervision in extension its meaning, role, purpose and function. Extn. Edn. 627 Advanced Administrative Theories (2+0) A detailed study of different administrative theories. Functional approach. Fusion process. Social process. Decision making. Generally accepted principles and guidelines of administration. Extn. Edn. 628 Management for Agricultural Development (2+ 1) Concept of management. Difference between farm management and off-farm management. Administration and management. Development of management science. Need for management in agricultural development. Management theories system approach to agril. organizations. Management skills: Planning, organizing, directing, controlling, decision making. Management process in extension education. Planning the structures, Principles of organization. Coordination process. Extn. Edn. 698 Extn. Edn. 699 Special Problem Seminar (2+0) (1 +0)

XIV. SOIL - WATER MANAGEMENT SWM. 601 Fundamentals of Soil-Water Management-I (3+ 1)

Definition-scope types of soil, major problems of soil-water management. Hydrology: Definition - hydrologic cycle - precipitation - measurement of precipitation infiltration - run off - evaporation. Water resources: Basic concepts - water resources development and planning major and minor irrigation projects in India and Gujarat- ground water development - water inventories - use and control. Irrigation Methods: Border - furrow - check - corrugation - sprinkler - drip - pitcher etc. Sub surface irrigation. . Surface Water Management: Runoff control - improving infiltration - lining for water conveyances - antievaporants, Energy utilization and management. Drainage of irrigated lands: Planning system-field investigations construction methods-sub surface drainage-installation of tile drainage-maintenance-reclamation of salt affected land by suitable drainage system. SWM. 602 Fundamentals of Soil-Water Management-II (3+ 1) Agroclimatology in relation to water use-development of land for irrigation methods and layout of land for irrigation measurement and prediction of ET-use of soil moisture data and climatological data for working out consumptive use and crop co-efficients-water management for different crops and cropping systems-measurement of soil-water losseswater availability and efficient cropping pattern-effect of excess water on soil and plant growth irrigation efficiency economics of irrigation-water production functions-aquatic weed management-impact of irrigation on ecology-ground water contribution in crop production. Practicals: Measurement of ET-estimation of ET using different methods-land shaping for different types of irrigation preparation of cropping plans based on irrigation -

field visit to command areas-measurement of available soil moisture and soil moisture curves-use of remote sensing technique. SWM. 603 Soil Water (2+ 1) Static and dynamic of soil water - soil water potential concepts-mechanical and thermodynamic approaches - instruments for measuring moisture potential-psychrometer method-hygrometer method-filter paper method-mobility of water in soil, soil moisture characteristics curves-hysterisis - its usefulness and utilisation - soil water movement in stratified and unstratified soils - concept of soil water plant atmosphere continuum - physical introduction to plant-water relationship and transport-measurement of crop water usemodelling the flow. Practicals : Soil moisture potential measurements under laboratory and field conditions-different approaches-soil moisture retention and release characteristics. SWM. 604 Soil Genesis, Classification and Survey (3+1) (Same as Ag.Chem.606) Origin of soil and its formation- the soil in nature physical and chemical make up of soil-weathering of rocks and minerals-weathering sequences-weathering and stability of minerals-weathering indices-pedognic factors-illuviation and eluviation-transport agencies of weathered material-major soil forming processes-podsolization-laterization-classificationsalinization etc. development of soil profiles and horizons - soil morphology-nomenclature and description of typical soil profiles. Soil classification - history of classification-different systems-modern concept of soil and recent systems of classification-soils of India: Soil survey and mapping - need - types and methods of soil survey-field description of soil profiles-physical and chemical characterization - collection of soil monoliths-mapping units for soil classification-land use capability classes-productivity rating and storie indextaxonomic and catographic units for soil mapping - soil survey reports - latest trends in soil survey-aerial photography and photo-interpretations use of infra-red photography in soil survey. SWM. 605 Soil Physics (Same as Ag.Chem.605) (2+ 1) Soil as disperse three phase system-volume and mass relationship and soil constituents texture-particle size distribution-methods of assessment of texture and textural classification-surface properties of soil solids-water adsorption in soils and electrical phenomenon at clay-water interface dynamic properties of soils-soil consistency-plasticityshear strength-compaction and compression-soil structure-types-genesis-evaluation and management - soil crusting and soil conditioners-soil water content and potential-their measurement flow of water in saturated and unsaturated soils-infiltration-redistribution of water after infiltration and evaporations-soil air aeration and characteristic-soil temperature and heat flow in soil - thermal properties of soil-thermal regions and soil profile and management for their modification. SWM. 606 Soil-Water Management in Problematic Soils (2+0) Identification of different problematic soils-soil water management-problems of heavy black soils-sandy soils-shallow soils-hilly soils-salt affected soils-acid soilscalcareuos soils-water logged soils-suitable crops and cropping pattern in problematic conditions-agronomic manipulations-selection of suitable methods of irrigation-reclamation and soil improvement techniques-land levelling and drainage needs-waste land development-use of solute transport model to estimate salt balance in crop rhyzosphere. SWM. 607 Saline, Sadie, Acid Soils and Their Management (2 + 1 ) (Same as Ag. Chem.613) Origin and nature of salts in the soil-factors affecting the accumulation of saltsdistribution of salt affected area-evaluation of salt affected soils-classification and their characteristics viz., electrical conductivity-pH-soluble cations and anions-specific ionsexchangeable cations-depth and thickness of hard pan/concretion-infiltration and

permeability-aggregation and stability of structure-crust formation etc. effects of salinitysodicity on water and nutrients availability-quality of irrigation water-use of industrial effluents in agriculture. Principles and different methods of reclamation of .saline and sodic soils-organic and inorganic amendments-their requirements, efficiency and comparative economic consideration for reclamation-screening of crops for saline and sodic conditions-relative boron tolerance of crops-specific problems and their solution in Gujarat. Causes of soil acidity and its distribution in India-forms of soil acidity and its naturesoils as a buffer systems-lime potential-reclamation of acid soils-plant response to liming materials and their placement-benefits of liming-injury due to overliming and its reduction. SWM. 608 Chemistry of submerged Soils (2+ 1) Characteristics of submerged/water logged soils-physical-chemical. biological and hydrological properties of submerged soil-organic matter and mineral nutrient transformations and diffusion-accumulation of toxic elements and phytoxic substancesredox potential-fertility evaluation of submerged/water logged soils-losses of nutrients through leaching and volatilisation. Practicals : Estimation of pH, EC, redox potential and ODR-evaluation of nutrient status losses. SWM. 609 Watershed Management and Land Use Planning (2+ 1) Definition-role of hydrology in agricultural productivity-rainfall distribution-rainfall and yield analysis-erosion intensity-degradation of soil productivity-erosion control in productivity-drainage needs-water harvesting-utilization of harvested water -in situ water harvesting-construction of farm pods artificial recharge of groundwater-percolation pondscheck dams-use of ground water for crop production-surface and sub surface conveyance of water conservation-irrigation-soil and water problems and remedies-land use planningconservation cropping-conservation forestry-soil degrading crops-need for integrated approach--resources inventory importance of demonstrative watershed. Practicals: Resources inventory-rainfall pattern and analysis-design of farm pondspercolation ponds-check dams-; planning watershed runoff estimation and soil mositure storage determination-visit to some watershed areas. SWM. 610 Dry Farming (Same as Agron.606) (2+ 1) Importance of dry farming-climate and crop planning-soil problems of dry farming areas-soil and moisture conservation-water harvesting and watershed managementincreasing water use efficiency with various agronomic practices-fertilizer management in dry farming-choice of crops and cropping systems for rainfed areas-scope of alley cropping (Agro-Forestry)-drought resistance in crops. SWM. 611 Advances in Irrigation Scheduling (3+0) Farm irrigation scheduling-factors affecting-theory and practices of farm irrigation scheduling-techniques of scheduling including TD reflectometry-scheduling criteria in surface-sprinkler and drip methods-scheduling and management strategies with limited water supply. Project irrigation scheduling-rigid schedules-rotation schedules-flexible schedulescombination schedules. Reference crop evapotranspiration-Penman method-Hargreaves radiation methodHargreaves temperature method-class A pan evaporation method-crop coefficient estimation-yield response to water-ground water contribution to crop requirement. SWM. 612 Irrigation Systems and Water Measuring Devices (2+ 1) Definition and scope-history and development of irrigation in India-sources of irrigation-pumping irrigation water-design and layout of irrigation net work on farmer's fieldtypes and design of weirs-methods of irrigation water-measurement units-current meter watermeter -weirs-notches orifices-partial flume-cordinate method. Practicals:

1. Measurement of head and discharge and development of characteristics curves for different types of pumps used in agriculture. 2. Flow measurement through different measuring devices. 3. Practicals on designing and layout of irrigation systems. SWM. 613 Quality of Irrigation Water (2+ 1) Quality of water-indices for fixing the quality of water-influences of different ions present in water on soil properties-water quality effects on plant growth and crop nutritionvariation in the quality of effluent water of different industries-use of effluent water for irrigation-use of sewage water for irrigation-fertilizer management with effluent and sewage waters-quality of drainage water-recycling of drainage water for irrigation. Practicals: Analysis of water for pH, EC, soluble cations and anions including boron and fluoride-working out SAR, RSC-analysis of soil for physical and chemical charactersanalysis of effluent water including toxic elements and substances-drainage water and sewage water analysis. SWM. 614 Hydrology of Agricultural Lands (2+ 1) Planning and development of water resources-development of minor irrigation sources streams and rivers-storage reservoirs and tanks-open and tube wells-design and cost analysis of different irrigation systems including major, medium and minor projects. Environmental impact. Practicals: Design and cost analysis of different irrigation systems-water inventories resources inventories. SWM. 615 Drainage in Agriculture Lands (2+ 1) Definitions-needs for drainage-types-surface and subsurface drainage-vertical drainage through wells network-drainage and hydrology-its relationships-physical soil conditions and plant growth-chemical soil conditions and plant growth-crop production and depth of water table-formulation of drainage criteria-subsurface drainage system-design materials and structures-pipe drain installation-operation and maintenance of pipe drainage system-pipe drainage testing drainage envelop materials-design of gravel filter-criteria for evaluating economic feasibility of drainage. Practicals: Example on drainage system designs-installation of drainage systemmeasurement of water table fluctuations-field visits-measurement of drainage waterworking out of drainage coefficient. SWM. 616 Soil-Water Conservation Engineering (3+0) Mechanics of soil erosion-factors affecting erosion by water and wind -principles and classifications of gully erosion-control measures of gully erosion-types of terraces-graded bund contour bunding and bench terraces-soil conversation structures- temporary-semipermanent and permanent- drop hute and drop inlet-spill-way. Sedimentation and reservoir losses-measures to control seepage and evaporation losses-visit to soil conservation centres. SWM. 617 Mechanics of Soil Erosion Control (2+0) Types of erosions-mechanics of erosions-factors affecting erosion-soil structures and erosion-hard-water entry and movement in relation to erosion-energy transfer from rainfall to the soil particles-susceptibility of soil to erosion-prediction of soil loss-use of universal soil less equation-management for erosion control-soil conserving and degrading crops-economics of soil conservation practices-mathematical modeling of soil erosion processes-use of rain-fall simulators-sedimentation prediction in watersheds. SWM. 618 Applied Agro-Climatology (Same as Ag.Met.607) (3+0) Phenology and seasonal changes of weather conditions-crop climatologyhermoperiodism photoperiodism-heat unit concept and its applications-climatic water budgeting technique and its application in evaluation of moisture availability periods within crop growing season-planning of multiple cropping pattern for different soil-climatic zones of

India based on above techniques. Influence of agro-meteorological factors on incidence of pests and diseases-effect of timing and effectiveness of control measures. SWM. 619 Soil-Water Management for Cereal Crops (2+0) Cultural requirement in relation to soil and crop-water requirements-selection of table irrigation method and layout-WUE-critical stages for irrigation-tolerance to drought, excess moisture, salt/sodicity of crops/varieties-moisture extraction pattern-irrigation x fertilizer and weed management interaction-effect of irrigation on crop quality-drainage needs of different crops-varieties-yield reduction of crops/varieties to different unfavourable soil moistue and water table conditions-techniques for crop management under irrigated and rainfed conditions. SWM. 620 SWM. 621 Soil-Water Management for Pulse and Oilseeds Crops (2+0) (Content same as SWM 619) Soil-Water Management for Commercial Crops (Content same as SWM 619) SWM. 622 SWM. 623 Soil-Water Management for Vegetable Orchard and Plantation Crops (Content same as SWM 619) Wells and Pumps (same as AE 404) (2+ 1) Surface and ground water-water bearing formations-ground water prospectinghydraulics of wells-ground water recharge-wells-their construction-deepening and boringwater lifting devices-selection-installation care and maintenance energy utilization aspects. SWM. 624 Sprinkler and Drip Irrigation System (2+ 1) Sprinkler irrigation-material and pressure considerations in the selection of pipes (mains-sub-mains and laterals) and sprinkler heads-coupling techniques-advantages over other systems under, different situations-basic design, maintenance and field problems-cost benefit. Drip irrigation: Material and pressure considerations in selection of main, sub-mains and laterals under different topographic and crop conditions-types of emitting devices (Micro-tubing, emitters, micro-sprayers, etc.) types of filters-basic design of the systemadvantages and disadvantages over other methods of irrigation -maintenance and field problems-cost and benefit comparison with other irrigation systems. Practicals: Selection of material determination of uniformity co-efficient-layout and installation-operation. SWM. 625 Irrigation Command Area Management (2 + 1 ) Command area development concept-approach methodology for conducting survey and formulation of projects-bench mark report-survey and investigations-factors for project preparation-project proposal-project of farm development-infrastructure development and scheme for diversified activities-organisation and maintenance-legal aspects involvedpreparation of detailed project report for micro and macro level-problems of command area water table control, salinization control-conjuctive use-cropping system managementdelivery system. Practicals: Survey of projects for canal-tubewell and tank commands-cost of irrigation in different commands-preparation of operational manual for some important projects. SWM 698 SWM 699 Special Problem Seminar (2+0) (1 +0) (2+0) (2+0)